• Title, Summary, Keyword: butyltin

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Effects of Organotin Compounds on Follicular Steroidogenesis in Frogs

  • Kwon, Hyuk-Bang;Kim, Seung-Chang;Kim, An-Na;Lee, Sung-Ho;Ahn, Ryun-Sup
    • Development and Reproduction
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.163-172
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    • 2009
  • Some organotin compounds such as butyltins and phenyltins are known to induce impo-sex in various marine animals and are considered to be endocrine disruptors. In this study, the effect of organotins on follicular steroidogenesis in amphibians was examined using ovarian follicles of Rana dybowskii and Rana catesbeiana. Isolated follicles were cultured for 6 or 18 h in the presence and absence of frog pituitary homogenate (FPH) or various steroid precursors, and the levels of product steroids in the culture media oassay. Among the butyltin compounds, tributyltin (TBT) strongly and dose-dependently inhibited the FPH-induced synthesis of pregnenolone ($P_5$) and progesterone ($P_4$) by the follicles. TBT also strongly suppressed the conversion of cholesterol to $P_5$ and partially suppressed the conversion of $P_5$ to $P_4$. A high concentration of dibutyltin (DBT) also inhibited steroidogenesis by the follicles while monobutyltin and tetrabutyltin had negligible effects. The toxic effect of TBT or DBT was irreversible and a short time of exposure (30 min) was enough to suppress steroidogenesis. All the phenyltin compounds significantly inhibited FPH-induced $P_5$ synthesis by the follicles. The effective dose of 50% inhibition by diphenyltin was $0.04\;{\mu}M$ and those of monophenyltin and triphenyltin were $0.24\;{\mu}M$ and $0.3\;{\mu}M$, respectively. However, none of the phenyltin compounds significantly suppressed the conversion of $P_4$ to $17{\alpha}$-hydroxyprogesterone ($17{\alpha}$-OHP) (by $17{\alpha}$-hydroxylase), $17{\alpha}$-OHP to androstenedione (AD) (by $C_{17-20}$ lyase), or AD to testosterone by the follicles. Taken together, the data show that among the steroidogenic enzymes, P450scc in the follicles is the most sensitive to organotin compounds and that an amphibian follicle culture system can be a useful screening model for endocrine disruptors.

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Evaluation of Butyltin Compounds and its Distribution Among Seawater, Sediment and Biota from the Kwangyang Bay (광양만내 유기주석화합물의 해수, 퇴적물, 생물중 농도 및 분포 상관관계)

  • KIM Gue Yoong;PARK Mi-Ok
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.34 no.4
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    • pp.291-298
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    • 2001
  • Seawater, sediment and biota in the Kwangyang Bay were analyzed by gas chromatography/quartz furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy (GC-QFAAS) to investigate concentrations and distribution pattern of butyltin compounds (TBT, DBT, MBT) during February, April and July, 1996, Marine biota analyzed were Tapes japcnicus and Crassostrea gigas. The concentrations of tributyltin (TBT) in seawater were in the range of ND-15.7 ng/L for the surface and ND-68.5 ng/L for the bottom. The highest concentration of TBT in seawater was detected in April for the both, surface and bottom water. The maximum value of $TBT_{(bottom)}/TBT_{(surface)}$, 3.6 in April showed the increased input of TBT from the surface water in April compared to February (2.1) and July (0.9). The concentrations of TBT in the sediment were in the range of ND-8.5 ng/g dry wt. The highest concentration of TBT in the sediment was measured in July, This result seems to attributed to the removal of TBT from water column via sorption onto particulate matters to the relatively undisturbed underlying sediment and increased input of TBT by increased fluxes of detritus of marine plankton after spring bloom, in July. The mean values of partitioning coefficient ($K_d$) of TBT between seawater and sediment were $3.0\times10^3$(February), $7.4\times10^3$(April) and $9.4\times10^3$(July). The concentrations of TBT in biosamples were in the range of ND-93.30 ng/g dru wt. (T. japonicus) and ND-138.53 ng/g dry wt. (C. gigas). The seasonal variation of TBT contents in biota was remarkable. The $K_d$ (biological concentration factor) was $7-41\times10^3$ for T. japonicus. and $5-34\times10^3$ for C. gigas. The measured TBT concentrations in seawater in the study area was sufficient to cause the imposex of shellfish and to retard the growth of aquatic organisms including oyster upon chronic exposure.

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Changes of Inorganic Matter and Enzyme Activity in the Hemolymph of Oyster, Crassostrea gigas Exposed to TBTO (TBTO의 노출에 따른 참굴, Crassostrea gigas의 hemolymph내 무기성분 및 효소활성의 변화)

  • Cho, Kyu-Seok;Min, Eun-Young;Jee, Jung-Hoon;Kim, Jae-Won;Ahn, Chul-Min;Kang, Ju-Chan
    • Journal of fish pathology
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.65-70
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    • 2001
  • The purpose of this study is to find out the effects of various bis(tri-n-butyltin)oxide (TBTO) on changes of inorganic matter and enzyme activity in the hemolymph of Pacific Oyster, Crassostrea gigas. Oyster were exposed to 5, 10, 20, 50, 80and $100{\mu}g$/L of TBTO for 20 days. Survival rate of the oyster wass significantly affected by $\geq80{\mu}g$/L TBTO concentration at 10 days, while the diminution of survival was found at 20 days with a lower concentration of $\geq50{\mu}g$/L TBTO. Calcium concentration in the hemolymph increased significantly after 20 days at the TBTO concentration $20{\mu}g$/L. However no change of magnesium and inorganic phosphate in the hemolymph was showed. A significant increment of GOT activities in the hemolymph was observed after 20 days at more than $20{\mu}g$/L TBTO concentraion, without typical changes of GPT activities. These results indicate that oysters can be affected by TBTO in terms of calcium concentration and GOT activity in the hemolymph when they were exposed to the TBTO concentration $20{\mu}g$/L.

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Analysis of Organotin Compounds in Fish and Shellfish from Guryongpo Harbor (구룡포항 어패류에 함유된 유기주석화합물 분석)

  • Kim, Mee-Ra;Kim, Sung-Hong
    • Korean Journal of Human Ecology
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.209-216
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    • 2005
  • The concentrations of organotin compounds in fish and shellfish from Guryongpo harbor were analyzed. The concentrations of TBT, DBT and MBT in fish were in the range of $15.68{\sim}52.93\;ng/g$(average 28.65 ng/g), $13.95{\sim}72.16\;ng/g$(average 26.99 ng/g) and $37.73{\sim}133.59\;ng/g$(average 85.18 ng/g), respectively. The BT compound concentrations in intestine of fish were higher than those in muscle. Overall ranges of TBT, DBT and MBT concentrations in shellfish were $42.15{\sim}56.13\;ng/g$(average 50.94 ng/g), $34.16{\sim}52.82\;ng/g$(average 42.79 ng/g) and $41.25-72.60\;ng/g$(average 53.71 ng/g), respectively. The BT compound concentrations of shellfish were higher than those of fish. The concentrations of TPT and DPT in fish were $0.47{\sim}3.90\;ng/g$(average 2.33 ng/g) and $ND{\sim}0.56\;ng/g$(average 0.15 ng/g), but MPT was not detected. The concentrations of TPT, DPT and MPT in shellfish were in the range of $10.24{\sim}21.67\;ng/g$(average 17.45 ng/g), $3.32{\sim}4.78\;ng/g$(average 3.91 ng/g) and $0.11{\sim}0.36\;ng/g$(average 0.25 ng/g), respectively. In addition, the MBT ratio was highest among BT compounds, but the TPT ratio was the highest among PT compounds. Taken together, the concentrations of organotin compounds in fish and shellfish from Guryongpo harbor was not higher than those from other harbors in Korea.

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