• Title, Summary, Keyword: cable stiffness

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Effect of cable stiffness on a cable-stayed bridge

  • Wang, Yang-Cheng
    • Structural Engineering and Mechanics
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.27-38
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    • 1999
  • Cables are used in many applications such as cable-stayed bridges, suspension bridges, transmission lines, telephone lines, etc. Generally, the linear relationship is inadequate to present the behavior of cable structure. In finite element analysis, cables have always been modeled as truss elements. For these types of model, the nonlinear behavior of cables has been always ignored. In order to investigate the importance of the nonlinear effect on the structural system, the effect of cable stiffness has been studied. The nonlinear behavior of cable is due to its sag. Therefore, the cable pretension provides a large portion of the inherent stiffness. Since a cable-stayed bridge has numerous degrees of freedom, analytical methods at present are not convenient to solve this type of structures but numerical methods may be feasible. It is necessary to provide a different and more representative analytical model in order to present the effect of cable stiffness on cable-stayed bridges in numerical analysis. The characteristics of cable deformation have also been well addressed. A formulation of modified modulus of elasticity has been proposed using a numerical parametric study. In order to investigate realistic bridges, a cable-stayed bridge having the geometry similar to that of Quincy Bayview Bridge is considered. The numerical results indicate that the characteristics of the cable stiffness are strongly nonlinear. It also significantly affects the structural behaviors of cable-stayed bridge systems.

Design strategy of hybrid stay cable system using CFRP and steel materials

  • Xiong, Wen;Cai, C.S.;Xiao, Rucheng;Zhang, Yin
    • Steel and Composite Structures
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.47-70
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    • 2012
  • To enhance cable stiffness, this paper proposed a combined application of carbon fiber reinforced polymers (CFRP) and steel materials, resulting in a novel type of hybrid stay cable system especially for the cable-stayed bridges with main span lengths of 1400~2800 m. In this combination, CFRP materials can conserve all their advantages such as light weight and high strength; while steel materials help increase the equivalent stiffness to compensate for the low elastic modulus of CFRP materials. An increase of the equivalent stiffness of the hybrid stay cable system could be further obtained with a reasonable increase of its safety factor. Following this concept, a series of parametric studies for the hybrid stay cable system with the consideration of stiffness and cost were carried out. Three design strategies/criteria, namely, best equivalent stiffness with a given safety factor, highest ratio of equivalent stiffness to material cost with a given safety factor, and best equivalent stiffness under a given cost were proposed from the stiffness and cost viewpoints. Finally, a comprehensive design procedure following the proposed design strategies was suggested. It was shown that the proposed hybrid stay cable system could be a good alternative to the pure CFRP or traditional steel stay cables in the future applications of super long span bridges.

Cable with discrete negative stiffness device and viscous damper: passive realization and general characteristics

  • Chen, Lin;Sun, Limin;Nagarajaiah, Satish
    • Smart Structures and Systems
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    • v.15 no.3
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    • pp.627-643
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    • 2015
  • Negative stiffness, previously emulated by active or semi-active control for cable vibration mitigation, is realized passively using a self-contained highly compressed spring, the negative stiffness device (NSD).The NSD installed in parallel with a viscous damper (VD) in the vicinity of cable anchorage, enables increment of damper deformation during cable vibrations and hence increases the attainable cable damping. Considering the small cable displacement at the damper location, even with the weakening device, the force provided by the NSD-VD assembly is approximately linear. Complex frequency analysis has thus been conducted to evaluate the damping effect of the assembly on the cable; the displacement-dependent negative stiffness is further accounted by numerical analysis, validating the accuracy of the linear approximation for practical ranges of cable and NSD configurations. The NSD is confirmed to be a practical and cost-effective solution to improve the modal damping of a cable provided by an external damper, especially for super-long cables where the damper location is particularly limited. Moreover, mathematically, a linear negative stiffness and viscous damping assembly has proven capability to represent active or semi-active control for simplified cable vibration analysis as reported in the literature, while in these studies only the assembly located near cable anchorage has been addressed. It is of considerable interest to understand the general characteristics of a cable with the assembly relieving the location restriction, since it is quite practical to have an active controller installed at arbitrary location along the cable span such as by hanging an active tuned mass damper. In this paper the cable frequency variations and damping evolutions with respect to the arbitrary assembly location are then evaluated and compared to those of a taut cable with a viscous damper at arbitrary location, and novel frequency shifts are observed. The characterized complex frequencies presented in this paper can be used for preliminary damping effect evaluation of an adaptive passive or semi-active or active device for cable vibration control.

Empirical formulas to estimate cable tension by cable fundamental frequency

  • Ren, Wei-Xin;Chen, Gang;Hu, Wei-Hua
    • Structural Engineering and Mechanics
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.363-380
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    • 2005
  • The cable tension plays an important role in the construction, assessment and long-term health monitoring of cable structures. The cable vibration equation is nonlinear if cable sag and bending stiffness are included. The engineering implementation of a vibration-based cable tension evaluation is mostly carried out by the simple taut string theory. However, the simple theory may cause unacceptable errors in many applications since the cable sag and bending stiffness are ignored. From the practical point of view, it is necessary to have empirical formulas if they are simple and yet accurate. Based on the solutions by means of energy method and fitting the exact solutions of cable vibration equations where the cable sag and bending stiffness are respectively taken into account, the empirical formulas are proposed in the paper to estimate cable tension based on the cable fundamental frequency only. The applicability of the proposed formulas is verified by comparing the results with those reported in the literatures and with the experimental results carried out on the stay cables in the laboratory. The proposed formulas are straightforward and they are convenient for practical engineers to fast estimate the cable tension by the cable fundamental frequency.

Effect of pre-stressed cable on pre-stressed mega-braced steel frame

  • Tang, Baijian;Zhang, Fuxing;Wang, Yi;Wang, Fei
    • Structural Engineering and Mechanics
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    • v.59 no.2
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    • pp.327-341
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    • 2016
  • This study addresses the effect of pre-stressed cables on a pre-stressed mega-braced steel frame through employing static analysis and pushover analysis. The performances of a pre-stressed mega-braced steel frame and a pure steel frame without mega-braces are compared in terms of base shear, ductility, and failure mode. The influence of the cable parameters is also analyzed. Numerical results show that cable braces can effectively improve the lateral stiffness of a pure frame. However, it reduces structural ductility and degenerates structural pre-failure lateral stiffness greatly. Furthermore, it is found that 20% fluctuation in the cable pretension has little effect on structural ultimate bearing capacity and lateral stiffness. As comparison, 20% fluctuation in the cable diameter has much greater impact.

Nonlinear Analysis of Curved Cable-Membrane Roof Systems (굴곡형 케이블-막 지붕 시스템의 비선형 해석)

  • Park, Kang-Geun;Kwun, Ik-No;Lee, Dong-Woo
    • Journal of the Korean Association for Spatial Structures
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.45-55
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    • 2017
  • The objective of this study is to estimate the mechanical characteristics and nonlinear behaviors on the geometric nonlinear analysis of curved cable-membrane roof systems for long span lightweight roof structures. The weight of a cable-membrane roof dramatically can reduce, but the single layer cable-membrane roof systems are too flexible and difficult to achieve the required structural stiffness. A curved cable roof system with reverse curvature works more effectively as a load bearing system, the pretension of cables can easily increase the structural stiffness. The curved cable roof system can transmit vertical loads in up and downward direction, and work effectively as a load bearing structure to resists self-weights, snow and wind loads. The nonlinear behavior and mechanical characteristics of a cable roof system has greatly an affect by the sag and pretension. This paper is carried out analyzing and comparing the tensile forces and deflection of curved roof systems by vertical loads. The elements for analysis uses a tension only cable element and a triangular membrane element with 3 degree of freedom in each node. The authors will show that the curved cable-membrane roof system with reverse curvature is a very lightweight and small deformation roof for external loads.

Experimental study on the cable rigidness and static behaviors of AERORail structure

  • Li, Fangyuan;Wu, Peifeng;Liu, Dongjie
    • Steel and Composite Structures
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    • v.12 no.5
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    • pp.427-444
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    • 2012
  • This paper presented a new aerial platform-AERORail for rail transport and its structure evolution based on the elastic stiffness of cable; through the analysis on the cable properties when the cable supported a small service load with high-tensile force, summarized the theoretical basis of the AERORail structure and the corresponding simplified analysis model. There were 60 groups of experiments for a single naked cable model under different tensile forces and different services loads, and 48 groups of experiments for the cable with rail combined structure model. The experimental results of deflection characteristics were compared with the theoretical values for these two types of structures under the same conditions. It proved that the results almost met the classical cable theory. The reason is that a small deflection was required when this structure was applied. After the tension increments tests with moving load, it is verified that the relationships between the structure stiffness and tension force and service load are simple. Before further research and applications are made, these results are necessary for the determination of the reasonable and economic tensile force, allowable service load for the special span length for this new platform.

The Behavior Characteristic and Buckling Strength of Stiffening-Girder of Cable stayed bridge according to Pylon's shape and Flexure Stiffness (주탑형상 및 강성이 사장교의 거동 및 주형좌굴에 미치는 영향)

  • Choe Hak-Ze;Chae Gyu-Bong
    • Proceedings of the Computational Structural Engineering Institute Conference
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    • pp.759-763
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    • 2006
  • Cable Stayed Bridge is mainly composed of three element. Composed element are cable. stiffening girder and Pylon. The characteristic of bridge's behavior depend on these three element's relative stiffness, shape and system of bridge. The purpose of this paper is to exame the characteristic of bridge's behavior and buckling strength of stiffening girder according to shape and flexure stiffness of pylon

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Nonlinear analysis of cable-stayed spatial latticed structures

  • Zhou, Dai;Liu, Hongyu;Jin, Bo
    • Structural Engineering and Mechanics
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    • v.15 no.4
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    • pp.415-436
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    • 2003
  • The combination of spatial latticed structures (hereafter SLS) and flexible cables, the cable-stayed spatial latticed structures (hereafter CSLS) can cross longer span. According to variation principle, a novel geometric nonlinear formulation for 3-D bar elements considering large displacement and infinitesimal rotation increments with second-order precision is developed. The cable nonlinearity is investigated and it is taken that the secant modulus method can be considered as an exact method for a cable member. The tower column with which the cables link is regarded as a special kind of beam element, and, a new simplified stiffness formulation is presented. The computational strategies for the nonlinear dynamic response of structures are given, and the ultimate load carrying capacities and seismic responses are analyzed numerically. It is noted that, compared with corresponding spatial latticed shells, the cable-stayed spatial latticed shells have more strength and more stiffness, and that the verical seismic responses of both CSLS and CLS are remarkably greater than the horizontal ones. In addition, the computation shows that the stiffness of tower column influences the performance of CSLS to a certain extent and the improvement of structural strength and stiffness of CSLS is relevant not only to cables but also to tower columns.

A new equivalent friction element for analysis of cable supported structures

  • Yan, Renzhang;Chen, Zhihua;Wang, Xiaodun;Liu, Hongbo;Xiao, Xiao
    • Steel and Composite Structures
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.947-970
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    • 2015
  • An equivalent friction element is proposed to simulate the friction in cable-strut joints. Equivalent stiffness matrixes and load vectors of the friction element are derived and are unified into patterns for FEM by defining a virtual node specially to store internal forces. Three approaches are described to verify the rationality of the new equivalent friction element: applying the new element in a cable-roller model, and numerical solutions match well with experimental results; applying the element in a continuous sliding cable model, and theoretical values, numerical and experimental results are compared; and the last is applying it in truss string structures, whose results indicate that there would be a great error if the cable of cable supported structures is simulated with discontinuous cable model which is usually adopted in traditional finite element analysis, and that the prestress loss resulted from the friction in cable-strut joints would have adverse effect on the mechanical performance of cable supported structures.