• Title, Summary, Keyword: cable stiffness

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An Improved Method for Initial Shape Analysis of Cable-Stayed Bridges (사장교의 개선된 초기형상 해석법)

  • Kim, Moon Young;Kyung, Yong Soo;Lee, Jun Sok
    • Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.175-185
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    • 2003
  • The extended tangent stiffness matrices and force-deformation relations of the elastic catenary element were initially derived through the addition of the unstrained length of cables to unknown nodal displacements. A beam-column element was then introduced to model the deck and pylon of cable-stayed bridges. The conventional geometric nonlinear analysis, initial force method, and TCUD method were summarized, with an effective method combining two methods presented to determine the initial shapes of cable-stayed bridges with dead loads. In this combined method, TCUD method was applied to eliminate vertical and horizontal displacements at cable-supported points of decks and on top of pylons, respectively. The initial force method was also adopted to eliminate horizontal and vertical displacements of decks and pylons, Finally, the accuracy and validity of the proposed combined method were demonstrated through numerical examples.

Analytical Study for Ultimate Behavior of Steel Cable-stayed Bridges under Construction Stage (시공중 강사장교의 극한거동에 대한 해석적 연구)

  • Lee, Joo-Tak;Kim, Seung-Jun;Kim, Jong-Min;Choi, Jun-Ho;Kang, Young-Jong
    • Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction
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    • v.23 no.6
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    • pp.691-704
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    • 2011
  • This paper presents an investigation on the ultimate behavior of steel cable-stayed bridges in the construction stage, considering various geometric nonlinearities and material nonlinearities. To numerically determine the state of cable-stayed bridges in the construction stage, initial shape analysis and construction stage analysis via backward process analysis were done sequentially. Then nonlinear analysis of the state under the construction load condition, considering the weight of the derrick crane and the key segment of the girder loaded onto the tip of the center span, was performed to investigate the ultimate behavior of the structure. The effects of the girder-mast stiffness ratio, the cable-arrangement types, and the area of the stay cables on the ultimate behavior were also extensively investigated. Moreover, the results of the ultimate analysis, considering both geometric nonlinearities and material nonlinearities, were compared with the results of the geometric nonlinear analysis, for a more meaningful investigation of the ultimate behavior of steel cable-stayed bridges in the construction stage.

Experimental Study for Ultimate Behavior of Steel Cable Stayed Bridge Under Construction (실험을 통한 시공 중 강사장교의 극한거동 연구)

  • Lee, Kee Sei;Kim, Seung Jun;Choi, Jun Ho;Kang, Young Jong
    • Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction
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    • v.24 no.6
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    • pp.683-692
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    • 2012
  • The girders of cable stayed bridge are subjected to not only the bending moments but also additional compressive axial forces due to the horizontal components of cable forces. Because of these axial forces, the stiffness of girder can be decreased, and this problem should be considered especially for under-construction model rather than the full model. Korean domestic design specification suggests the linear elastic eigen value analysis for the stability problem of cable stayed bridges. However, this method cannot be applied to the under construction model because various geometric nonlinear characteristics cannot be considered. Therefore, in this study, 3 models which are assumed to be constructed by balanced cantilever will be considered experimentally and analytically to analyze the behavior of steel cable stayed bridges.

Study of seismic performance of super long-span partially earth-anchored cable-stayed bridges

  • Zhang, Xin-Jun;Yu, Cong;Zhao, Jun-Jie
    • Structural Engineering and Mechanics
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    • v.72 no.1
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    • pp.99-111
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    • 2019
  • To investigate the seismic performance of long-span partially earth-anchored cable-stayed bridge, a super long-span partially earth-anchored cable-stayed bridge scheme with main span of 1400m is taken as example, structural response of the bridge under E1 seismic action is investigated numerically by the multimode seismic response spectrum and time-history analysis, seismic behavior and also the effect of structural geometric nonlinearity on the seismic responses of super long-span partially earth-anchored cable-stayed bridges are revealed. The seismic responses are also compared to those of a fully self-anchored cable-stayed bridge with the same main span. The effects of structural parameters including the earth-anchored girder length, the girder width, the girder depth, the tower height to span ratio, the inclination of earth-anchored cables, the installation of auxiliary piers in the side spans and the connection between tower and girder on the seismic responses of partially ground-anchored cable-stayed bridges are investigated, and their reasonable values are also discussed in combination with static performance and structural stability. The results show that the horizontal seismic excitation produces significant seismic responses of the girder and tower, the seismic responses of the towers are greater than those of the girder, and thus the tower becomes the key structural member of seismic design, and more attentions should be paid to seismic design of these sections including the tower bottom, the tower and girder at the junction of tower and girder, the girder at the auxiliary piers in side spans; structural geometric nonlinearity has significant influence on the seismic responses of the bridge, and thus the nonlinear time history analysis is proposed to predict the seismic responses of super long-span partially earth-anchored cable-stayed bridges; as compared to the fully self-anchored cable-stayed bridge with the same main span, several stay cables in the side spans are changed to be earth-anchored, structural stiffness and natural frequency are both increased, the seismic responses of the towers and the longitudinal displacement of the girder are significantly reduced, structural seismic performance is improved, and therefore the partially earth-anchored cable-stayed bridge provides an ideal structural solution for super long-span cable-stayed bridges with kilometer-scale main span; under the case that the ratio of earth-anchored girder length to span is about 0.3, the wider and higher girder is employed, the tower height-to-span ratio is about 0.2, the larger inclination is set for the earth-anchored cables, 1 to 2 auxiliary piers are installed in each of the side spans and the fully floating system is employed, better overall structural performance is achieved for long-span partially earth-anchored cable-stayed bridges.

Structural evaluation of all-GFRP cable-stayed footbridge after 20 years of service life

  • Gorski, Piotr;Stankiewicz, Beata;Tatara, Marcin
    • Steel and Composite Structures
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    • v.29 no.4
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    • pp.527-544
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    • 2018
  • The paper presents the study on a change in modal parameters and structural stiffness of cable-stayed Fiberline Bridge made entirely of Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) composite used for 20 years in the fjord area of Kolding, Denmark. Due to this specific location the bridge structure was subjected to natural aging in harsh environmental conditions. The flexural properties of the pultruded GFRP profiles acquired from the analyzed footbridge in 1997 and 2012 were determined through three-point bending tests. It was found that the Young's modulus increased by approximately 9%. Moreover, the influence of the temperature on the storage and loss modulus of GFRP material acquired from the Fiberline Bridge was studied by the dynamic mechanical analysis. The good thermal stability in potential real temperatures was found. The natural vibration frequencies and mode shapes of the bridge for its original state were evaluated through the application of the Finite Element (FE) method. The initial FE model was created using the real geometrical and material data obtained from both the design data and flexural test results performed in 1997 for the intact composite GFRP material. Full scale experimental investigations of the free-decay response under human jumping for the experimental state were carried out applying accelerometers. Seven natural frequencies, corresponding mode shapes and damping ratios were identified. The numerical and experimental results were compared. Based on the difference in the fundamental natural frequency it was again confirmed that the structural stiffness of the bridge increased by about 9% after 20 years of service life. Data collected from this study were used to validate the assumed FE model. It can be concluded that the updated FE model accurately reproduces the dynamic behavior of the bridge and can be used as a proper baseline model for the long-term monitoring to evaluate the overall structural response under service loads. The obtained results provided a relevant data for the structural health monitoring of all-GFRP bridge.

Study on Modeling and Arrangement of Link-Shoes for Torsional Control of S-shaped Pedestrian Cable-Stayed Bridge (S자형 보도사장교의 비틀림 제어를 위한 링크슈의 모델링과 배치방법 연구)

  • Ji, Seon-Geun
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.20 no.6
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    • pp.210-218
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    • 2019
  • Recently, cable-stayed bridges have been attempting to apply bold and experimental shapes for aesthetic and originality. In the case of bridges that have no similar cases, deep understanding and verification of analytical modeling is needed. S-shaped curved pedestrian cable-stayed bridge is always twisted because the cable is arranged on one side of the inverted triangular truss girder. In order to suppress the torsion, the Link-shoes are arranged at the left and right top members with reference to the Bearing placed at the mid-bottom member. The first research is related to the modeling method of Link-Shoe and Diaphram. In order to accurately reflect the transverse structural system and the torsional stiffness, it was necessary to model the Link-Shoe and the Diaphram directly rather than indirectly using the stiffness of the Bearing. The second study is related to the lateral arrangement of Bearing and Link-Shoes. Method 1 is to place in order of Link-shoe, Bearing, and Link-shoe from outside the curve radius. Method 2 is place to in order of Bearing, Bearing, and Link-shoe. In method 2, compared to method 1, the stress in the outer top member was larger and the stress in the inner one was decreased. It is analyzed that the stress adjustment is possible according to the lateral arrangement of Bearing and Link-Shoe.

An Improved Method for Initial Shape Analysis of Subpension Bridges (현수교의 개선된 초기형상 해석법)

  • Kim, Moon Young;Kyung, Yong Soo;Lee, Jun Sok
    • Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.219-229
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    • 2003
  • The extended tangent stiffness matrices and force-deformation relations of the elastic catenary element were initially derived through the addition of the unstrained length of cables to unknown nodal 'displacements. A beam-column element was then introduced to model the deck and pylon of cable-stayed bridges. The conventional geometric nonlinear analysis, initial force method, and TCUD method were summarized, with an effective method combining two methods presented to determine the initial shapes of cable-stayed bridges with dead loads. In this combined method, TCUD method was applied to eliminate vertical and horizontal displacements at cable-supported points of decks and on top of pylons, respectively. The initial force method was also adopted to eliminate horizontal and vertical displacements of decks and pylons. Finally, the accuracy and validity of the proposed combined method were demonstrated through numerical examples.

Seismic Fragility Analysis of a Cable-stayed Bridge with Energy Dissipation Devices (에너지 소산장치를 장착한 사장교의 지진 취약도 해석)

  • Park, Won-Suk;Kim, Dong-Seok;Choi, Hyun-Sok;Koh, Hyun-Moo
    • Journal of the Earthquake Engineering Society of Korea
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    • v.10 no.3
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    • pp.1-11
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    • 2006
  • This paper presents a seismic fragility analysis method for a cable-stayed bridge with energy dissipation devices. Model uncertainties represented by random variables include input ground motions, characteristics of energy dissipation devices and the stiffness of cable-stayed bridge. Using linear regression, we established demand models for the fragility analysis from the relationship between maximum responses and the intensity of input ground motions. For capacity models, we considered the moment and shear force of the main tower, longitudinal displacement of the girder, deviation of the stay cables tension and the local buckling of the main steel tower as the limit states for cable-stayed bridge. As a numerical example, fragility analysis results for the 2nd Jindo bridge are presented. The effect of energy dissipation devices is also briefly discussed.

Free Vibration Analysis of a 3-dimensional Cable-Stayed Bridge with the Unsymmetric Girder Cross-section (비대칭단면 주형을 갖는 3차원 사장교의 고유진동해석)

  • Kim, Chul Young;Chang, Sung Pil
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.15-26
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    • 1991
  • The lateral forces such as the earthquake and wind my cause the torsion to be coupled with the lateral bending in the gider, the cross-section of wich has only one axis of symmetry. This induces additional stresses especially in cables arranged in double-planes. Since this effect cannot be considered by using the conventional frame elements, the stiffness and the mass matrices of the geometrically nonlinear thin-walled frame element are developed in this study to model the girder. The equivalent modulus of elasticity proposed by Ernst is used for the cable elements. Verification of the present theory is made through a numerical example. Then, the free vibration of a three dimensional cable-stayed bridge is analyzed to study the coupled flexural-torsional behavior.

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Seismic Response Control of a Cable-Stayed Bridge using a $\mu$-Synthesis Method ($\mu$-합성법을 이용한 사장교의 지진응답 제어)

  • 박규식;정형조;윤우현;이인원
    • Proceedings of the Computational Structural Engineering Institute Conference
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    • pp.476-483
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    • 2004
  • This paper presents a hybrid system combining lead rubber bearings and hydraulic actuators controlled by a μ-synthesis method for seismic response control of a cable-stayed bridge. A hybrid system could alleviate some of restrictions and limitations that exist when each system is acting alone because multiple control devices are operating. Therefore, the overall control performance of a hybrid system may be improved compared to each system, however the overall system robustness may be negatively impacted by active device in the hybrid system or active controller may cause instability due to small margins. Therefore, a f-synthesis method that guarantees the robust performance is considered to enhance the possibility of real applications of the control system. The control performances of the proposed control system are compared with those of passive, active, semiactive control systems and hybrid system controlled by LQG algorithm and an extensive robust analysis with respect to stiffness and mass matrices perturbation and time delay of actuator is performed. Numerical simulation results show that the control performance of the proposed control system is superior to that of the passive system and slightly better than that of the active and semiactive systems and two hybrid systems show similar control performances. Furthermore, the hybrid system controlled by a μ-synthesis method shows the good robustness without loss of control performances. Therefore, the proposed control system could effectively be used to seismically excited cable-stayed bridge which contains many uncertainties.

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