• Title, Summary, Keyword: cable stiffness

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Experimental and Analytical Studies on the Non-Linear behaviors of Pre-Stressed Steel H-Beams (프리스트레스트 H형강 거더의 비선형 거동에 대한 실험적 및 이론적 연구)

  • Kim, Moon-Young;Kim, Nak-Kyung;Oh, Yong-Hwan
    • Journal of the Computational Structural Engineering Institute of Korea
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    • v.32 no.6
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    • pp.359-366
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    • 2019
  • Experimental and analytical studies on the behavioral characteristics of a pre-stressed (PS) steel girder are conducted to investigate the effects of deviators on the non-linear inelastic properties of the PS system. In this regard, 4 test specimens consisting of a steel H-beam, a straight cable with eccentricity, anchorages, and deviators are built and failure tests are performed under two-point loading. In addition, in-plane elastic deformation theories for the PS system without a deviator, and with three deviators at regular intervals are analytically formulated and solved using a symbolic calculation technique. To verify the validity of the experimental and the proposed analytical theories, the results obtained using FEM models composed of beam elements, rigid beam elements, and truss cable elements, are compared to the experimental results and the analytical solutions. As a result, it is determined that externally installed un-bonded deviators inhibit flexural deformation of the deformed beam to such an extent that their elastic stiffness, and failure strength are significantly improved compared to those of the PS system without deviators.

TETANUS TRISMUS ASSOCIATED WITH FACIAL ELETRICAL BURN (전기화상 환자에서 나타난 파상풍-증례보고)

  • Ha, Tae-Young;Kang, Jin-Han;Shin, Mee-Ran;Ahn, Byoung-Keun;Kim, Mi-Ja
    • Journal of the Korean Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons
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    • v.32 no.4
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    • pp.380-383
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    • 2006
  • Tetanus is rare in Korea due to the introduction of vaccination programs and the advancement in public health. Its common signs are trismus, voice disturbance, neck stiffness, and difficulty in swallowing, etc. A 56 years old man was injured by grasping a high voltage electric cable. After the accident, he fell down on a steel plate and had a head trauma. When he visited Emergency Department, there was multiple electric burn wound on left arm and left facial area. He was hospitalized on a department of neurosurgery, because intra cranial hemorrhage was presumed. 12 days later, he was referred to department of OMFS with developed painful masseter spasms and trismus. That night he violently bit his tongue with his denture. Because masseter muscle and temporal muscle constriction was involuntary, tongue was lacerated and denture was distorted. At first we supposed that the symptom was related with neurologic disturbance following head trauma or electric shock. But it was revealed that trismus was caused by tetanus on an electrophysiological test. By using mechanical ventilation and administration of tetanus immunoglobulin, muscle-relaxant, and sedatives at ICU, symptoms had subsided (4-weeks). Because tetanus is rare disease, we rarely suppose tetanus infection to be a cause of a trismus. Especially it is more difficult to diagnose in patient who has head trauma, burn and neurologic problem as in this case.

Structural Analysis Modeling of Disaster Resilient Greenhouse Structures (내재해형 온실구조의 해석을 위한 구조모델)

  • Jung, Ji-Eun;Kim, Dae-Jin;Kim, Hong-Jin;Shin, Seung-Hoon;Kim, Jin-Won
    • Journal of the Computational Structural Engineering Institute of Korea
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.7-15
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    • 2017
  • This paper presents the results of the parametric study to investigate the effects of several analysis modeling parameters such as support conditions, member connectivities and cable member stiffness on the main mode shapes and natural frequencies of a representative disaster resilient greenhouse structure. In addition, an ambient vibration test was performed on the representative greenhouse structure and its main mode shapes and natural frequencies were obtained. By comparing the experimental and analysis results, a proper analysis modeling method of the representative greenhouse structure was proposed.

Structural identification of Humber Bridge for performance prognosis

  • Rahbari, R.;Niu, J.;Brownjohn, J.M.W.;Koo, K.Y.
    • Smart Structures and Systems
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    • v.15 no.3
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    • pp.665-682
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    • 2015
  • Structural identification or St-Id is 'the parametric correlation of structural response characteristics predicted by a mathematical model with analogous characteristics derived from experimental measurements'. This paper describes a St-Id exercise on Humber Bridge that adopted a novel two-stage approach to first calibrate and then validate a mathematical model. This model was then used to predict effects of wind and temperature loads on global static deformation that would be practically impossible to observe. The first stage of the process was an ambient vibration survey in 2008 that used operational modal analysis to estimate a set of modes classified as vertical, torsional or lateral. In the more recent second stage a finite element model (FEM) was developed with an appropriate level of refinement to provide a corresponding set of modal properties. A series of manual adjustments to modal parameters such as cable tension and bearing stiffness resulted in a FEM that produced excellent correspondence for vertical and torsional modes, along with correspondence for the lower frequency lateral modes. In the third stage traffic, wind and temperature data along with deformation measurements from a sparse structural health monitoring system installed in 2011 were compared with equivalent predictions from the partially validated FEM. The match of static response between FEM and SHM data proved good enough for the FEM to be used to predict the un-measurable global deformed shape of the bridge due to vehicle and temperature effects but the FEM had limited capability to reproduce static effects of wind. In addition the FEM was used to show internal forces due to a heavy vehicle to to estimate the worst-case bearing movements under extreme combinations of wind, traffic and temperature loads. The paper shows that in this case, but with limitations, such a two-stage FEM calibration/validation process can be an effective tool for performance prognosis.

Proposition of Improved Semi-Analytical Relationship considering Response Characteristics of Buried Pipeline (지중매설관로의 거동특성을 반영한 개선된 해석적 관계식의 제안)

  • 김태욱;임윤묵;김문겸
    • Journal of the Earthquake Engineering Society of Korea
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    • v.7 no.5
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    • pp.37-46
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    • 2003
  • Response analysis of buried pipeline subjected to permanent ground deformation(PGD) due to liquefaction is mainly executed by use of numerical analysis or semi-analytical relationship, Especially for the semi-analytical relationship considering transverse PGD, it has somewhat limited applicability : since it has different formula according to the width of PGD and does not reflect various patterns of PGD which is caused by the decrease of soil stiffness, Therefore, in this study, the applicability of existing analytical relationship is closely investigated through the comparison of FEM results at first. And then, based on meaningful contemplation, improved analytical relationship is proposed. The proposed one models the system behavior of buried pipeline as the combination of cable and beam, and thus it is applicable to arbitrary width of PGD, Moreover, it does reflect various patterns of PGD by introducing interaction pattern coefficient. Through the comparison of numerical results using the FEM and the proposed analytical relationship, rational applicability is objectively verified and noticeable considerations are discussed, Moreover, analyses considering the change of PGD magnitude and patterns are performed.

Development and Application of Penetration Type Field Shear Wave Apparatus (관입형 현장 전단파 측정장치의 개발 및 적용)

  • Lee, Jong-Sub;Lee, Chang-Ho;Yoon, Hyung-Koo;Lee, Woo-Jin;Kim, Hyung-Sub
    • Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society
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    • v.22 no.12
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    • pp.67-76
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    • 2006
  • The reasonable assessment of the shear stiffness of a dredged soft ground and soft clay is difficult due to the soil disturbance. This study addresses the development and application of a new in-situ shear wave measuring apparatus (field velocity probe: FVP), which overcomes several of the limitations of conventional methods. Design concerns of this new apparatus include the disturbance of soils, cross-talking between transducers, electromagnetic coupling between cables, self acoustic insulation, the constant travel distance of S-wave, the rotation of the transducer, directly transmitted wave through a frame from transducer to transducer, and protection of the transducer and the cable. These concerns are effectively eliminated by continuous improvements through performing field and laboratory tests. The shear wave velocity of the FVP is simply calculated, without any inversion process, by using the travel distance and the first arrival time. The developed FVP Is tested in soil up to 30m in depth. The experimental results show that the FVP can produce every detailed shear wave velocity profiles in sand and clay layers. In addition, the shear wave velocity at the tested site correlates well with the cone tip resistance. This study suggests that the FVP may be an effective technique for measuring the shear wave velocity in the field to assess dynamic soil properties in soft ground.

Verification of Multi-point Displacement Response Measurement Algorithm Using Image Processing Technique (영상처리기법을 이용한 다중 변위응답 측정 알고리즘의 검증)

  • Kim, Sung-Wan;Kim, Nam-Sik
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers
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    • v.30 no.3A
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    • pp.297-307
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    • 2010
  • Recently, maintenance engineering and technology for civil and building structures have begun to draw big attention and actually the number of structures that need to be evaluate on structural safety due to deterioration and performance degradation of structures are rapidly increasing. When stiffness is decreased because of deterioration of structures and member cracks, dynamic characteristics of structures would be changed. And it is important that the damaged areas and extent of the damage are correctly evaluated by analyzing dynamic characteristics from the actual behavior of a structure. In general, typical measurement instruments used for structure monitoring are dynamic instruments. Existing dynamic instruments are not easy to obtain reliable data when the cable connecting measurement sensors and device is long, and have uneconomical for 1 to 1 connection process between each sensor and instrument. Therefore, a method without attaching sensors to measure vibration at a long range is required. The representative applicable non-contact methods to measure the vibration of structures are laser doppler effect, a method using GPS, and image processing technique. The method using laser doppler effect shows relatively high accuracy but uneconomical while the method using GPS requires expensive equipment, and has its signal's own error and limited speed of sampling rate. But the method using image signal is simple and economical, and is proper to get vibration of inaccessible structures and dynamic characteristics. Image signals of camera instead of sensors had been recently used by many researchers. But the existing method, which records a point of a target attached on a structure and then measures vibration using image processing technique, could have relatively the limited objects of measurement. Therefore, this study conducted shaking table test and field load test to verify the validity of the method that can measure multi-point displacement responses of structures using image processing technique.

Evaluation of Robust Performance of Fuzzy Supervisory Control Technique (퍼지관리제어기법의 강인성능평가)

  • Ok, Seung-Yong;Park, Kwan-Soon;Koh, Hyun-Moo
    • Journal of the Earthquake Engineering Society of Korea
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    • v.9 no.5
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    • pp.41-52
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    • 2005
  • Using the variable control gain scheme on the basis of fuzzy-based decision-making process, Fuzzy supervisory control (FSC) technique exhibits better control performance than linear control technique with one static control gain. This paper demonstrates the effectiveness of the FSC technique by evaluating the robust performance of the FSC technique under the presence of uncertainties in the models and the excitations. Robust performance of the FSC system is compared with that of optimally designed LQG control system for the benchmark cable-stayed bridge presented by Dyke et al. Parameter studies on the robust performance evaluation are carried out by varying the stiffness of the bridge model as well as the magnitudes of several earthquakes with different frequency contents. From the comparative study of two control systems, FSC system shows the enhanced control performance against various magnitudes of several earthquakes while maintaining lower level of power required for controlling the bridge response. Especially, FSC system clearly guarantees the improved robust performance of the control system with stable reduction effects on the seismic responses and slight increases in total power and stroke for the control system, while LQG control system exhibits poor robust performance.