• Title, Summary, Keyword: cable stiffness

### Non-linear Static Analysis and Determination of Initial Equilibrium States of Space Cable Nets (3차원 케이블망의 정적 비선형 해석 및 초기 평형상태의 결정)

• 김문영;김남일
• Proceedings of the Computational Structural Engineering Institute Conference
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• pp.134-141
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• 1997
• A geometrically non-linear finite element formulation of spatial cable networks is presented using three cable elements. Firstly, derivation procedures of tangent stiffness and mass matrices for the space truss element and the elastic catenary cable element, and the isoparametric cable element are summarized. The load incremental method based on Newton-Raphson iteration method and the dynamic relaxation method are presented in order to determine the initial static state of cable nets subjected to self-weights and support motions. Furthermore, static non-linear analysis of cable structures under additional live loads are performed based on the initial configuration. Challenging example problems are presented and discussed in order to demonstrate the feasibility of the present finite element method and investigate static non-linear behaviors of cable nets.

### Nonlinear Static Analysis of Cable Roof Structures with Unified Kinematic Description

• LEE, Sang Jin
• Architectural research
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• v.18 no.1
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• pp.39-47
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• 2016
• A finite element analysis technology applicable to the prediction of the static nonlinear response of cable roof structure is presented. The unified kinematic description is employed to formulate the present cable element and different strain definitions such as Green-Lagrange strain, Biot strain and Hencky strain can be adopted. The Newton-Raphson method is used to trace the nonlinear load-displacement path. In the iteration process, the compressive stress of a cable element is not allowed. For the verification of the present cable element, four numerical examples are tackled. Finally, numerical results obtained by using the present cable element are provided as new benchmark test results for cable structures under static loads.

### Improvement of the Performance Based Seismic Design Method of Cable Supported Bridges with Resilient-Friction Base Isolation Systems (I- Analysis of Field Testing of Cable Supported Bridge) (마찰복원형 지진격리장치가 설치된 케이블교량의 성능 기반 내진설계법 개선(I-실 교량 실험 결과 분석))

• Gil, Heungbae;Park, Sun Kyu;Han, Kyoung Bong;Yoon, Wan Seok
• Journal of the Earthquake Engineering Society of Korea
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• v.24 no.4
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• pp.157-167
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• 2020
• In this study, a field bridge test was conducted to find the dynamic properties of cable supported bridges with resilient-friction base isolation systems (R-FBI). Various ambient vibration tests were performed to estimate dynamic properties of a test bridge using trucks in a non-transportation state before opening of the bridge and by ordinary traffic loadings about one year later after opening of the bridge. The dynamic properties found from the results of the tests were compared with an analysis model. From the result of the ambient vibration tests of the cable supported bridge with R-FBI, it was confirmed that the dynamic properties were sensitive to the stiffness of the R-FBI in the bridge, and the seismic analysis model of the test bridge using the effective stiffness of the R-FBI was insufficient for reflecting the dynamic behavior of the bridge. In the case of cable supported bridges, the seismic design must follow the "Korean Highway Bridge Design Code (Limit State Design) for Cable supported bridges." Therefore, in order to reflect the actual behavior characteristics of the R-FBI installed on cable-supported bridges, an improved seismic design procedure should be proposed.

### Dynamic Response of 3-D Cable-Stayed Bridge Considering the Sway Vibrational Effect of Stays (케이블 횡진동을 고려한 3차원 사장교의 동적거동)

• 성익현
• Journal of the Korean Society for Railway
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• v.2 no.3
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• pp.36-45
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• 1999
• The basic idea of cable-stayed girder bridges is the utilization of high strength cables to provide intermediate supports for the bridge girder so that the girder can span a much longer distance. In the cable-stayed bridge, the cables exhibit nonlinear behavior because of the change in sag, due to the dead weight of the cable, which occurs with changing tension in the cable resulting from the movement of the end points of the cable as the bridge is loaded. Techniques required for the static analysis of cable-stayed bridges has been developed by many researchers. However, little work has been done on the dynamic analysis of such structures. To investigate the characteristics of the dynamic response of long-span cable-stayed bridges due to various dynamic loadings likes moving traffic loads. two different 3-D cable-stayed bridge models are considered in this study. Two models are exactly the same in structural configurations but different in finite element discretization. Modal analysis is conducted using the deformed dead-load tangent stiffness matrix. A new concept was presented by using divided a cable into several elements in order to study the effect of the cable vibration (both in-plane and swinging) on the overall bridge dynamics. The result of this study demonstrates the importance of cable vibration on the overall bridge dynamics.

### Design formulas for vibration control of sagged cables using passive MR dampers

• Duan, Yuanfeng;Ni, Yi-Qing;Zhang, Hongmei;Spencer, Billie F. Jr.;Ko, Jan-Ming;Dong, Shenghao
• Smart Structures and Systems
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• v.23 no.6
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• pp.537-551
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• 2019
• In this paper, a method for analyzing the damping performance of stay cables incorporating magnetorheological (MR) dampers in the passive control mode is developed taking into account the cable sag and inclination, the damper coefficient, stiffness and mass, and the stiffness of damper support. Both numerical and asymptotic solutions are obtained from complex modal analysis. With the asymptotic solution, analytical formulas that evaluate the equivalent damping ratio of the sagged cable-damper system in consideration of all the above parameters are derived. The main thrust of the present study is to develop an general design formula and a universal curve for the optimal design of MR dampers for adjustable passive control of sagged cables. Two sag-affecting coefficients are derived to reflect the effects of cable sag on the maximum attainable damping ratio and the optimal damper coefficient. For the cable configurations commonly used in cable-stayed bridges, the sag-affecting coefficients are directly expressed in terms of the sag-extensibility parameter to facilitate the control design. A case study on adjustable passive vibration control of the longest cable (536 m) on Stonecutters Bridge is carried out to demonstrate the influence of the sag for the damper design, and to figure out the necessity of adjustability of damper coefficients for achieving maximum damping ratio for different vibration modes.

### Numerical model of a tensioner system and riser guide

• Huang, Han;Zhang, Jun;Zhu, Liyun
• Ocean Systems Engineering
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• v.3 no.4
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• pp.257-273
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• 2013
• Top tensioned riser (TTR) is often used in a floating oil/gas production system deployed in deep water for oil/gas transport. This study focuses on the extension of the existing numerical code, known as CABLE3D, to allow for static and dynamic simulation of a TTR connected to a floating structure through a tensioner system or buoyancy can, and restrained by riser guides at different elevations. A tensioner system usually consists of three to six cylindrical tensioners. Although the stiffness of individual tensioner is assumed to be linear, the resultant stiffness of a tensioner system may be nonlinear. The vertical friction between a TTR and the hull at its riser guide is neglected assuming rollers are installed there. Near the water surface, a TTR is forced to move horizontally due to the motion of the upper deck of a floating structure as well as related riser guides. The extended CABLE3D is then integrated into a numerical code, known as COUPLE, for the simulation of the dynamic interaction among the hull of a floating structure, such as spar or TLP, its mooring system and riser system under the impact of wind, current and waves. To demonstrate the application of the extended CABLE3D and its integration with COUPLE, the numerical simulation is made for a truss spar under the impact of Hurricane "Ike". The mooring system of the spar consists of nine mooring lines and the riser system consists of six TTRs and two steel catenary risers (SCRs).

### Mechanical Characteristics of Cable Truss Roof Systems (케이블 트러스 지붕 시스템의 역학적 특성)

• Park, Kang-Geun;Lee, Dong-Woo
• Journal of Korean Association for Spatial Structures
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• v.16 no.2
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• pp.89-96
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• 2016
• Cable structures are lightweight structures of flexible type, cable members have only axial stiffness related to tension, they can carry neither bending nor compression. This study is the analysis of cable truss systems are composed of upper and low cables by connecting bracing cables, the structural principle is based on a tensegrity system by using bracing tension members, discontinuous compression members and continuous tension members. A hanging roof of cable truss system is too flexible against vertical loads, most cable members are stabilized by connecting the prestressed upper and lower cable by bracing cables. A cable truss roof system is formed by adding a set of cables with reverse curvature to the suspension cables. With the sets of cables having opposite curvature to each other, cable truss is able to carry vertical load in both upward and downward direction with equal effectiveness, and then a cable truss acts as load bearing elements by the assemble of ridge cables, valley cables and bracing cables. This paper will be shown the geometric non-linear analysis result of cable truss systems with various sag ratio for deflections and tensile forces, the analytical results are compared with the results of other researchers.

### The Design of Cable Damper System far Jindo Bridge and its Field Verification Test (진도대교 케이블 댐퍼시스템 설계 및 검증실험)

• Seo, Ju-Won;Kim, Nam-Sik;Ahn, Sang-Sup;Jeong, Woon
• Proceedings of the Earthquake Engineering Society of Korea Conference
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• pp.302-310
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• 2001
• In order to lessen cable vibration, new cable damper system with high damping rubber was developed using the basis of the LRB design scheme. The analysis model of cable damper system incorporate voigt-kelvin damper model into the nonlinear cable analysis model. To achieve maximum damping capacity both reducing damper stiffness and developing high damping rubber were performed. As a result of verification test, the high damping rubber damper shows its effectiveness in improving cable damping capacity.

### The Dynamic Analysis of Cable Dome Structures (케이블 돔의 구조물의 동적 비선형 해석)

• Seo, Jun-Ho;Han, Sang-Eul;Lee, Sang-Ju
• 한국공간정보시스템학회:학술대회논문집
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• pp.113-122
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• 2004
• Cable domes deform very largely because of the characteristics of flexible hybrid system and pre-tension, and include geometrical non-linearity in those structural behavior. Especially wind load is more dominant than seismic load, because cable domes are flexible structures whose bending stiffness is very small and self-weight is very light. Therefore, in this paper, the Modified Stiffly Stable Method is applied to analyze the nonlinear dynamic behavior of cable domes and compared these results with ones of the $Newmark-{\beta}$ Method which is generally used. The Seoul Olympic Gymnastic Arena is taken as an numerical example and three kinds of models with giving each different intensity of pre-tension are selected. And dynamic nonlinear behavior of cable domes are analyzed by artificial spectrum of wind velocity wave which is similar to actual wind loads.

### Study on the Shape Optimization of Cable-Stiffened Single-Layer Latticed Shells

• Wang, Hao;Wu, Minger
• International journal of steel structures
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• v.18 no.3
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• pp.924-934
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• 2018
• The cable-stiffened single-layer latticed shell is a new type of spatial structure. In this paper, a shape optimization method is proposed for two kinds of cable-stiffened single-layer latticed shells. Firstly, an optimization algorithm is proposed to minimize the strain energy of shell. Interior-point method, conjugate gradient method and golden section method are adopted as the approach of constraint optimization, the minimization algorithm and the line search strategy, respectively. Secondly, the derivatives of stiffness matrixes of two kinds of cable-stiffened systems are discussed. Finally, optimization program is programmed in MATLAB and a numerical example is carried out. The linear buckling load, the displacement and the stress distribution of the optimized shells are investigated. According to numerical results, the structural behaviours of cable-stiffened single-layer latticed shells are improved significantly. The optimization method suggested in this paper is valid.