• Title, Summary, Keyword: cable stiffness

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Nonlinear Dynamic Analysis on Low-Tension Towed Cable by Finite Difference Method (유한차분법을 이용한 저장력 예인케이블의 비선형 동적해석)

  • Han-Il Park;Dong-Ho Jung
    • Journal of the Society of Naval Architects of Korea
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    • v.39 no.1
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    • pp.28-37
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    • 2002
  • In this study nonlinear dynamic behaviors of towed tow-tension cables are numerically analysed. In the case of a taut cable analysis, a bending stiffness term is usually neglected due to its minor effect but it plays an important role in a low-tension cable analysis. A low-tension cable may experience large displacements due to relatively small restoring forces and thus the effects of fluid and geometric non-linearities become predominant. The bending stiffness and non-linearity effects are considered in this work. In order to obtain dynamic behaviors of a towed low-tension cable, three-dimensional nonlinear dynamic equation is described and discretized by employing a finite difference method. An implicit method and Newton-Raphson iteration are adopted for the time integration and nonlinear solutions. For the calculation of huge size of matrices. block tri-diagonal matrix method is applied, which is much faster than the well-known Gauss-Jordan method in two point boundary value problems. Some case studies are carried out and the results of numerical simulations are compared with those of a in-house program of WHOI Cable with good agreements.

A Study on Impact Sound Insulation Properties of EPDM Micro Cellular Pad (에틸렌-프로필렌-디엔 삼원 공중합 (EPDM) 발포체의 충격음 저감 특성에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Kyung-Won;Lee, Jung-Hee;Sohn, Ho-Soung
    • Elastomers and Composites
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    • v.35 no.2
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    • pp.138-148
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    • 2000
  • In order to investigate the possibility of EPDM micro cellular pad (MCP) as an impact sound insulation product, we studied static/dynamic properties and vibration transfer characteristics of EPDM MCP depending on shape, thickness, degrees of foaming by using material test system (MTS) and lab scale mock-up test apparatus. Static/dynamic rigidity is increased when shape is simple. thickness and degrees of foaming low. We could see that dynamic stiffness is proportional to the transmissibility of EPDM MCP. When dynamic stiffness is increased, characteristic peak at transmissibility curve moves high frequency range or snows increase of maximum value of transmissibility. For lab scale mock-up test and finite element method, EPDM MCP shows low vibration velocity and superior mode shape to just concrete plus slab structure. We could confirm that possibility of EPDM MCP as a impact sound insulation product is high.

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Cable-pulley brace to improve story drift distribution of MRFs with large openings

  • Zahrai, Seyed Mehdi;Mousavi, Seyed Amin
    • Steel and Composite Structures
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.863-882
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    • 2016
  • This study aims to introduce a new bracing system by which even super-wide frames with large openings can be braced. The proposed system, hereafter called Cable-Pulley Brace (CPB), is a tension-only bracing system with a rectilinear configuration. In CPB, a wire rope passes through a rectilinear path around the opening(s) and connects the lower corner of the frame to its opposite upper one. CPB is a secondary load resisting system with a nonlinear-elastic hysteretic behavior due to its initial pre-tension load. As a result, the required energy dissipation would be provided by the MRF itself, and the main intention of using CPB is to contribute to the initial and post-yield stiffness of the whole system. Using a stiffness calibration technique, optimum placement of the CPBs is discussed to yield a uniform displacement demand along the height of the structure. A displacement-based design procedure is proposed by which the MRF with CPB can be designed to achieve a uniform distribution of inter-story drifts with predefined values. Obtained results indicated that CPB leads to significant reductions in maximum and residual deformations of the MRF at the expense of minor increase in the maximum base shear and developed axial force demands in the columns. In the case of a typical 5-story residential building, compared to SMRF system, CPB system reduces maximum amounts of inter-story and residual drifts by 35% and 70%, respectively. Moreover, openings of the frame are not interrupted by the CPB. This is the most appealing feature of the proposed bracing system from architectural point of view.

Dynamic Nonlinear Analysis of Marine Cables Under Wave Force and Earthquake Force (파랑하중 및 지진하중을 받는 해양케이블의 동적 비선형 해석)

  • 김문영
    • Proceedings of the Earthquake Engineering Society of Korea Conference
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    • pp.292-299
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    • 1999
  • In order to investigate dynamic behaviors of marine cables under wave and earthquake forces a geometric nonlinear. F, E formulation of marine cables is presented and tangent stiffness and mass matrices for the isoparametric cable element are derived, The initial equilibrium state of cables subjected to self -weights and current forces is determined and free vibration and dynamic nonlinear analysis of cable structures under additional environmental loads are performed based on the initial configuration Challenging examples are presented and discussed in order to demonstrate the feasibility of the present finite element method and investigate dynamic nonlinear behaviors of marine cables.

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Analysis Method for Cable-Membrane Structures with Element Slipping (외력에 의해 요소이동이 발생되는 케이블-막 구조물의 해석 방법)

  • Kang, Joo-Won;Kim, Jae-Yeol
    • Journal of the Korean Association for Spatial Structures
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    • v.5 no.4
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    • pp.79-90
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    • 2005
  • The purpose of this study is development of a finite element algorithm to find out the stressed condition, slipped direction and slipped dimension when some elements of cable-membrane structures are slipped from it's initially designed coordinates by external loads as wind or non uniform load and so on. In order to search the slipped behaviors of cable-membrane structures, a Arbitrarily-Lagrangian-Eulerian(ALE) finite element formulation is introduced. In these procedures, a stiffness matrix related with ALE concept is formulated and a FE analysis program for cable-membrane structures with slipped elements is developed. Various examples for cable and membrane structures are presented to verify the program's validation. The results are shown good agreement with that of existed one.

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Estimation for Equivalent Flexural Stiffness of Innovative Prestressed Support(IPS) Wale (혁신적 프리스트레스트 가시설(IPS)의 띠장에 대한 등가 휨강성의 산정)

  • Kim, Sung Bo;Kim, Hun Kyom;Heo, In Sung
    • Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.393-401
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    • 2009
  • The flexural-stiffness formula of the wale for the innovative prestressed support (IPS) system was precisely derived, and the equivalent beam stiffness was introduced for application in the actual design of the IPS wale. The cable tension forces of the IPS wale were calculated in both cases, and the axial-deformation effects were included and ignored, respectively. The central displacements of the 1-post, 2-post, 3-post, and 4-post IPS wales were calculated based on the principle of virtual work. The effects of the IPS wale length and cable inclination angle were also investigated using the derived central displacements. The simplified equivalent flexural stiffness of the IPS wale is presented herein for design purposes, and the validity of the proposed design formula was verified through its comparison with the FE and analysis solutions.

Response evaluation and vibration control of a transmission tower-line system in mountain areas subjected to cable rupture

  • Chen, Bo;Wu, Jingbo;Ouyang, Yiqin;Yang, Deng
    • Structural Monitoring and Maintenance
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.151-171
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    • 2018
  • Transmission tower-line systems are commonly slender and generally possess a small stiffness and low structural damping. They are prone to impulsive excitations induced by cable rupture and may experience strong vibration. Excessive deformation and vibration of a transmission tower-line system subjected to cable rupture may induce a local destruction and even failure event. A little work has yet been carried out to evaluate the performance of transmission tower-line systems in mountain areas subjected to cable rupture. In addition, the control for cable rupture induced vibration of a transmission tower-line system has not been systematically conducted. In this regard, the dynamic response analysis of a transmission tower-line system in mountain areas subjected to cable rupture is conducted. Furthermore, the feasibility of using viscous fluid dampers to suppress the cable rupture-induced vibration is also investigated. The three dimensional (3D) finite element (FE) model of a transmission tower-line system is first established and the mathematical model of a mountain is developed to describe the equivalent scale and configuration of a mountain. The model of a tower-line-mountain system is developed by taking a real transmission tower-line system constructed in China as an example. The mechanical model for the dynamic interaction between the ground and transmission lines is proposed and the mechanical model of a viscous fluid damper is also presented. The equations of motion of the transmission tower-line system subjected to cable rupture without/with viscous fluid dampers are established. The field measurement is carried out to verify the analytical FE model and determine the damping ratios of the example transmission tower-line system. The dynamic analysis of the tower-line system is carried out to investigate structural performance under cable rupture and the validity of the proposed control approach based on viscous fluid dampers is examined. The made observations demonstrate that cable rupture may induce strong structural vibration and the implementation of viscous fluid dampers with optimal parameters can effectively suppress structural responses.

Abnormal Response Analysis of a Cable-Stayed Bridge using Gradual Bilinear Method (Gradual Bilinear Method를 이용한 사장교의 케이블 손상응답 해석)

  • Kim, Byeong-Cheol;Park, Ki-Tae;Kim, Tae-Heon;Hwang, Ji-Hyun
    • Journal of the Korea institute for structural maintenance and inspection
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    • v.18 no.6
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    • pp.60-71
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    • 2014
  • Cable-stayed bridge, which is one of the representative long-spanned bridge, needs prompt maintenances when a stay cable is damaged because it may cause structural failure of the entire bridge. Many researches are being conducted to develop abnormal behavior detection algorithms for the purpose of shortening the reaction time after the occurrence of structural damage. To improve the accuracy of the damage detection algorithm, ample observation data from various kinds of damage responses is needed. However, it is difficult to measure an abnormal response by damaging an existing bridge, numerical simulation can be an effective alternative. In most previous studies, which simulate the damage responses of a cable-stayed bridge, the damages has been considered as a load variation without regard to its stiffness variation. The analyses of using these simplification could not calculate exact responses of damaged structure, though it may reserve a sufficient accuracy for the purpose of bridge design. This study suggests Gradual Bilinear Method (GBM) which simulate the damage responses of cable-stayed bridge considering the stiffness and mass variation, and develops an analysis program. The developed program is verified from the responses of a simple model. The responses of a existing cable-stayed bridge model are analyzed with respect to the fracture delay time and damage ratio. The results of this study can be used to develop and verify the highly accurate abnormal behavior detection algorithm for safety management of architecture/large structures.

Design to Control Vibration for Stay Cable with Damper (댐퍼도입에 의한 사장 케이블의 제진설계)

  • Kim, Hyeon Kyeom;Hwang, Jae Woong;Lee, Myeong Jae;Seo, Ju Won
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers
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    • v.28 no.1A
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    • pp.51-58
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    • 2008
  • A cable element happens to vibration easily rather than other elements because a cable element has few rotational stiffness. Dynamic motion of stay cable is distinguished from vibration by wind and/or rain and excitation by support movement. Mostly a stay cable is vibrated by wind and/or rain except that when natural periods coincide between stiffening girder and stay cable. It happens to deterioration of serviceability and durability by vortex shedding, rainy-wind induced vibration, and galloping. Additional damping generated by installation of cable damper is well known good scheme against above phenomena. Researchers have lack of effort to develop the recommendations even if cable stayed bridges are designed and constructed in Korea. Therefore, development of the domestic recommendations should be achieved as soon as possible. This study suggests the consistent and systematic recommendations on vibration controlling design of stay cable by installation of damper. It gives readers two important methodologies that one evaluates required damping ratio, the other determines installing point considering efficiency.

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Experimental evaluation of an inertial mass damper and its analytical model for cable vibration mitigation

  • Lu, Lei;Fermandois, Gaston A.;Lu, Xilin;Spencer, Billie F. Jr.;Duan, Yuan-Feng;Zhou, Ying
    • Smart Structures and Systems
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    • v.23 no.6
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    • pp.589-613
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    • 2019
  • Cables are prone to vibration due to their low inherent damping characteristics. Recently, negative stiffness dampers have gained attentions, because of their promising energy dissipation ability. The viscous inertial mass damper (termed as VIMD hereinafter) can be viewed as one realization of the inerter. It is formed by paralleling an inertial mass part with a common energy dissipation element (e.g., viscous element) and able to provide pseudo-negative stiffness properties to flexible systems such as cables. A previous study examined the potential of IMD to enhance the damping of stay cables. Because there are already models for common energy dissipation elements, the key to establish a general model for IMD is to propose an analytical model of the rotary mass component. In this paper, the characteristics of the rotary mass and the proposed analytical model have been evaluated by the numerical and experimental tests. First, a series of harmonic tests are conducted to show the performance and properties of the IMD only having the rotary mass. Then, the mechanism of nonlinearities is analyzed, and an analytical model is introduced and validated by comparing with the experimental data. Finally, a real-time hybrid simulation test is conducted with a physical IMD specimen and cable numerical substructure under distributed sinusoidal excitation. The results show that the chosen model of the rotary mass part can provide better estimation on the damper's performance, and it is better to use it to form a general analytical model of IMD. On the other hand, the simplified damper model is accurate for the preliminary simulation of the cable responses.