• Title, Summary, Keyword: calcitonin

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RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN THE MANDIBLE AND THE FEMUR IN OSTEOPOROSIS INDUCED BY OOPHORECTOMY AND EFFECT OF PREVENTIONS BY CALCITONIN IN THE ALBINO RATS (난소 절제한 흰쥐에서 골다공증이 하악골에 미치는 영향과 칼시토닌의 예방효과)

  • Cho Kyoung;Kim Jin;Chung Moon-Kyu
    • The Journal of Korean Academy of Prosthodontics
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    • v.30 no.4
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    • pp.526-540
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    • 1992
  • Osteoporosis, a well known metabolic bone disease, occurs due to imbalance of bone formings and resorptions. In an attempt investigate if postmenopausal osteoporosis would have influence on the mandible, histomorphometric analysis was performed in the mandible and the femur of the albino rats. Osteoporosis was induced by bilateral oophorectomy. To determine the effect of calcitonin, calcitonin(Asahi Chemical Co., Japan) was injected in the oophorectomized rats. The results were as follows : 1. The width of cortical bone of the femur was decreased in the oophorectomized group compared to the normal control and calcitonin injected groups and the porosity of cortical bone of the femur was increased in the oophorectomized group compared to the normal control and calcitonin injected groups. 2. The osteoid tissue and resorption lacuna of the femur was increased in both oophorectormized and calcitonin injected groups than the normal control group. 3. The width of cortical bone of the mandible was decreased in the oophorectomized group compared to the normal control and calcitonin injected groups. 4. The porosity of cortical bone of the mandible was decreased in both oophorectomized and calcitonin injected groups than the normal control group. 5. The relative volume of trabecular bone of the mandible was decreased in the oophorectomized group compared to the normal control and calcitonin injected groups. 6. The osteoid tissue of the mandible was increased in the calcitonin injected group than the normal control and oophorectomized groups. 7. The resorption lacuna of the mandible was increased in both oophorectomized and calcitonin injected groups, particularly in the oophorectomized group.

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The Effect of Calcitonin in the Rat Osteoporosis Induced by the Immobilization and Long-term Glucocorticoid Use (장기간의 dexamethasone투여 및 편측 하지 고정에 의한 골조송증에서 calcitonin의 작용)

  • Lim, Sang-Moo;Hong, Sung-Woon;Lee, Jin-Oh;Kang, Tae-Woong
    • The Korean Journal of Nuclear Medicine
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.108-118
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    • 1990
  • It is well known that the glucocorticoid suppresses the osteoblast and the calcitonin suppresses the osteoclast. If the calcitonin prevents the osteoporosis with increased Tc-99m MDP uptake in the long-term use of glucocorticoid, then the calcitonin has some activating effect on the bone formation. The immobilization operation was done on the left hind-leg of 16 male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing about 300 g each. For 12 weeks after operation,8 rats were injected 0.5 mg/kg dexamethasone, and the other 8 rats were injected 0.5 mg/kg dexamethasone and $1\;\bar{u}/kg$ eel calcitonin. The bone mineral content was measured by the single photon absorptiometry and the Tc-99m MDP uptake was used as an index of the osteoblastic activity. 1) The Tc-99m MDP uptakes in the dexamethasone treated group were lower than those in the dexamethasone and calcitonin treated group, and there was no significant difference in Tc-99m MDP uptakes between the immobilized and normal femurs. 2) The bone mineral contents in the dexamethasone treated group were significantly lower than in the dexamethasone and calcitonin treated group, and the immobilized femurs had tower BMC than normal femurs. 3) The slope of regression between the BMC and Tc-99m MDP uptake was stiff in the dexamethasone treated group, and flat in the dexamethasone and calcitonin group, which shows discrepancy between the bone resorption and formation resulting prevention of net bone loss in the dexamethasone and calcitonin treated group. In conclusion, the calcitonin has some effect on the bone formation, and further studies with urinary hydroxyproline and cyclic AMP are expected.

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Ultrasonographic Features of Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma: Do they Correlate with Pre- and Post-Operative Calcitonin Levels?

  • Cho, Kyung Eun;Gweon, Hye Mi;Park, Ah Young;Yoo, Mi Ri;Kim, Jeong-Ah;Youk, Ji Hyun;Park, Young Mi;Son, Eun Ju
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.7
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    • pp.3357-3362
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    • 2016
  • Purpose: To correlate ultrasonographic (US) features of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) with preoperative and post-operative calcitonin levels. Materials and Methods: A total of 130 thyroid nodules diagnosed as MTC were evaluated. Two radiologists retrospectively evaluated preoperative US features according to size, shape, margin, echogenicity, type of calcification, and lymph node status. Postoperative clinical and imaging follow-up (mean duration $31.9 {\pm} 22.5$ months) was performed for detection of tumor recurrence. US features, presence of LN metastasis, and tumor recurrence were compared between MTC nodules with and without elevated preoperative calcitonin (>100 pg/mL). Those with normalized and non-normalized postoperative calcitonin levels groups were also compared. Results: Common US features of MTCs were solid internal content (90.8%), irregular shape (44.6%), circumscribed margin (46.2%), and hypoechogenicity (56.2%). Comparing MTC nodules with and without elevated preoperative calcitonin levels, the size and shape of MTC nodule and lymph node metastasis showed statistical significance (p<0.05). Postoperative calcitonin normalization correlated with US features of tumor size (p=0.002), margin (p=0.034), shape ($p{\leq}0.001$), and presence of calcification (p=0.046). Tumor recurrence and LN metastasis were more prevalent in patients without normalization of postoperative calcitonin than in those with normalization (p=0.001). Conclusions: Serum calcitonin measurement is helpful for early diagnosis and predicting prognosis. Postoperative calcitonin measurement is also important for postoperative US follow up, especially in cases with larger nodule size, presence of calcification, irregular shape, and irregular margin.

Routine calcitonin measurement in nodular thyroid disease management: is it worthwhile?

  • Turk, Yigit;Makay, Ozer;Ozdemir, Murat;Ertunc, Gozde;Demir, Batuhan;Icoz, Gokhan;Akyildiz, Mahir;Yilmaz, Mustafa
    • Annals of Surgical Treatment and Research
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    • v.92 no.4
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    • pp.173-178
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    • 2017
  • Purpose: To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of routine calcitonin measurement in patients with nodular thyroid disease. Methods: Consecutive patients with nodular thyroid disease (n = 640) were studied. Serum calcitonin levels were measured under basal conditions, and when basal values were between 10-100 pg/mL, testing was repeated after pentagastrin (PG) stimulation. Patients with previously diagnosed or familial medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) were excluded. Patients were operated on when basal or stimulated calcitonin >100 pg/mL or when other surgical indications were present. Results: Four cases of MTC were identified. MTC was diagnosed in 75% of patients with basal calcitonin >100 pg/mL. One out of 11 patients with basal calcitonin between 10-100 pg/mL was diagnosed with MTC. PG stimulation resulted in elevation in 4 cases, where 1 case was diagnosed with MTC. Positive predictive value for basal calcitonin levels in the preoperative diagnosis of MTC was 5% for values between 10-100 pg/mL and 100% for values >100 pg/mL. Possible reasons for false positivity were papillary thyroid cancer in 17%, renal insufficiency in 8.3%, Hashimoto thyroiditis in 17% and ${\beta}$-blocker use in 33%. Positive predictive value for the PG test (>100 pg/mL) was 25% in the entire series. The cost of adding calcitonin measurement (${\pm}PG$ stimulation) to the preoperative work-up, resulted in ${\euro}912.68$ per MTC patient to detect the disease. Conclusion: Basal calcitonin measurement together with PG stimulation in cases of basal calcitonin >10 pg/mL detects MTC in 0.62% of patients with nodular thyroid disease.

Effect and Tolerability of Nasal Spray of Salmon Calcitonin in the Relief of Pain due to Bone Metastasis (전이성골암에 의한 통증에 대한 Salmon Calcitonin($Miacalcic^{(R)}$) 비강분무의 효능 및 안정성)

  • Lee, Soo-Yong;Jeon, Dae-Geun;Lee, Jong-Seok;Kim, Sug-Jun;Hong, Seok-Il;Choi, Soo-Yong;Jang, Jin-Dae
    • The Journal of the Korean bone and joint tumor society
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    • v.2 no.1
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    • pp.72-77
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    • 1996
  • Metastaic bone tumors are usually accompanied with severe pain. The treatment modalities for this pain are so variable that patients are sometimes afraid of using them. Salmon calcitonin has a function to increase beta-endorphines followed by increasing the blood level of prostaglandin and thromboxan A2, which results in analgesic effect. This drug also has been known to decrease bone resorption. There were a few reports that parenteral use of salmon calcitonin decrease the pain from metastatic bone tumor. We wanted to know the effectiveness and tolerability of nasal spray of salmon calcitonin in relieving bone pain with metastatic tumor. We analyzed the effectiveness in the aspects of pain, sleep, performance status, mobility, supplementary analgesic use. The biologic effect of salmon calcitonin was analysed with CBC, Ca/P, BUN/Cr, uric acid. Simple radiography, alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, pyrilink-K were used as parameters for bone change. Eighteen cases of metastatic bone tumors took nasal spray of salmon calcitonin($Miacalcic^{(R)}$, 200IU/day) for 4 weeks, to relieve bone pain. With Wilcoxon Matched-Pairs Signed Ranks Test, we could find pain decreased significantly at 3 week and mobility become improved at 4 week of salmon calcitonin use. Other parameters didn't show any significant changes. We think the analgesic effect is mainly due to effect not on the local bone lesion but on the central nervous system, and that increased dose of salmon calcitonin can induce earlier and stronger analgesic effect.

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EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON THE EFFECT OF CALCITONIN IN THE OSTEOPOROSIS INDUCED BY THE IMMOBILIZATION AND LONG-TERM GLUCOCORTICOID (Glucocorticoid의 장기간 투여 및 운동 억제에 의한 골손실시 calcitonin의 예방효과에 관한 실험적 연구)

  • Park Dong Jin;Lee Sang Rae
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology
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    • v.19 no.1
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    • pp.69-87
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    • 1989
  • It is well known that the glucocorticoid induces osteoporosis by suppression of the osteoblast, but its effect on the osteoclast hRS some controversy whether it activates or suppresses the osteoclast. If the calcitonin, which is known to suppress the osteoclast, prevents the osteoporosis by glucocorticoid, then the suppression of the osteoclast by the glucocorticoid is not so significant. And if the calcitonin increases the osteoblastic activity, Tc-99m MDP uptake will be increased in spite of the glucocorticoid effect on the osteoblast. The immobilization operation was performed to the right leg of male Wistar rats weighing about 200gm. each. For 16 weeks after operation, rats were injected glucocorticoid alone or glucocorticoid anci calcitonin. The bone density was measured by means of photodensitometry under reference aluminum step wedge and Tc-99m MDP uptake was available to the index of the osteoblastic activity. 1. The bone density of femora! head was markedly reduced than that of femoral shaft following ration of cancellous and cortical components in both site. 2. Glucocorticoid caused decrease in bone density of spine and femur, md there is significantly increase of it when medication of glucocorticoid and calcitonin injection simultaneously than that of glucocorticoid. 3. Tc-99m MDP uptake was revealed significant reduction in medication of glucocorticoid but increase in gi;.:cocorticoid and calcitonin injection simultaneously in later experimental period. 4. There wail, a slight reduction in plasma osteocalcin in medication of glucocorticoid through experimental periods and an increase in its value in case of giving glucocorticoid and calcitonin simultaneously in later experimental period. From these results, we suggest that osteoporosis by immobilization is more pronounced by glucocorticoid hormone and osteoporosis induced by immobilization and glucocorticoid use is prevented by calcitonin administration with increasing osteoblastic activity.

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Clinical Efficacy of Salmon Calcitonin against Bone Pain in Postmenopausal Osteoporosis Women (폐경후 골다공증 환자의 골동통 치료에 있어서 Salmon Calcitonin 투여의 임상적 효용성)

  • Lee, H.P.;Kim, B.G.;Song, Y.S.;Kim, S.C.;Kang, S.B.
    • Clinical and Experimental Reproductive Medicine
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.181-187
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    • 1992
  • Calcitonin exerts a positive effects on bone pain. The relief of bone pain has been well known in Paget's disease and malignancy patients with bone metastasis who were treated with salmon calcitonin. We carried out a clinical study evaluating efficacy of salmon calcitonin in reducing bone pain and improving mobility of the postmenopausal osteoporosis women. Fifty women suffering pain from postmenopausal osteoporosis diagnosed by evidence of radiology and/or dual photon absorptiometry were treated with salmon calcitonin 50 MRC three times per week for 4 weeks. The severity of pain estimated by visual analogue scale(VAS) was reduced significantly in treated patients from $8.6{\pm}0.7$ on day 0 to $2.7{\pm}1.7$ on day 28. The mobility of the patients was improved in 2 weeks after salmon calcitonin treatment. Mild adverse effects were seen in 8(16%) patients; headache in 4(8%), sweating and dizziness in 2(4%), pain at the injection site in 1(2%), nausea and vomiting in 1(2%) patient. The treatment was stopped in 3 patients by their request. Salmon calcitonin was effective in 39(83%) of 47 patients above moderate degree. In conclusion, salmon calcitonin is useful in the treatment of patients with pain from postmenopausal osteoporosis.

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Calcitonin Transport through Skin Using Iontophoresis

  • Kim, Kyung-Min;Oh, Seaung-Youl
    • Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation
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    • v.41 no.1
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    • pp.9-17
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    • 2011
  • The objective of this work is to study transdermal delivery of calcitonin using iontophoresis and to evaluate various factors which affect the transdermal transport. We have studied the effect of polarity, current density, drug concentration, penetration enhancers (isopropyl myristate [IPM] and ethanol) and laser treatment on transdermal flux and the results were compared. We also investigated the iontophoretic flux from microemulsions containing calcitonin together with oleic acid (OA) or IPM. In vitro flux study was performed at $33^{\circ}C$, using side-by-side diffusion cell and full thickness hairless mouse skin. Anodal delivery at pH 3.0 was much larger than cathodal and passive delivery, due to the positive charge of calcitonin. Cumulative amount delivered (CUM) by cathodal or passive delivery was close to zero for 10 hours. The pretreatment of skin by neat IPM markedly increased the CUM anodically. CUM increased as the current density, drug concentration or the duration of IPM treatment increased. Microemulsion containing IPM or oleic acid was prepared and the phase diagram was constructed. CUM also increased when IPM was incorporated into a microemulsion. OA microemulsion showed similar enhancing effect to IPM microemulsion. The delivery of calcitonin from 70% (v/v) ethanol aqueous solution showed a large increase in flux. Laser treatment of skin before flux experiment exhibited about 2 fold increase in total calcitonin amount transported for 12 hours, when compared to that delivered by IPM microemulsion. Based on these results, we have evaluated the possibility of delivering enough amount of calcitonin to reach the therapeutic level. The data suggest that it is highly possible to deliver clinically effective amount of calcitonin using iontophoresis patch with small area (<10 $cm^2$).

Stability, Efficacy, Absorption and Toxicity of a New Nasal Spray Formulation including Salmon Calcitonin

  • Shim, Hyun-Joo;Kim, Mi-Kyung;Bae, En-Joo;Lee, Eung-Doo;Hyun Jo;Kim, Soon-Hae;Kwon, Jong-Won;Kim, Won-Bae
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Applied Pharmacology
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    • pp.137-137
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    • 1998
  • Stability, efficacy, absorption and toxicity of a new nasal spray formulation including salmon calcitonin were studied in the laboratory animals. After the effects of many excipients on the stability of salmon calcitonin were evaluated using HPLC system, we selected taurine. Our experimental composition of salmon calcitonin contains taurine as a stabilizer and HPMC (hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose) as an adhesive polymer. After intranasal administration of salmon calcitonin formulations, Mia$\^$(R)/, Men$\^$(R)/ and experimental composition, 22 IU to rats, the reduction percentages of calcium concentration in plasma (ΔD%) were 16.3%, 12.9% and 20.8%, respectively. After intranasal administration of Mia$\^$(R)/, Men$\^$(R)/ and experimental composition to rats, C$\sub$MAX/ (205${\pm}$161, 244${\pm}$117, and 330${\pm}$202 pg/$m\ell$, respectively) and AUC (41585${\pm}$22070, 41191${\pm}$19125, and 63357${\pm}$43126 pg. min/$m\ell$, respectively) were calculated. The permeation coefficients 10$\^$-7/,cm/sec) of salmon calcitonin in Mia$\^$(R)/, Men$\^$(R)/ and experimental composition using Ussing chamber with rabbit nasal mucosa were 4.7${\pm}$1.5, 0.75${\pm}$0.4 and 5.3${\pm}$1.1, respectively. The experimental composition with taurine and HPMC was proved to be excellent because it improved the stability of salmon calcitonin and inhanced the absorption of salmon calcitonin and was not irritative to the nasal mucosa.

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Ontogeny of calcitonin immunoreactive cells in the thyroid glands of Korean native goat (한국재래산양 갑상샘에 있어서 Calcitonin면역 반응세포의 개체발생)

  • Lee, Jae-hyun;Ku, Sae-kwang;Lee, Hyeung-sik
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.36 no.3
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    • pp.513-519
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    • 1996
  • The development of calcitonin, serotonin(5-HT) and bovine chromogranin (BCG)-immunoreactive cells was investigated in the thyroid glands of Korean native goat from fetus to adult, using an immunohistochemical method. Moderate number of calcitonin-immunoreactive cells were present in the thyroid glands from 1 month to 6 months after birth, whereas a few in the adult. They were not present in the thyroid glands of fetus and 1 day after birth. A number of 5-HT- and BCG-immunoreactive cells were present in the thyroid glands of Korean native goat from fetus to adult. They were increased in number with age. BCG-immunoreactive cells were weakly reacted in fetus and 1 day after birth, while these cell were strongly stained from 1 month to adult. These findings suggest that calcitonin-, 5-HT- and BCG-immunoreactive cells were present in the thyroid gland of Korean native goat.

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