• Title, Summary, Keyword: calcium channel blocker

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Prescribing Patterns of Antihypertensive Drugs by Outpatients with Hypertension in 2007 (고혈압 환자의 혈압강하제 처방양상 - 외래 처방전을 중심으로 -)

  • Sung, Ye-Na;Jang, Sun-Mee;Lim, Do-Hee;Shin, Suk-Youn;Song, Hyun-Jong;Lee, Suk-Hyang
    • Korean Journal of Clinical Pharmacy
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.167-179
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    • 2009
  • Hypertension is one of the most common chronic diseases and it causes cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease. While antihypertensive drug use increased, it took 15% of national health insurance drug expenditure. This study aimed to examine the pattern of antihypertensive drug prescription using National Health Insurance claims database and compare it with recommendations of Korea Hypertension Treatment Guidelines. Among the antihypertensive drugs, calcium channel blocker(64.4%) was most commonly prescribed class, and diuretics(44.6%), angiotensin II receptor blocker(33.3%), angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor(11.7%) was followed. Approximately 81% of antihypertensives prescription were without cardiovascular or cerebrovascular disease, and among the comorbid conditions, diabetes(10.7%) was most common. calcium channel blocker(62.3%) was mostly prescribed class for hypertension with angina pectoris, angiotensin receptor blocker(45.3%) with myocardial infarction, diuretics(70.2%) and calcium channel blocker(49.5%) with congestive heart failure. For Hypertension with cerebrovascular disease, calcium channel blocker(68.0%) and angiotensin receptor blocker(43.3%) were prescribed mainly. When it comes to diabetes, calcium channel blocker(57.2%) was still mostly prescribed and angiotensin receptor blocker(45.9%) followed. But in hospitals and tertiary hospitals, angiotensin receptor blocker(65.7, 66.1%) was mostly prescribed for the patients with diabetes. For Hypertension with chronic renal disease, angiotensin receptor blocker(59.5%), calcium channel blocker(56.5%), diuretics(54.6%) were mainly used. Average number of classes per prescribing was $1.89{\pm}0.89$ class, average days per prescribing was $33{\pm}19$ day. Among the hypertension without comorbidity, 40.5% of prescription was monotherapy and 58.8% of polytherapy included diuretics. Among the outpatient prescriptions, calcium channel blocker was the most commonly used class, and the prescription pattern in clinic did not closely followed recommendations of Hypertension Treatment Guidelines.

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Effect of Econazole on ATP- and Compound 48/80-Induced Histamine Release in Rat Peritoneal Mast Cells (흰쥐의 복강비만세포에서 ATP와 Compound 48/80에 의한 Histamine 유리에 미치는 Econazole의 영향)

  • 장용운;이윤혜;이승준;서무현;윤정이
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
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    • v.45 no.3
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    • pp.282-286
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    • 2001
  • To investigate the different mechanism between ATP and compound 48/80 (C$_{48}$80/)-induced histamine release, we observed effects of calcium antagonists in histamine release of rat peritoneal mast cells. Verapamil and diltiazem (voltage-dependent calcium channel blocker) and TMB-8 (a blocker of intracellular calcium release) significantly inhibited ATP-induced histamine release, but did not inhibit $C_{48}$80/-induced histamine release. Econazole (a blocker of receptor-operated calcium channel) dose-dependently inhibited both ATP and $C_{48}$80/-induced histamine release, but inhibitory effect of econazole in ATP-induced histamine release was more potent than that in $C_{48}$80/-induced histamine. EGTA dose-dependently inhibited ATP and $C_{48}$80/-induced histamine release, but $C_{48}$80/-induced histamine release was slightly inhibited by high concentrations (>2 mM) of EGTA. These results suggest that ATP-induced histamine release is related to broth intracellular calcium release and extracellular calcium influx via voltage-dependent calcium channel and receptor-operated calcium channel. $C_{48}$80/-induced histamine release is related to extracellular calcium influx, especially by receptor-operated calcium channel rather than voltage-dependent calcium channel.

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The Study on Association of Calcium Channel SNPs with Adverse Drug Reaction of Calcium Channel Blocker in Korean

  • Chung, Myeon-Woo;Bang, Sy-Rie;Jin, Sun-Kyung;Woo, Sun-Wook;Lee, Yoon-Jung;Kim, Young-Sik;Lee, Jong-Keuk;Lee, Sung-Ho;Roh, Jae-Sook;Chung, Hye-Joo
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.15 no.3
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    • pp.156-161
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    • 2007
  • Rapid advances in pharmacogenomic research have provided important information to improve drug selection, to maximize drug efficacy, and to minimize drug adverse reaction. The SNPs that are the most abundant type of genetic variants have been proven as valid biomarkers to give information on the prediction of pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic properties of drugs based on genotype. In order to elucidate a correlation between SNPs of calcium channel encoding gene and adverse reactions of calcium channel blockers, we investigated SNPs in CACNA1C gene known as a binding site of calcium channel blocker. 96 patients with hypertension who had taken or are taking an antihypertensive drug, 1,4-dihydropyridine (DHP) were included for analysis. These patients were composed of 47 patients with adverse drug reactions (ADR) such as edema from calcium channel blockers and 49 patients without ADR as a control group. The exons encoding the drug binding sites were amplified by PCR using specific primers, and SNPs were analyzed by direct sequencing. We found that there was no SNP in the exons encoding DHP binding site, but four novel SNPs in the exon-intron junction region. However, four novel SNPs were not associated with the ADR of calcium channel blockers. In conclusion, this study showed that ADR from calcium channel blockers may not be caused by SNPs of the binding sites of calcium channel blockers in CACNA1C gene.

Pharmacophore Modelling, Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship (QSAR) and Docking Studies of Pyrimidine Analogs as Potential Calcium Channel Blockers

  • Choudhari, Prafulla B.;Bhatia, Manish S.;Jadhav, Swapnil D.
    • Journal of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.57 no.1
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    • pp.99-103
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    • 2013
  • The present communication deals with the Pharmacophore modeling, 3D QSAR and docking analysis on series of Pyrimidine derivatives as potential calcium channel blockers. The computational studies showed hydrogen bond donor, hydrogen bond acceptor, and hydrophobic group are important features for calcium channel blocking activity. These studies showed that Pyrimidine scaffold can be utilized for designing of novel calcium channels blockers for CVS disorders.

Haloperidol Induces Calcium Ion Influx Via L-Type Calcium Channels in Hippocampal HN33 Cells and Renders the Neurons More Susceptible to Oxidative Stress

  • Kim, Hyeon Soo;Yumkham, Sanatombi;Choi, Jang Hyun;Kim, Eung-Kyun;Kim, Yong Sik;Ryu, Sung Ho;Suh, Pann-Ghill
    • Molecules and Cells
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.51-57
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    • 2006
  • Haloperidol is a classical neuroleptic drug that is still in clinical use and can lead to abnormal motor activity following repeated administration. However, there is little knowledge of how it triggers neuronal impairment. In this study, we report that it induced calcium ion influx via L-type calcium channels and that the elevation of calcium ions induced by haloperidol appeared to render hippocampal cells more susceptible to oxidative stress. Indeed, the level of cytotoxic reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the expression of pro-apoptotic Bax increased in response to oxidative stress in haloperidol-treated cells, and these effects were inhibited by verapamil, a specific L-type calcium channel blocker, but not by the T-type calcium channel blocker, mibefradil. These findings indicate that haloperidol induces calcium ion influx via L-type calcium channels and that this calcium influx influences neuronal fate.

Effect and Histopatbologic Examination of Calcium Channel Blocker on Carbon Tetrachloride-induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats (Calcium Channel Blocker가 사염화탄소에 의한 간손상에 미치는 영향 및 조직학적 검경)

  • 전명애;정춘식;정기화
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.6 no.3
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    • pp.247-255
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    • 1998
  • Carbon tetrachloride (CCI$_4$) induces the hepatotoxicity due to the reactive free radicals generated by cytochrome P-450 (CYP-450) enzyme, which result in destabilization of cellular membrane. Diltiazem, a calcium channel blocking agent, has been known to suppress the CYP-450 enzyme activities. To study the effect of diltiazem in $CCl_4$-treated rats, we measured the activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and glutathione S-transferase (GST), contents of bilirubin, albumin, total protein, cholesterol, triglyceride, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine malondialdehyde and calcium. Also we conducted liver histopathologic examinations. Diltiazem, when administered 1 hour prior to CCI$_4$ treaeent, significantly reduced the activities of ALT and AST, the contents of microsomal malondialdehyde and calcium in liver and microsome as compared with those of $CCl_4$-treated rats. In addition, histopathologic examination showed that diltiazem prevented the development of centrilobular necrosis induced by CCI$_4$ in liver tissue. Our results suggested that diltiazem could inhibit the formation of free radicals and the influx of calcium. Therefore diltiazem may be applied to suppress the liver damage caused by $CCl_4$.

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Calcium Ions are Involved in Modulation of Melittin-induced Nociception in Rat: I. Effect of Voltage-gated Calcium Channel Antagonist

  • Shin, Hong-Kee;Lee, Kyung-Hee
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.10 no.5
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    • pp.255-261
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    • 2006
  • Melittin-induced nociceptive responses are mediated by selective activation of capsaicin-sensitive primary afferent fibers and are modulated by excitatory amino acid receptor, cyclooxygenase, protein kinase C and serotonin receptor. The present study was undertaken to investigate the peripheral and spinal actions of voltage-gated calcium channel antagonists on melittin-induced nociceptive responses. Changes in mechanical threshold and number of flinchings were measured after intraplantar (i.pl.) injection of melittin $(30\;{\mu}g/paw)$ into mid-plantar area of hindpaw. L-type calcium channel antagonists, verapamil [intrathecal (i.t.), 6 or $12\;{\mu}g$; i.pl.,100 & $200\;{\mu}g$; i.p., 10 or 30 mg], N-type calcium channel blocker, ${\omega}-conotoxin$ GVIA (i.t., 0.1 or $0.5\;{\mu}g$; i.pl., $5\;{\mu}g$) and P-type calcium channel antagonist, ${\omega}-agatoxin$ IVA (i.t., $0.5\;{\mu}g$; i.pl., $5\;{\mu}g$) were administered 20 min before or 60 min after i.pl. injection of melittin. Intraplantar pre-treatment and i.t. pre- or post-treatment of verapamil and ${\omega}-conotoxin$ GVIA dose-dependently attenuated the reduction of mechanical threshold, and melittin-induced flinchings were inhibited by i.pl. or i.t. pre-treatment of both antagonists. P-type calcium channel blocker, ${\omega}-agatoxin$ IVA, had significant inhibitory action on flinching behaviors, but had a limited effect on melittin-induced decrease in mechanical threshold. These experimental findings suggest that verapamil and ${\omega}-conotoxin$ GVIA can inhibit the development and maintenance of melittin-induced nociceptive responses.

Calcium Channel Subtype in Rat Adrenal Chromaffin Cells (흰쥐 부신수질 크로마핀세포의 칼슘통로 유형)

  • Goo, Yong-Sook
    • Progress in Medical Physics
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.59-70
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    • 2001
  • Adrenal chromaffin cells secrete catecholamine in response to acetylcholine. The secretory response has absolute requirement for extracellular calcium, indicating that $Ca^{2+}$ influx through voltage operated $Ca^{2+}$ channels is the primary trigger of the secretion cascade. Although the existence of various types of $Ca^{2+}$ channels has been explored using patch clamp technique in adrenal chromaffin cells, there is still disagreement with the types of $Ca^{2+}$ channels existed in different species. Therefore, we have tried to identify several distinct types of $Ca^{2+}$ channels in rat chromaffin cells. By using nicardipine(L type channel blocker), $\omega$-CgTx GVIA(N type channel blocker), and $\omega$-AgaTx VIA(P type channel blocker), it was identified that L, N, and P type $Ca^{2+}$ channel exist in rat adrenal chromaffin cells and the order of contribution of each channel type to whole cell $Ca^{2+}$ current was L type> N type> P type. type> P type.

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Use of Magnesium in Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine (마취통증의학에서의 마그네슘 사용)

  • Seong, Chae-Rim;Jee, Dae-Lim
    • Yeungnam University Journal of Medicine
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    • v.26 no.2
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    • pp.93-101
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    • 2009
  • The use of magnesium sulphate has recently increased in anesthesiology and pain medicine. The roles of magnesium sulphate are as an analgesic adjuvant, a vasodilator, a calcium channel blocker and reducing the anesthetic requirement. These effect are primarily based on the regulation of calcium influx into the cell and antagonism of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor. We discuss here the clinical effects of magnesium sulphate on anesthesiology and pain medicine.

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Treatments of Calcium Channel Blocker Overdose (칼슘통로차단제 중독의 치료)

  • Lee, Sung Woo
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Clinical Toxicology
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.1-10
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    • 2020
  • Pharmaceutical agents are the most common causes of poisoning in Korea. Calcium channel blockers (CCBs) are commonly used in Korea for the management of hypertension and other cardiovascular diseases, but are associated with a risk of mortality due to overdose. Due to the frequent fatalities associated with CCB overdose, it is essential that the emergency physician is capable of identifying CCB intoxication, and has the knowledge to manage CCB overdose. This article reviews the existing clinical guidelines, retrospective studies, and systematic reviews on the emergency management of CCB overdose. The following are the varied treatments of CCB overdose currently administered. 1) For asymptomatic patients: observation with enough time and decontamination, if indicated. 2) For symptomatic patients: infusion of calcium salt, high dose insulin therapy, and vasopressor (norepinephrine) or atropine for bradycardia. 3) For patients refractory to the first line therapy or with refractory shock or impending arrest: lipid emulsion therapy and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. 4) As adjunct therapy: phosphodiesterase inhibitors, glucagon, methylene blue, pacemaker for AV block. Small CCB ingestion is known to be fatal for pediatric patients. Hence, close observation for sufficient time is required.