• Title, Summary, Keyword: calcium current

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Effects of GS-386 on the calcium current in rabbit atrial myocytes (GS-386이 단일 심근 세포의 Ca2+ 전류에 미치는 효과)

  • Park, Choon-ok;Chang, Kyeong-jae;Kim, Yang-mi;Haan, Jae-hee;Hong, Seong-geun
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.34 no.1
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    • pp.37-47
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    • 1994
  • The effects of the novel compound GS-386 on the calcium current were investigated in rabbit atrial myocytes. The calcium current was recorded during various depolarizations of 200 ms duration from a holding potential of -40 mV using the whole cell patch clamp technique. The calcium current was activated from -30 mV, reached maximum amplitude at +10 mV and almost disappeared at +50 mV. Superfusion of GS-386 led to a reduction of the calcium current amplitude dose-dependently and $ED_{50}$ was $2.5{\times}10^{-7}M$. But the dependence of the calcium current on the membrane potential was not altered by GS-386. The inactivation of the calcium currents showed single exponential curves in both before and after application of GS-386. The inactivation time constants before and after application of GS-386 were almost the same(35 ms and 32.5 ms). The steady-state inactivation curve of the calcium current was not shifted by GS-386. The calcium currents both before and after application of GS-386 recovered completely in 1 sec and the recovery time constants were about 200 ms in both cases. From the above results it is concluded that the novel compound GS-386 has calcium antagonistic property decreasing the calcium current.

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Effect of Cyclic GMP on the Calcium Current in Rabbit Ventricular Myocytes

  • Han, Jin;Leem, Chae-Hun;Ahn, Chul-Soo;So, In-Suk;Kim, Eui-Yong;Ho, Won-Kyung;Earm, Yung-E
    • The Korean journal of physiology & pharmacology
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    • v.27 no.2
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    • pp.151-162
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    • 1993
  • In order to investigate the effect of intracellular cyclic GMP on calcium current the whole-cell patch clamp technique with internal perfusion method was used in isolated ventricular myocytes of the rabbit. Cyclic GMP, 8-bromo-cyclic GMP, cyclic AMP, isoprenaline and forskolin were perfused into cells and their effects on calcium current were analysed by applying depolarizing step pulses of + 10 mV in amplitude far 300 msec from holding potential of - 40 mV. Not only cyclic AMP $(100\;{\mu}M)$ but also cyclic GMF $(100\;{\mu}M)$ increased the basal calcium current. 8-Bromo-cyclic GMP $(100\;{\mu}M)$, a good stimulator of the cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase, also increased the basal calcium current and its peak amplitude of calcium current was larger than that in the presence of cyclic AMP or cyclic GMP alone. In the presence of $100\;{\mu}M$ cyclic GMP or $100\;{\mu}M$ 8-bromo-cyclic GMP, already augmented calcium current was potentiated by intracellular application of $100\;{\mu}M$ cyclic AMP or $1\;{\mu}M$ isoprenaline or $1\;{\mu}M$ forskolin. In the presence of cyclic GMP, acetylcholine reduced the calcium current only when the calcium current was increased by isoprenaline. From the above results it could be concluded that intracellular perfusion with cyclic GMP increases the basal calcium current via a mechanism involving a cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase.

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Modulation of Calcium Current by Cyclic GMP in the Single Ventricular Myocytes of the Rabbit (토끼 단일 심실근 세포에서 cyclic GMP의 $Ca^{2+}$ 전류 조절기전에 관한 연구)

  • An, Jae-Ho;Seo, Gyeong-Pil;Eom, Yung-Ui
    • The Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
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    • v.25 no.4
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    • pp.364-382
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    • 1992
  • In order to investigate the effect of intracellular cyclic GMP on the calcium channel, whole cell patch clamp technique with internal perfusion method was used in the single ventricular myocytes of the rabbit. Cyclic GMP, cGMP analogues, cAMP, isopernaline and forskolin were perfused into cells and their effects on the calcium current were analysed by applying depolarizing step pulse of 10 mV in amplitude for 200 msec from holding potential of -40 mV. Calcium currents usually activated from -30 mV and then reached a peak at +10 mV. Amplitude of the calcium current was standardized with membrane capacitance, 50 pF. Peak amplitude at +10 mV in control was -0.15 nA/50pF. When 100 mM cAMP was applied from the pipette, peak amplitude of calcium current increased to -0.32 nA and addition of 1 mM isoprenaline further increased its amplitude. In the presence of cGMP it alone also produced an increase of the calcium current to -0.52 nA/50pF and addition of isoprenaline or forskolin increased its magnitude to -[0.55~0.95] nA/50pF. Simultaneous application of cGMP and cAMP increased the calcium current to -0.67 nA/50pF. Among the cGMP analogues, 8-Br-cGMP was the most potent stimulant for the calcium current activation. From the above results it could be concluded tlat cGMP increases the calcium current not through cAMP dependent protein kinase nor cAMP dependent phosphodiesterase pathway, but through independent phosphorylation pathway, possibly cGMP dependent protein kinase pathway.

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Calcium permeability of transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC) 4 channels measured by TRPC4-GCaMP6s

  • Ko, Juyeon;Myeong, Jongyun;Yang, Dongki;So, Insuk
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.133-140
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    • 2017
  • Conflicting evidence has been obtained regarding whether transient receptor potential cation channels (TRPC) are store-operated channels (SOCs) or receptor-operated channels (ROCs). Moreover, the Ca/Na permeability ratio differs depending on whether the current-voltage (I-V) curve has a doubly rectifying shape or inward rectifying shape. To investigate the calcium permeability of TRPC4 channels, we attached GCaMP6s to TRPC4 and simultaneously measured the current and calcium signals. A TRPC4 specific activator, (-)-englerin A, induced both current and calcium fluorescence with the similar time course. Muscarinic receptor stimulator, carbachol, also induced both current and calcium fluorescence with the similar time course. By forming heteromers with TRPC4, TRPC1 significantly reduced the inward current with outward rectifying I-V curve, which also caused the decrease of calcium fluorescence intensity. These results suggest that GCaMP6s attached to TRPC4 can detect slight calcium changes near TRPC4 channels. Consequently, TRPC4-GCaMP6s can be a useful tool for testing the calcium permeability of TRPC4 channels.

Altered Calcium Current of the Vascular Smooth Muscle in Renal Hypertension

  • Nam, Sang-Chae;Jeong, Hye-Jeon;Kim, Won-Jae;Lee, Jong-Un
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.3 no.3
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    • pp.351-356
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    • 1999
  • The present study was aimed at investigating whether the calcium current in the vascular smooth muscle (VSM) cells is altered in renal hypertension. Two-kidney, one clip (2K1C) and deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt hypertension were made in Sprague-Dawley rats. Rats without clipping the renal artery or implanting DOCA were used as control for 2K1C and DOCA-salt hypertension, respectively. Four weeks after clipping, systolic blood pressure was significantly higher in 2K1C rats than in control $(192{\pm}24\;and\;119{\pm}4$ mmHg, respectively, n=16 each). DOCA-salt rats also showed a higher blood pressure $(180{\pm}15$ mmHg, n=18) compared with control $(121{\pm}6$ mmHg, n=14). VSM cells were enzymatically and mechanically isolated from basilar arteries. Single relaxed VSM cells measured $5{\sim}10\;{\mu}m$ in width and $70{\sim}150\;{\mu}m$ in length were obtained. VSM cells could not be differentiated in size and shape between hypertensive and normotensive rats under light microscopy. High-threshold (L-type) calcium currents were recorded using whole-cell patch clamp technique. The amplitude of the current recorded from VSM cells was larger in 2K1C hypertension than in control. Neither the voltage-dependence of the calcium current nor the cell capacitance was significantly affected by 2K1C hypertension. By contrast, the amplitude of the calcium current was not altered in DOCA-salt hypertension. These results suggest that high-threshold calcium current of the VSM cells is altered in 2K1C hypertension, and that calcium channel may not be involved in calcium recruitment of VSM in DOCA-salt hypertension.

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Effects of Higenamine on the Calcium Current and the Action Potential in the Guinea-pig Myocytes (Higenamine이 단일심근세포의 Ca-전류 및 활동전압에 미치는 효과)

  • Kim, Young-Duck;So, In-Suk;Earm, Yung-E
    • The Korean journal of physiology & pharmacology
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.169-177
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    • 1987
  • The effects of higenamine were investigated in the single atrial and ventricular myocyte of the guinea pig by using patch clamp method. The results obtained were as follows: 1) Isoprenaline which is known to be ${\beta}-agonist$ increased the duration of action potential and calcium current in ventricular cells. 2) Higenamine also increased the duration of action potential and calcium current in ventricular myocytes. And its effect was blocked by propranolol. 3) In the atrial cells, isoprenaline showed ${\beta}-agonist$ effects, which were increasing the duration of action potential and calcium current same as in ventricular cells. 4) Higenamine, however, showed the opposite effects of ${\beta}-agonist$ which were decreasing the duration of action potential and calcium current. The above results suggest that higenamine has the typical ${\beta}-agonist$ effect in ventricular cells but inhibitory effect in atrial cells and this effect on atrium could be due to the reduction of calcium current.

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Thecharacters of Ca2+ activated Cl- channel and its role in the cardiac myocytes (심장세포에서 세포내 Ca2+ 증가에 의해 활성화되는 Cl- 통로의 특성과 역할)

  • Park, Choon-ok;Kim, Yang-mi;Haan, Jae-hee;Hong, Seong-geun
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.34 no.1
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    • pp.25-36
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    • 1994
  • The inward tail current after a short depolarizing pulse has been known as Na-Ca exchange current activated by intracellular calcium which forms late plateau of the action potential in rabbit atrial myocytes. Chloride conductance which is also dependent upon calcium concentration has been reported as a possible tail current in many other excitable tissues. Thus, in order to investigate the exsitance of the calcium activated chloride current and its contribution to tail current, whole cell voltage clamp measurement has been made in single atrial cells of the rabbit. The current was recorded during repolarization following a brief 2 ms depolarizing pulse to +40mV from a holding potential of -70mV. When voltage-sensitive transient outward current was blocked by 2 mM 4-aminopyridine or replacement potassium with cesium, the tail current were abolished by ryanodine$(1{\mu}M)$ or diltiazem$(10{\mu}M)$ and turned out to be calcium dependent. The magnitudes of the tail currents were increased when intracellular chloride concentration was increased to 131 mM from 21 mM. The current was decreased by extracellular sodium reduction when intracellular chloride concentration was low(21 mM), but it was little affected by extracellular sodium reduction when intracellual chloride concentration was high(131 mM). The current-voltage relationship of the difference current before and after extracellular sodium reduction, shows an exponential voltage dependence with the largest magnitude of the current occurring at negative potentials, with is similar to current-voltage relationship at negative potentials, which is similar to current-voltage relationship of Na-Ca exchange current. The current was also decreased by $10{\mu}M$ niflumic acid and 1 mM bumetanide, which is well known anion channel blockers. The reversal potentials shifted according to changes in chloride concentration. The current-voltage relationships of the niflumic acid-sensitive currents in high and low concentration of chloride were well fitted to those predicted as chloride current. From the above results, it is concluded that calcium activated chloride component exists in the tail current with Na-Ca exchange current and it shows the reversal of tail current. Therefore it is thought that in the physiologic condition it leads to rapid end of action potential which inhibits calcium influx and it contributes to maintain the low intracellular calcium concentration with Na-Ca exchange mechanism.

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Comparison of Membrane Currents in Xenopus Oocytes in Response to Injection of Calcium Influx Factor (CIF) and Depletion of Intracellular Calcium Stores

  • Kim, Hak-Yong;Hanley, Michael R.
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.33 no.3
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    • pp.202-207
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    • 2000
  • The depletion of intracellular calcium stores by thapsigargin treatment evoked extracellular calcium-dependent membrane currents in Xenopus laevis oocytes. These currents have been compared to those evoked by microinjection of a calcium influx factor (CIF) purified from Jurkat T lymphocytes. The membrane currents elicited by thapsigargin treatment (peak current, $163{\pm}60$ nA) or CIF injection (peak current, $897{\pm}188$ nA) were both dependent on calcium entry, based on their eradication by the removal of extracellular calcium. The currents were, in both cases, attributed primarily to well-characterized $Ca^{2+}-dependent$ $Cl^-$ currents, based on their similar reversal potentials (-24 mV vs. -28 mV) and their inhibition by niflumic acid (a $Cl^-$ channel blocker). Currents induced by either thapsigargin treatment or CIF injection exhibited an identical pattern of inhibitory sensitivity to a panel of lanthanides, suggesting that thapsigargin treatment or CIF injection evoked $Cl^-$ currents by stimulating calcium influx through pharmacologically identical calcium channels. These results indicate that CIF acts on the same calcium entry pathway activated by the depletion of calcium stores and most lanthanides are novel pharmacological tools for the study of calcium entry in Xenopus oocytes.

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TRPC-Mediated Current Is Not Involved in Endocannabinoid-Induced Short-Term Depression in Cerebellum

  • Chang, Won-Seok;Kim, Jun;Kim, Sang-Jeong
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.139-144
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    • 2012
  • It has been reported that activation of metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 (mGluR1) can mediate endocannabinoid-induced short-term depression of synaptic transmission in cerebellar parallel fiber (PF)-Purkinje cell (PC) synapse. mGluR1 has signaling pathways involved in intracellular calcium increase which may contribute to endocannabinoid release. Two major mGluR1-evoked calcium signaling pathways are known: (1) slow-kinetic inward current carried by transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC) channel which is permeable to $Ca^{2+}$; (2) $IP_3$-induced calcium release from intracellular calcium store. However, it is unclear how much each calcium source contributes to endocannabinoid signaling. Here, we investigated whether calcium influx through mGluR1-evoked TRPC channel contributes to endocannabinoid signaling in cerebellar Purkinje cells. At first, we applied SKF96365 to inhibit TRPC, which blocked endocannabinoid-induced short-term depression completely. However, an alternative TRP channel inhibitor, BTP2 did not affect endocannabinoid-induced short-term depression although it blocked mGluR1-evoked TRPC currents. Endocannabinoid signaling occurred normally even though the TRPC current was mostly blocked by BTP2. Our data imply that TRPC current does not play an important role in endocannabinoid signaling. We also suggest precaution in applying SKF96365 to inhibit TRP channels and propose BTP2 as an alternative TRPC inhibitor.