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Studies on the electrophoretic analysis of serum protein in Korean native calves (한우(韓牛) 송아지의 혈청단백분획(血淸蛋白分劃)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究))

  • Kim, Heung-seop;Lee, Joo-mook;Kwon, Oh-deog;Park, Jin-ho;Park, Sang-youel;Lee, Sung-ok
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.37 no.2
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    • pp.451-456
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    • 1997
  • 120 heads of korean native calves were examined of serum protein by using cellulose acetate electrophoresis. During 20 days since the calves were purchased, serum protein, fibrinogen values and plasma : fibrinogen ratio were examined in the calves with respiratory and diarrheal disease. The result obtained in this investigation were as follows : 1. Among the 120 heads of calves that were purchased from market, 14 heads(22%) of calves were occurred respiratory disease, and 12 heads(20%) of calves are occurred diarrhea. Occurrence of respiratory disease was 14.5(4~20) days in average and diarrhea was 9.6(2-15) days after they had been purchased. 2. Serum protein fraction were analyzed by cellulose acetate electrophoresis. ${\beta}-globulin$, A/G ratio and ${\beta}_2-globulin$ values were decreased in the calves with respiratory disease. Especially, ${\beta}_2-globulin$ were significantly decreased. In calves with diarrhea, there was no change in ${\beta}-globulin$ values. ${\beta}_2-globulin$ values were higher than that of the normal and respiratory diseased calves. 3. ${\alpha}-globulin$ values were increased in both of calves with diarrhea and respiratory disease. This tendency was due to increase ${\alpha}_2-globulin$ values. 4. The $\gamma$-globulin value of calves with diarrhea was the lowest among the 3 groups. 5. The total protein values of normal calves were $7.0{\pm}1.1g/dl$ and that of respiratory and diarrheal diseased calves were $6.9{\pm}0.9g/dl$ and $6.6{\pm}0.8g/dl$, respectively. Total protein value of calves with diarrhea was lower than that of normal and respiratory diseased calves. Globulin value of calves with diarrhea was the lowest among them. The low value of total protein in diarrheal diseased calves was due to decrease globulin values. 6. The fibrinogen values of calves with respiratory disease ($643{\pm}189mg/dl$) were significantly higher than that of normal calves($533{\pm}135mg/dl$) and calves with diarrhea($572{\pm}188mg/dl$). The plasma : fib. ratio of respiratory diseased calves was $12.0{\pm}4.9$, normal calves was $13.8{\pm}3.5$ and diarrheal diseased calves was $12.8{\pm}4.6$. The ratio of the calves with respiratory disease was significantly decreased.

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Electrolyte Status and Fecal Consistency in Newborn Calves

  • Kume, S.;Toharmat, T.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.14 no.5
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    • pp.640-645
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    • 2001
  • In order to evaluate the change in plasma and fecal mineral content of calves to 6 days of age, and to clarify the relationship between electrolyte status and fecal consistency in calves at 6 days of age, data were collected from 52 Holstein calves. Fecal DM and Na of calves decreased at 6 days of age, but fecal Ca, P, Mg, K, Fe and Zn increased. Plasma Ca, inorganic P, Mg, Na, and Fe as well as blood hematocrit and hemoglobin of calves decreased at 6 days of age, but plasma alkaline phosphatase increased. Colostral Ca, P, Mg, Fe and Zn decreased with time postpartum, but colostral Na and K were not affected. The high plasma Na and K of calves at 6 days of age were influenced by the values at birth. There were negative correlations between fecal DM and fecal Na, and fecal K, of calves at 6 days of age, negative correlations between fecal DM and plasma Na, with plasma K. Plasma and fecal Na as well as plasma and fecal K of calves at 6 days of age were increased by the occurrence of diarrhea. These results suggest that the electrolyte status of calves at 6 days of age is adversely affected by the occurrence of diarrhea, and high plasma K and Na of calves at 6 days of age may be partly due to the electolyte status of calves at birth.

Acupuncture Therapeutics for the Treatment of the Watery Diarrhea in Calves (송아지의 수양성 설사증에 대한 침술효과)

  • Choi Hee-in;Lee Kyung-kap;Yun Young-min;Park Seong-jun;Chang Jeong-ho
    • Journal of Veterinary Clinics
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.585-592
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    • 1994
  • A consecutive Jiao Chio acupuncture therapy was performed for 3 days in the 45-90 days old 11 calves of which have been shown severe watery diarrhea. The discharge of the infected calves was yellowish brown in color. Two calves of these patients were infected wi pulmonary disease as well as diarrhea. Thus, Su Qi and Fei Yu acupuncture therapy was carried out additionally after dosing with antibiotics twice for The two infected calves. Blood chemical values and serum neutralizing antibody titers were checked, and total blood cell count was also carried out to know the therapeutic effect before and after(21 days) acupuncture therapeutics. The results are as follows ; 1, The diarrhea has ceased one day after begining of the acupuncture therapy in 5 calves, and the cessation of the diarrhea in remaining calves occurred in 1 calf each on 3rd and 4th day, and 2 calves on 6th day, respectively. Two calves infected with pulmonary disease as well diarrhea were cured 8 days after the begining of the therapcutics. 2. Rotaviruses wire detected in the feces of 2 calves, and bovine diarrhea viruses were detected in the 8 calves by the test for serum neutralizing antibody titers, and bovine coronaviruses were also detected in 5 calves. Four calves of the 5 bovine coronavirus infected calves were also infected with bovine diarrhea viruses. 3. Total leucocyte number, total amount of serum protein, and amount of fibringen were slightly increased, while total erythrocyte number, and erythrocyte packed cell volume were slightly decreased. These valucs were statistically not significant. Electrolytes of Na/sup +/, K/sup +/ and Cl/sup -/ were slightly decreased but these values also were not significant. These results indicate that the acupuncture therapeutics arc significantly effective to remove the viral diarrhea in the young calves.

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Effects of colostrum-conferred passive immunity on disease incidence in Korean native calves during the suckling period (한우 송아지의 초유섭취에 의한 수동면역이 포유기간 중의 질병발생에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Doo;Han, Hong-ryul
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.29 no.2
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    • pp.91-98
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    • 1989
  • The effects of the serum total protein and immunoglobulin levels of the colostrumconferred Korean native calves at 2 days of age on the disease incidence during the suckling period were studied. The results obtained were summerized as follows: 1. Serum total protein, total immunoglobulin, IgG, and IgM levels of 6 Korean native claves died from septicemia were lower than those of calves survived (p<0.05). 2. Korean native calves having low serum total protein and immunoglobulins were affected with diarrhea earlier in life, when compared with calves having high serum levels (p<0.05). 3. Korea native calves having low serum total protein were affected with bronchopneumonia earlier in life, when compared with calves having high serum levels (p<0.05). 4. Korean native calves having low serum neutralizing antibody titers to bovine viral diarrhea virus had high incidence rate of BVD, when compared with calves having high serum neutralizing antibody titers (p<0.05).

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Detection Rate of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus in Dairy Calves with Capture-ELISA (젖소송아지에서 ELISA를 이용한 소 바이러스성 설사병 바이러스 검출률)

  • Chon, Seung-Ki;Kim, Nam-Soo
    • Journal of Veterinary Clinics
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.169-171
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    • 2007
  • The aim of this study was to detect bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) from calves in Chonbuk province. Blood samples were taken from ninety-two dairy calves. Capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to detect BVDV. BVDV were detected in eight out of ninety-two (8.6%) dairy calves. BVDV were detected in one of twenty five of female calves and one of twenty three of male calves of 4 months old, whereas in the 5 months age group, BVDV were detected in low of twenty three of female calves and two of twenty one of male calves. There were no significant differences (p>0.05) in the detection rate of BVDV on the basis of sex. On the other hand, ages of calves had significant differences (p<0.05) on the prevalence of BVDV.

Growth, Blood Metabolites, and Health of Holstein Calves Fed Milk Replacer Containing Different Amounts of Energy and Protein

  • Lee, H.J.;Khan, M.A.;Lee, W.S.;Kim, H.S.;Ki, K.S.;Jang, S.J.;Hur, T.Y.;Khan, M.S.;Choi, Y.J.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.198-203
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    • 2008
  • This study was conducted to compare the effects of feeding high protein and low energy milk replacer (HPR; CP 25%, ME 3.6 Mcal/kg DM) with low protein and high energy milk replacer (HPR; CP 21%, ME 4.2 Mcal/kg DM) on feed consumption, body weight (BW) gain, health and selected blood metabolites in Holstein calves during the pre-weaning period. At each feeding, each milk replacer (MR) was prepared by mixing 0.125 kg of dry MR in 1L of warm ($60^{\circ}C$) water. The calves were fed either HPR (n = 10) or HER (n = 10) using mobile plastic bottles fitted with soft rubber nipples. All calves received 1.8L diluted MR at each feeding 3 times daily during the first 4 weeks of age; feeding frequency was reduced to 2 times daily for the next 2 weeks of age and then to once daily during the last week of the experiment. Jugular blood was sampled in calves at day 7, 14, 21, 35 and 49 of age to enumerate selected metabolites. Daily MR, starter and hay intake during the pre-weaning period were similar in calves fed HPR and HER. Consumption of starter, MGH and total DM steadily increased with the age of calves. Final BW, daily BW gain and feed efficiency of calves were not affected by treatments. Serum glucose, cholesterol, creatinine were decreased (p<0.05) and blood urea N was increased (p<0.05) in calves fed HER or HPR as they grew older. Serum glucose, total protein and albumin concentrations in calves were not affected by treatments. Serum GPT and GOT concentrations were higher (p<0.05) in calves on HPR than on HER. Scouring score, days scoured, respiratory score, rectal temperature and general appearance were similar in calves fed HPR and HER. Poor general appearance (dullness and droopy ears) of calves fed either HPR or HER reflected nutritional insufficiency and stress. In conclusion, energy and protein concentrations in MR did not affect feed intake and BW gain in Holstein calves during the pre-weaning period. Poor general appearance and lower BW gain of calves compared to those reported in the literature for milk fed calves prompt a demand for further research to improve the daily nutrient supply to MR-fed calves.

Effect of Arsenic on Immunity, Oxidative Enzyme and Various Hematological Parameters in Cross Bred Calves

  • Mishra, C.S.;Mani, Veena;Kaur, Harjit
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.497-501
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    • 2005
  • An experiment was conducted on crossbred male calves to study the effect of arsenic (As) on immunity status and certain hematological parameters. Ten crossbred male calves of 3-4 months of age were distributed into two equal groups. Group I was kept as control, whereas, group II was supplemented daily with 50 ppm As (as $As_sO_3$) up to 90 days, in the diet. Calves of both groups were fed as per ICAR standards and their requirements were fulfilled by feeding concentrate mixture and green oats. All calves were kept under similar managemental conditions. Blood samples were collected at fortnightly intervals to estimate various haematological parameters and superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzyme activity. Serum Ig and serum glutamic pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) were also measured. Cell-mediated immune responses of the calves were monitored at 0, 45 and 90 of experimental feeding, through lymphocyte proliferation. No change in blood total leukocyte counts (TLC), differential leukocyte counts (DLC), packed cell volume (PCV), haemoglobin (Hb) and SGPT was observed with As supplementation. A decrease in SOD activity was noticed in group II calves. Stimulation index (SI) for lymphocyte proliferation decreased from 1.14 to 0.79 in group II calves during 90 days experimental feeding, whereas, there was no change in SI values in group I indicating significant decrease in immune response of As supplemented calves. Blood As concentration increased in group II calves with the decrease in immune response. Short term supplementation of As to growing calves suggested suppressive effects on cell-mediated immunity. However, long term experiments are required to demonstrate clearly the efects of this toxic metal in calves.

Estimation of Inbreeding Levels and Its Effect on Growth Performances of Calves in Hanwoo and Chikso (Korea Brindle) Cattle Population

  • Park, Yong-Soo;Jeong, Dae-Jin;Choy, Yun-Ho;Choi, Tea-Jeong;Lee, Chang-Woo;Choi, Jae-Woun;Lee, Ji-Hong
    • Reproductive and Developmental Biology
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    • v.37 no.3
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    • pp.123-127
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    • 2013
  • The objective of this study was to compare the effects of the levels of inbreeding on body weight traits between two breed populations, Hanwoo and Korea Brindle cattle. Birth weight (BW), weaning weight (WW), body weight at 6 months of age (W6) and yearling weight (YW). Records of 1,745 calves (1,513 from Hanwoo, and 232 from Korea Brindle calves) were collected from Livestock Research Institutes in Kangwon, Gyeongbuk and Chungbuk provinces. The least squares means (LSM) and their standard errors for BW, WW, W6 and YW were $25.4{\pm}0.1$ kg, $81.0{\pm}1.8$ kg, $146.1{\pm}3.7$ kg and $291.5{\pm}2.4$ kg, respectively in Hanwoo calves and $22.6{\pm}0.3$ kg, $79.9{\pm}2.3$ kg, $137.6{\pm}4.6$ kg and $249.3{\pm}6.6$ kg, respectively in Korea Brindle calves. Pedigree data showed that 14.8% (316 out of 2131) of Hanwoo was inbred and the average inbreeding coefficient was 0.0209 (2.09%). Inbreeding coefficients of ten calves out of 316 total inbred Hanwoo calves were 12.5% or higher, whereas those of the other 306 calves were less than 12.5%. In both breeds, calves were divided into three groups of inbreeding classes - highly inbred group($F{\geq}0.125$), lowly to medially inbred group(0

EFFECT OF MILK YIELD ON GROWTH OF MULTIPLE CALVES IN JAPANESE BLACK CATTLE (WAGYU)

  • Shimada, K.;Izaike, Y.;Suzuki, O.;Kosugiyama, M.;Takenouchi, N.;Ohshima, K.;Takahashi, M.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.5 no.4
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    • pp.717-722
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    • 1992
  • An experiment was conducted to examine the feasibility of producing multiple calves using embryo transfer in Japanese Black cattle. Milk yield of cows and forage intake of calves were measured for 11 cows with single calves, 14 cows with twins and one cow with triplets. The means of 26 weeks cumulative milk yield were 854, 1028 and 1271 kg for cows having singles, twins and triplets, respectively. Male birth weights for single calves, twins and triplet were 34.9, 26.6 and 19.9 kg, and female ones were 31.7, 24.1 and 22.1 kg, respectively. Weight and daily gain of calves were affected by weeks (W), sex (S), the number of calves (N), parity, birth season, $W{\times}N$, $S{\times}N$ and regression on milk yield. Growth rate was higher for single calves than for twins until about 9 weeks of age, then weights increased at a similar rate. Male calf weaning weights for singles, twins and triplets were 207.0, 177.1 and 162.2 kg, and those for females were 185.4, 151.6 and 180.4 kg, respectively. Average regression coefficients of calf growth on milk yield were significant, and single calf was affected more than twin calves by increment of milk yield. As the number of calves per cow increased, hay intake of calves decreased and concentrate intake tended to increase between 6 and 13 weeks of age.

Effect of weaning age on growth performance, feed efficiency, nutrient digestibility and blood-biochemical parameters in Droughtmaster crossbred beef calves

  • Tao, Hui;Guo, Feng;Tu, Yan;Si, Bing-Wen;Xing, Yu-Chuan;Huang, De-Jun;Diao, Qi-Yu
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.31 no.6
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    • pp.864-872
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    • 2018
  • Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the effect of weaning age on intake, performance, nutrition metabolism and serum parameters of beef calves. Methods: Sixty Droughtmaster crossbred calves were assigned to 5 groups with 12 calves in each group. The calves in control group remained with the dams till the 22-week age, while the calves weaned at 28 d (4 wk), 42 d (6 wk), 56 d (8 wk), and 70 d (10 wk) of age were sent to group 4 wk, group 6 wk, group 8 wk, and group 10 wk, respectively, and then were fed on milk replacer till the 22-week age. Feed intake and body weight and size were record and blood metabolites were measured. And 24 calves of them (6 in each group) were picked randomly for digestion and metabolism trail. Feed, feces and urine sample were taken and measured. Results: Dry matter intake of calves in group 4 wk was significantly lower than those in the remaining groups from wk 17 to 22 (p<0.05). Feed efficiency of the calves was higher in groups 4 wk and 6 wk than those in groups 8 wk and 10 wk from 11 to 13 wk (p<0.05), and calves had higher feed efficiency in group 4 wk, group 6 wk, and group 8 wk than those in group 10 wk from wk 14 to wk 22. Calves in group 4 wk and 6 wk had lower body weight than group 8 wk and group 10 wk and control group at 10-week age (p<0.05) and 13-week age (p<0.05), and calves in group 6 wk had no significant difference in body weight with control group, group 8 wk and 10 wk (p>0.05) but was higher than that of group 4 wk (p<0.05). Calves in group 6 wk had higher final body weight and total gain than group 4 wk, but no difference of total gain with that of groups 8 wk, 10 wk, and control group. And weaning calves at 6-week age brought higher feed efficiency and average daily gain from wk 14 to wk 22, and higher dry matter and organic matter digestibility at 21 wk. Conclusion: It is concluded that the weaning of calves at 6 weeks of age gave positive results.