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Study on the Color Characteristics of Korean Red (한국산 적포도주의 색도 변화에 관한 연구 (II))

  • Lee, Jang-Eun;Shin, Yong-Sub;Sim, Jun-Ki;Kim, Sung-Soo;Koh, Kyung-Hee
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.34 no.2
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    • pp.164-169
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    • 2002
  • Five kinds of red wine from three different grape varieties, such as Gerbong (G), Campbell (C), Moru (M), Gerbong+Moru (70:30, GM), and Gerbong+Campbell(70:30, GC) were prepared in the year of 2000. The total phenolic content and color changes were monitored using hunter colorimeter and spectrophotometry methods during wine processing. The total phenolic content of Gerbong (G), Campbell (C), Moru (M), Gerbong+Moru(70:30, GM), and Gerbong+Campbell(70:30, GC) were 712.6 mg/L, 3472.9 mg/L, 2209.4 mg/L, 2019.4 mg/L, and 1184.5 mg/L, respectively. Between total phenolic content and hunter colorimeter value (L, a, and b) of red wine showed no significant difference, but that of spectrophotometry color value (hue and intensity) were significantly different (p<0.001). The total phenolic content, hue, and intensity values represented significantly different between grape varieties (p<0.01, p<0.001). the hue showed a negative correlation relationship $(r^2=0.8660,\;p<0.0001)$, and that of intensity was a positive $(r^2=0.8304,\;p<0.0001)$ between total phenolic contents. The total phenolic content of red wine could be estimated simply using these equations, $Y_{Total\;phenolic\;content\;(mg/L)}=3319.3-X_{Hue}/2208.36,\;and\;Y_{Total\;phenolic\;content\;(mg/L)}=1230.97-X_{intensity}/98.93$

Phonology and Minimum Temperature as Dual Determinants of Late Frost Risk at Vineyards (발아시기 정밀추정에 의한 포도 만상해 경보방법 개선)

  • Jung, Jea-Eun;Yun, Jin-I.
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.28-35
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    • 2006
  • An accurate prediction of budburst in grapevines is indispensable for vineyard frost warning system operations in spring because cold tolerance depends heavily on phonology. However, existing frost warning systems utilize only daily minimum temperature forecasts since there is no way to estimate the site-specific phonology of grapevines. A budburst estimation model based on thermal time was used to project budburst dates of two grapevine cultivars (Kyoho and Campbell Early), and advisories were issued depending on phonology as well as temperature. A 'warning' is issued if two conditions are met: the forecasted daily minimum temperature falls below $-1.5^{\circ}C$ and the estimated phonology is within the budburst period. A 'watch' is issued for a temperature range of -1.5 to $+1.5^{\circ}C$ with the same phonology condition. Validation experiments were done at 8 vineyards in Anseong in spring 2005, and the results showed a good agreement with the observations. This method was applied to the climatological normal year (1971-2000) to determine sites with high frost risk at a 30 m grid cell resolution. Among 608,585 grid cells constituting Anseong, 1,059 cells were identified as high risk for growing Kyoho and 2,788 cells for Campbell Early.

Correlation Analysis Between Fruit Quality of 'Campbell Early' Grapes and Climatic Factors (포도 '캠벨얼리' 품종의 과실품질과 기후요인과의 상관분석)

  • Kim, Seung-Heui;Choi, In-Myung;Cho, Jung-Gun;Han, Jeom-Haw;Hwang, Jeong-Hwan;Seo, Hyung-Ho;Yun, Hae-Keun
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.93-100
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    • 2011
  • The study was conducted to investigate the correlation analysis between fruit quality and climatic parameters in grapevines. 'Campbell Early', one of the major grape cultivars, occupies more than 70% of cultivated areas in Korea. Recent research results have shown that the movement of cultivation area of fruit production resulted from the temperature increase. In this study, we investigated the relationship between fruit quality and climatic conditions in 13 major 'Campbell Early' grape producing areas (i.e., Sacheon, Jinju, Naju, Dangjin, Cheonan, Gimcheon, Yeongdong, Okcheon, Sangju, Suwon, Yeongju, Gangneung, Chuncheon, and Yanggu). The earliest and latest full blooming days of grapevines were ovserved on May 25 in Sacheon area and on June 7 in Yanggu area, respectively. At least 90 days are required for grapes to mature enough for the production of highquality fruits. The southern areas with less than 90 days of maturity period had difficulty in the production of good fruit. However, the areas with longer maturity period of 100 to 110 days produced grapes with with high sugar content and good coloring. The fruit qualities of 'Campbell Early' grapes are more closely related with temperature than other climatic factors. High temperature resulted in fruits with high acidity and delayed the coloration of the fruit skin in the southern area. The fruit skin was thin in the southern area and inclined to be thicker in the northern areas. Therefore, grape should be cultivated in regions with long maturity period to have high quality.

Contribution of Soil Pysico-chemical Properties to Fruit Quality of 'Campbell Early' Grapes in the Vineyards (포도 '캠벨얼리' 품질에 미치는 토양이화학성의 상대적 기여도)

  • Kim, Seung-Heui;Choi, In-Myung;Yun, Seok-Kyu;Cho, Jung-Gun;Lim, Tae-Jun;Yun, Hae-Keun
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.42 no.3
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    • pp.187-191
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    • 2009
  • 'Campbell Early', a major grape cultivar, occupies more than 70% of cultivated vineyard areas, however, recommendable standard management system of soil environmental conditions has not been developed yet in Korea. The consideration for the correlation between fruit quality and soil condition in the vineyard is required in the efficient management system of soil. This study was carried out to investigate the optimum soil environmental conditions for 'Campbell Early' grape production with high quality. The results from analyses of correlation between them were used to develop soil management guideline for promoting efficiency in grape production. Soil properties were analyzed from 120 vineyards in Hawsung, Sangju, Yeongdong, Gimcheon, Yeongju, and Yeongwol, major grape production regions. Because there is neither coloring disorder nor delayed coloration in grape production of 'Campbell Early', relative contribution of soil hardness and solid phase to fruit quality and fruit weight was analyzed. Among the soil properties, while cation and soil hardness affected sugar content at the level of 39.3% and 36.8%, respectively, saturated hydraulic conductivity, solid phase, and cation exchange capacity (CEC) showed relatively low contribution to sugar content in the vineyard. The sugar content in grapes was influenced more critically by the chemical properties than the physical ones in the soil of vineyards. While soil hardness and solid phase affected grape weight at the level of 27.8% and 26.0%, respectively, phosphate content, organic matter content, and cation showed low contribution to grape weight. Grape guality such as sugar content and grape weight was affected highly by cation and organic matters. Therefore, cation and organic matter content of soil contributed to fruit quality at the level of 33.8% and 15.5%, respectively, in the vineyard.

Quality and Functional Properties of Juice from Different Grape Varieties as Functions of Heating Time and Temperature (열처리 조건에 따른 품종별 포도주스의 품질 및 기능특성)

  • Cabrera, Shirley G.;Jang, Ji-Hyun;Moon, Kwang-Deog
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.463-471
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    • 2009
  • We evaluated the physicochemical properties and sensory characteristics of, bioactive compounds in grape juice prepared from different grape varieties grown in Korea, such as Campbell Early, Steuben, and Muscat Bailey A (MBA), with respect to heating time (30, 45, or 60 min) and temperature ($60^{\circ}C$, $70^{\circ}C$, $80^{\circ}C$, or $90^{\circ}C$). We found that long heating time and high temperature, especially treatment at $90^{\circ}C$ for 60 min, significantly affected the physicochemical properties and bioactive compound levels of grape juice. Among the grape juice varieties, Campbell Early juice had the highest level of bioactive compounds. Sensory evaluation scores showed that heating of musts at $80^{\circ}C$ for 30 min was associated with the most preferred sensory attributes for Campbell Early grape juice, whereas the most preferred juices from Steuben and MBA grapes were from musts heated at $70^{\circ}C$ for 60 min and at $70^{\circ}C$ for 30 min, respectively. The bioactive compounds of juice from the three grape varieties were optimal using the above-mentioned processing times and temperatures.

Physiologically Active Components and Antioxidant Capacity of Grapevine Leaves at Growth Stages (생육단계별 포도 잎의 생리활성 성분 및 항산화능)

  • Kim, Jeong-Hyeon;Choi, Soo-Kyong;Yu, Yung-San;Yoon, Kwang-Seo;Seo, Jung-Sook
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.44 no.6
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    • pp.772-778
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    • 2012
  • This study was conducted to investigate physiologically active components and antioxidant capacity of grapevine leaves at growth stages. The leaves from two strains of grapevine, 'Campbell Early' and 'Rosario Bianco', were collected at five different growth stages (leafing, blossom, fruiting, coloring, and maturity). Total flavonoid content was higher in leafing stage than the other stages and gradually decreased during growing. Total phenol content was higher in 'Campbell Early' than in 'Rosario Bianco'. Hydroxyl radical scavenging ability increased in the leafing stage and decreased during growing. The electron donating ability was higher in 'Campbell Early' then 'Rosario Bianco' until blossom stage. Leaves from 'Campbell Early' showed higher total antioxidant capacity than those from 'Rosario Bianco'. According to the above results, grapevine leaves until the blossom stage would possess strong antioxidant activity by physiologically active components such as polyphenol compounds. Therefore, these results suggest that young grapevine leaves can be used as materials for the development of functional foods.

Physicochemical and Sensory Properties, and Bioactive Compounds of Blended Grape Juice from Different Grape Varieties (캠벨과 타품종 포도주스의 브렌딩에 의한 품질 및 기능특성)

  • Cabrera, Shirley G.;Jang, Ji-Hyun;Lee, Hyeon-Jeong;Moon, Kwang-Deog
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.15 no.6
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    • pp.783-790
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    • 2008
  • Campbell juice (25%, 50%, 70% and 90%) was blended with different concentrations (10%, 25%, 30% and 50%) of juice from a range of grape varieties including Kyoho, Steuben and MBA. The concentrations of Campbell and the grape variety juices influenced the physicochemical characteristics of the blended grape juice. As the concentration of Campbell juice increased, there was an increase in the mean content of bioactive compounds including total phenolics, anthocyanin and flavonoids, and the radical scavenging activity increased. The treatment containing 25% juice from the various grape varieties had the lowest level of bioactive compounds. A sensory evaluation showed there was no significant difference among the blended juice samples in terms of aroma. The sample comprising 50% Campbell + 50% Kyoho was the most acceptable in terms of taste and overall acceptability, while the sample comprising 90% Campbell + 10% MBA was the most acceptable in terms of color and aroma.

Properties of Wine from Domestic Grape, Vitis labrusca cultivar. Campbell's Early, Fermented by Carbonic Maceration Vinification Process (Carbonic maceration 발효 방법으로 제조된 국내산 포도, Vitis labrusca cultivar. Campbell's Early의 포도주 특성)

  • Park, Won-Mok;Park, Hyuk-Gu;Rhee, Sook-Jong;Kang, Kyung-Il;Lee, Cherl-Ho;Yoon, Kyung-Eun
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.36 no.5
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    • pp.773-778
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    • 2004
  • Properties of wine produced from domestic grape, cultivar Campbell's Early, by carbonic maceration vinification process (CM) were investigated. Process required whole grape clusters without crushing or destemming and no yeast inoculation for fermentation. Fermentation heat was not generated. Yield of wine was 77%, close to that obtained by conventional process, 76%. Acidities of CM wines, free run and pressed wines, and conventional wine were pH 3.6 and 3.3, respectively. Tartaric acid contents of conventional, free run, and pressed wines were 1,813, 4,691, and 5,633 ppm, while those of malic acid were 3,446, 2,077, and 2,275 ppm, respectively. CM could reduce malic acid content by 2/3 that of conventional process. Both processes gave almost equal amounts of citric and acetic acids. CM wines had intense grape aroma and deep purple-blue, natural grape color.

Effect of Harvest Time on the Several Phenolic Compounds and Fruit Quality of Grape Cultivars (수확 시기가 포도 과실품질 및 페놀계 화합물 함량에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Seok-Ho;Kim, Sun-Kook;Hong, Eui-Yon;Chun, Sung-Ho;Son, In-Chang;Kim, Dae-Il
    • Korean Journal of Plant Resources
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    • v.27 no.2
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    • pp.119-124
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    • 2014
  • This study was accomplished to investigate the effect of harvest time on the contents of polyphenolic compounds such as epicatechin, catechin, resveratrol and quercetin in grapes (Vitis spp.). The souble solids contents were increased with harvest time delay, while the titratable acidity continuously decreased in all cultivars. Brightness (L) was higher in 'Campbell Early' and 'Shigyoku', Hunter a value was high in 'Shigyoku' which was harvested later. Hunter b value seemed to be different in 'Shigyoku' depending on harvesting time. The contents of EC which was extracted 'Campbell Early, 'Shigyoku' and 'M.B.A' were higher late harvest time than early harvest time, reapectively, In 'Shigyoku which requires the direct light, the contents of EGC and EC showed distinct differences depending on harvesting time. The compositions of epicatechin were different depending on cultivars. The contents of catechin and resveratrol were higher in 'Campbell Early' and 'M.B.A' which were harvested later, but 'Shigyoku' which was harvested earlier. The contents of quercetin was higher in 'Campbell Early' which was harvested earlier, but 'Shigyoku' and 'M.B.A' which were harvested later. In comparison with 'Shigyoku' and 'M.B.A', catechin and resveratrol contents were seen to be higher in 'Campbell Early' irrespective of harvesting time.

Vine Growth and Fruit Characteristics of 'Jinok' and 'Campbell Early' Grape as Influenced by Cropping System (재배작형에 따른 포도 '진옥'과 '캠벨얼리'의 수체생육 및 과실 특성 분석)

  • Cheon, Mi Geon;Kim, Yeong Bong;Lee, Sun Yeong;Hong, Gwang Pyo;Jung, Sung Min;Kim, Jin Gook
    • Protected Horticulture and Plant Factory
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    • v.26 no.3
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    • pp.175-180
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    • 2017
  • This study was conducted for the domestic new cultivar to expand cultivation area and sustainable production. The new domestic cultivar, 'Jinok' and control cultivar, 'Campbell Early', had been investigated on vine growth and fruit quality by different cultivating conditions as open field, rain shelter and unheated plastic house. The growth period of 'Jinok' was faster than 'Campbell Early'. The harvesting date of 'Jinok' was on 13th of Aug. faster than 'Campbell Early' which was on 17th of Aug., and it was on 25th and 29th of Aug. for 'Jinok' and 'Campbell Early' on field cultivation, respectively. The growing length and width of new shoots were similar among the cropping systems. In the result of fruit characteristic evaluation, the soluble solids content of the 'Jinok' and 'Campbell Early' cultivating on the unheated plastic house were $15.4^{\circ}Brix$ and $15.9^{\circ}Brix$, respectively. In the open field condition, those were $15.9^{\circ}Brix$ and $15.8^{\circ}Brix$, respectively. The titratable acidity and chromaticity were similar among the treatments. In the appearance of past and disease, Phomopsis blight was occurred on mid of June and in the end of cultivation period on about early Aug., the damage by Phomopsis blight was the lowest about 14% in the unheated plastic house cultivation on the 'Jinok' cultivar and it was 39% in the open field condition. However, in the open filed cultivation for 'Campbell Early', Phomopsis blight was highly occurred about 49%. During this period, or the end of cultivation, it is necessary for the intensive control.