• Title, Summary, Keyword: canine heartworm(Dirofilaria immitis)

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A survey of canine heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) infections among Jindo dogs (진돗개의 심장사상충 감염률 조사)

  • Lee, Jeong-Chi
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Service
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    • v.36 no.4
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    • pp.327-332
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    • 2013
  • A survey of canine heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) infection among 102 Jindo dogs was performed from September to October 1995, using a microfilarial test (modified Knott's test) and an antigen test (DiroCHEK, Synbiotics, USA). The infection rate of 102 Jindo dogs was 1.9% (2/102) by the modified Knott's test, but was 4.9% (5/102) by the antigen test. This result revealed that the antigen test is more accurate than the microfilarial test. Also, 222 Jindo dogs (Male 61, Female 161) were examined for Dirofilaria immitis infection from 1995 to 1997 using an antigen test (DiroCHEK, Synbiotics, USA). Twelve (5.4%) Jindo dogs were positive for Dirofilaria immitis antigen. The infection rates were higher than in male (6.6%, 4/61) than female dogs (5.0%, 8/161). The infection rates of heartworm in Jindo dogs at the age of under 1 year, 1~2 years and over 2 years old were 0.0% (0/39), 4.3% (5/115) and 10.3% (7/68), respectively. The older age had higher infection rates than the younger age (P=0.018). The infection rates of canine heartworm was reported to be the highest (17.6%, P=0.028) in Jodo-myeon, 10.6% in Uisin-myeon and 5.3% in limhoe-myun. But dogs with antigenemia weren't detected in Gogun-myeon. and Jisan-myeon. This study indicates that the prevalence of canine heartworm in Jindo-gun is lower than previously reported (3.1% and 12.3%) which utilized microfilarial tests.

Investigation of Dirofilaria immitis infection in dogs of Incheon area

  • Kim, Kyoung-Ho;Lee, Yun-Mi;Oh, Seung-Tae;Jeong, Cheol;Han, Tea-Ho;Lee, Sung-Mo
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Service
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    • v.32 no.4
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    • pp.385-389
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    • 2009
  • This study was attempted to survey on the prevalence of canine heartworm infection (Dirofilaria immitis) in the Incheon area in 2006. This study showed comparative infection rates of canine heartworm in conjunction with different geographic locations and rearing environments (i.e., indoor, outdoor or free roaming). In total, 24 dogs (6.0%) were D. immitis positive among a total of 400 tested dogs. The geographic distribution of detection rates was Nam-gu (2 dogs, 6.7%), Yeonsu-gu (1 dog, 3.0%), Namdonggu (5 dogs, 8.0%), Pupyoung-gu (4 dogs, 6.7%), Kanghwa-gun (8 dogs, 13.0%), and Onjin-gun (4 dogs, 11.1%). In addition, 4 dogs (2.0%) or 20 dogs (10.0%) were positive for D. immitis among 202 indoor dogs or 198 outdoor dogs including free roaming dogs, respectively, while 13 dogs (11.7%) were positive for D. immitis among 111 outdoor dogs excluding free roaming dogs. In the case of 87 free roaming dogs, 7 dogs (8.1%) among them were positive for D. immitis.

Prevalence of canine heartworm infection among dogs in Kwangju and Chonnam area (광주와 전남지역 사육견의 개심장사상충(Dirofilaria immitis) 감염률 조사)

  • 정대영;김희정;이태욱;김내영;이정치;신성식
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Service
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.47-53
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    • 1997
  • We have investigated the prevalence of canine heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) infection among 100 mixed-breed dogs raised in Chonnam Province (Koheung, Posung, Changheung, and Hwasoon) and 100 dogs randomly selected from visiting dogs to the College of Veterinary Medicine, Chonnam National University for routine physical examination. Blood samples taken from dogs were examined for the presence of Dirofilaria immitis microfilaria by the modified Knott's test, and an antigen test which was based on the sandwich ELISA(DiroCHEK(equation omitted), Synbiotics, Inc., San Diego, California, USA) was used to detect the adult heartworm-specific antigen from serum samples. The results were then compared with those of the modified Knott's test. Five(2.5%) of the 200 examined dogs were microfilaria-positive, while 8 dogs(4%) were anti-gen-positive, which suggested that the antigen test was more sensitive than the microfilarial test in detecting heartworm infection. All dogs that were microfilaria-positive were also antigen-positive. The place of origin of the heartworm-positive dogs were of Naju (4/26, 15.4%), Koheung(3/32, 9.4%), and Hwasoon (1/19, 5.3%), while none of dogs raised in Kwangju, Posung, and Changheung areas were infected with the parasite. Although not significant, more infected dogs were observed in older ages, while the difference in infection rate between male (4/98, 4.1%) and female (4/102, 3.9%) was not recognized. Our results indicated that a relatively low infection rate was observed in dogs raised in Kwangju and Chonnam area compared to the infection rate reported previously in other areas of South Korea.

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A survey on the infection rate of Dirofilaria immitis of dogs in Daegu area (대구지역 개의 심장사상충 감염실태)

  • Lim, Hyun-Sook;Cho, Yoo-Joung;Suh, Dong-Kyun;Song, Dong-Jun;Lee, Chun-Sik;Bae, Young-Chan
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Service
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    • v.26 no.2
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    • pp.129-134
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    • 2003
  • A survey of canine heartworm(Dirofilaria immitis) infections among dogs in Daefu area was performed from February 2000 to October 2002 using a microfilarial test and an antigen test(AGEN$^{TM}$ Canine heartworm). The infection rate of 220 dogs(96 males, 124 females) was 23.2%(51/22) by the microfilarial test, but was 23.6%(52/220) by the antigen test, revealing that 1 of 52 antigen-positive dogs were microfilaria-negative in the peripheral blood. All dogs that were microgilaria-positive were also antigen-positive. The infection rates of heartworm in dogs at the age of < 1, 1-3, 4-6, 7-11 and 12-15 years were 2.7%, 17.4%, 41.0%, 42.9% and 57.1%, respectively. Based on the fact that the antigen test is more accurate than the microfilaria test. The infection rates of heartworm in dogs by housing of indoor and outdoor were 6.9% and 46.4%, respectively. Based on the fact that outdoor housing is more infectious than indoor housing.

Epidemiological survey on prevalence of Dirofilaria immitis infection in dogs of Ulsan area (울산지역 개의 심장사상충 감염에 관한 조사)

  • Park, Chang-Eun
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Service
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    • v.33 no.2
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    • pp.157-165
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    • 2010
  • A survey of canine heartworm infections among 83 dogs (Male 42, Female 41) of pet dogs in Ulsan area was performed from March to July 2009 using antigen test. Of 83 dogs, 6 dogs (7.2%) were infected with the Dirofilaria immitis, and 5 dogs (6%) were detected to have microfilaria in the peripheral blood. The infection according to the age of 4~5, 6~7, 7 over years were 7.4%, 12.5%, and 10.5%, Also, A survey of canine heartworm infections among 23 dogs (Male 15, Female 8) of hunting dogs in Ulsan area was performed from July 2008 using antigen test. Of 23 dogs, 11 dogs (47.8%) were infected with the D. immitis, and 6 dogs (26.1%) were detected to have microfilaria in the peripheral blood. The infection according to the age of under 1, 2-3, 4-5, 6-7 over years were 12.5%, 40%, 85.7% and 66.7%, respectively.

Studies on antigenicity and production of monoclonal antibody for diagnosis of canine heartworm(Dirofilaria immitis) (개 심장사상충(Dirofilaria immitis) 진단을 위한 항원성 조사 및 단크론항체 생산)

  • Lee, Cheol-soon;Jee, Cha-ho
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.40 no.1
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    • pp.130-137
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    • 2000
  • In order to diagnose canine heartworm infection by antigen capture ELISA, the crude somatic(S), partial somatic(below 45kDa) and excretory/secretory(E/S) antigen of adult heartworm were identified and the antigenicity was examined by silver stain, immunoblot and ELISA. Then, production of monoclonal antibody to specific antigen carried out in this experiment. The bands to S antigen and E/S antigen were recognized between 10 and 200kDa and common bands were recognized strongly 14, 18, 28, 43kDa by silver stain. By western blot analysis, fractions to S antigen were recognized 14, 16, 18, 20, 24, 28, 32, 43, 50, 55kDa, etc. and only a 14kDa to E/S antigen in positive sera which were positive in modified Knott's test and necropsy. In ELISA, the positive sera reacted to antigens(SA, $SA_{45}$, E/S) were significantly different from negative sera by Student's t-test(p<0.05). Four hybridoma cell lines(14, 16, 17, 32kDa) than produce specific monoclonal antibodies for these antigens were obtained by immunizing BALB/c mice with a partially purified somatic antigen (below 45kDa) preparation, by fusing spleen cells with SP2/O cell myeloma cells, and by screening cell culture supernatants for antibody. In these results, it was confirmed that partial somatic antigen(below 45kDa) or E/S antigen can be used for serologic diagnosis of heartworm infection and monoclonal antibody reacting with specific antigen(14kDa) can be used for antigen capture ELISA in prepatent period of canine heartworm infection.

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Prevalence of Heartworm disease in Dogs of Daejeon Area (대전지역 사육견의 심장사상충 감염실태 조사)

  • 장승익;송운재;하숙희;이상준;정년기;문병천
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Service
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    • v.27 no.2
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    • pp.133-137
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    • 2004
  • This study was attempted to survey on the prevalence of canine heartworm(Dirofilaria immitis) infections among 206 dogs (male 92, female 114) in Daejeon area from March to December 2003. Blood samples taken from dogs were examined for the presence of D immitis microfilaria by the modified Knott's test and an antigen test( $AGEN^{TM}$ canine heartworm). The result obtained from this experiment were summarized as follows; 1. Eighteen(8.7%) of the 206 examined dogs were microfilaria positive, while twenty five dogs(12.1%) were antigen test positive. 2. The infection rates of heartworm in dogs at the age of <2, 2∼4 and $\geq$5 were 3.8%, 18% and 25%, respectively. 3. The infection rates of heartworm in dogs by housing of indoor and outdoor were 3.3% and 36.4%, respectively. 4. The regional infection rates were Dong-gu(13/29, 44.8%), Seo-gu(7/92, 7.6%), Yuseong-gu(2/33, 6.1%), Jung-gu(1/17, 5.9%) and Daedeok-gu(2/35, 5.7%). 5. The seasonal infection rates were summer(June∼August, 16.7%), autumn (September∼October, 14%), spring(March∼May, 9.4%) and winter(November∼December. 7.7%).7.7%).

Studies on infection rate and histopathological findings of canine heartworms in Inchon city (인천 지역 사육견의 심장사상충 감염률 및 병리조직학적 연구)

  • 이성모;황현순;김종훈
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Service
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.25-35
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    • 1999
  • The prevalence of canine heartworm(Dirofilaria immitis) infection in 150 mixed-breed dogs(male : 54, female : 96) from February to December 1997 was investigated by using antigen test kit(ICT $GOLD^{TM}$ HW, Synbiotics, USA) based on immunochromatographic assay in Inchon city. Also, gross and histopathological findings of an antigen positive dog were carried out. The results were summarized as follows ; 1. Four dogs were positive from 150 tested dogs(2.7%). They were all more than 2 years old and infection rates in male and outdoor dogs was higher than those in female and indoor, respectively. Species of infected dogs were Pug(2) , German Sheperd(1) and Great-dane (1). 2. Regional infection rates were closely related with housing system in the city. 3. Pathological findings of antigen-positive dog was excessive enlargement, congestion and hemorrhage of lung and D immitis in heart and histologically hemosiderin, hypertrophy of pulmonary alveoli wall and irregular hypertrophy of pulmonary artery inner wall. Microfilaria was observed in pulmonary artery and arteriole, ventricle and splenic artery.

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Radiographic diagnosis of canine heartworm disease without clinical signs (임상증세를 보이지 않는 개심장사상충증의 방사선학적 소견)

  • Shin, Sung-shik;Seo, Young-woo;Kwon, Jung-kee;Kim, Sang-ki;Kim, Jong-taek
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.41 no.2
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    • pp.233-241
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    • 2001
  • Dirofilaria immitis, the causative agent of canine heartworm disease, inhabits mainly in the pulmonary arteries and the heart of dogs and cats, causing circulatory and respiratory disorders. Although diagnosis of the disease is based on the presence of microfilaria in the peripheral blood or of specific antigens released from the adult worms into the peripheral blood, the severity of the infection and the assessment of disease progression are based on the clinical signs and radiographic image analysis. We analysed 12 mixed-bred Jindo dogs naturally infected with Dirofilaria immitis without any clinical signs and compared the radiographic images of the heart and the lung with the number of adult worms at necropsy. The dorsoventral radiographs of 12 infected dogs revealed that the right caudal lobar pulmonary arteries (RCaLPA) were dialated in 66.7% of dogs, whereas the main pulmonary artery segment was enlarged in 50.3% of dogs. The cranial lobar pulmonary arteries (RCrLPA) were dilated or pruned in 33.3% of dogs. All dogs displayed the interstitial lung pattern, while the vertebral heart size (VHS) was of normal range. Although a range of 9 to 166 adult worms (av. 45.6) was found in the pulmonary arteries, in the heart or in the vena cava, no correlation with the radiographic findings and/or with the clinical signs was observed.

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