• Title, Summary, Keyword: carbofuran

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Effect of Phenobarbital Sodium and 3-Methylcholanthrene on Metabolism of 14C-carbofuran in Rat (쥐에서 Phenobarbital Sodium 및 3-Methylcholanthrene이 14C-carbofuran의 대사에 미치는 영향)

  • Rim, Yo-Sup;Han, Seong-Soo
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.57-68
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    • 2002
  • In order to elucidate the effect of phenobarbital sodium (PB) and 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC) on metabolism of insecticide carbofuran in rat. Carbofuran metabolites and its formation rates were determined when orally administered $^{14}C$-carbofuran alone and its combination with PB or 3-MC to rat. $^{14}C$-carbofuran administered orally, alone or in combination with PB or 3-MC, was secreted rapidly within 48 hrs. That is, 79.9 to 81.1% of the original radioactivity was secreted into the urine and 5.7 to 6.5% into the feces. The secretion rate was faster in the combined administration than that in carbofuran alone. Metabolites of carbofuran in main organs, urine, feces and blood of rat were largely 3-hydroxycarbofuran, 3-ketocarbofuran, 3-hydroxycarbofuran phenol, 3-ketocarbofuran phenol, and carbofuran phenol, the major ones being 3-hydroxycarbofuran and 3-ketocarbofuran, respectively, in all administrations of carbofuran alone, carbofuran+PB and carbofuran+3-MC. In addition, formation rate of the two major metabolites detected in the urine was 17.4% and 12.8%, respectively, when carbofuran alone was administered. Meanwhile, when carbofuran was administered with PB or 3-MC, they were 8.6% and 23.5, repectively. These results indicate that the oral administration of PB or 3-MC can reduce carbofuran toxicity by fastening and stimulating the carbofuran metabolism in rat.

Release of Carbofuran from Granular Formulations in Water and Its Degradation Patterns in Soils (Carbofuran 입제(粒劑)의 수중용출(수중용출)과 토양중(土壤中) 분해특성(分解特性))

  • Hong, Moo-Ki;Hong, Jong-Uck
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.3 no.2
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    • pp.9-15
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    • 1984
  • Experiments were carried out with purified technical grade and two types of impregnated and sand-coated granules of carbofuran, in order to investigate the release patterns in water and the persistence of this chemical in soils. The results obtained are summarized as follows: 1) As regards to release velocity in water, impregnated granule was found to be faster than sand-coated granule. The time to reach maximum concentrations of carbofuran in water from technical carbofuran, impregnated granule and sand-coated granule was 0.5, 3 and 5 days, respectively. 2) Degradation rate of carbofuran in soils decreased in the order of technical carbofuran, impregnated granule, sand-coated granule regardless of soil types and application rates. Degradation of carbofuran in flooded soil was faster than in non-flooded soil. Soil flooding appeared to be the main factor in promoting the degradation of carbofuran in the soil. 3) When carbofuran was fortified in soils in the form of technical carbofuran, impregnated granule or sand-coated granule, the persistencies of two terminal residues of carbofuran, that is, 3-hydroxy carbofuran and 3-keto carbofuran decreased in the order of sand-coated granule, impregnated granule and technical form.

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Textural Changes in Rat Tissues by Carbofuran and Its Suppression by Phenobarbital Sodium and 3-Methylcholanthrene (Carbofuran이 쥐의 조직에 미치는 형태적 변화와 Phenobarbital Sodium 및 3- Methylcholanthrene에 의한 억제효과)

  • Rim, Yo-Sup;Han, Seong-Soo
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.61-66
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    • 1997
  • This study was carried out to investigate the toxicological effects of carbofuran on the histological and fine structures in the kidney, liver, and brain of rat and also to clarify compensatory effects of phenobarbital sodium (PB) and 3-methylcholanthrene(3-MC) on the carbofuran toxicity. SPF albino rats were treated with carbofuran(3.8mg/kg), PB(60mg/kg), 3-MC(60mg/kg), carbofuran+PB, carbofuran+3-MC and subjected to the light microscopic study. In the kidney of rat, hemorrhage and extremely atropic change of renal corpuscles were frequently observed at 48 hrs after carbofuran treatment. Combination treatment groups of carbofuran and PB or 3-MC showed atrophic changes were largely recovered at 6 hrs, and the tissue findings of the kidney became similar to those of control group at 48 hrs after treatment. In the liver of rat treated only carbofuran, the degenerative and necrotic changes of hepatic lobules were frequently observed at 48 hrs after carbofuran treatment. Combination treatment of carbofuran and PB or 3-MC showed the hepatic lobules were similar to those of control groups at 6 hrs after the combination treatment. In the brain of rat treated with carbofuran alone, degenerative changes and dilation of capillary vessel of cerebral cortexes were observed at 48hrs after treatment. Combination treatment of carbofuran and PB or carbofuran and 3-MC showed the cerebral cortexes were similar to those of control groups at 6 hrs after the treatment. These results suggest that PB and 3-MC could regenerate the toxicity of carbofuran to the tissue of kidney, liver and brain of rat.

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Residue analysis of the systemic insecticide carbofuran in some crops and its safety evaluation (몇가지 작물중 침투성 살충제 carbofuran의 잔류 및 안전성 평가)

  • Lee, Jae-Koo;Choi, Sin-Jong;Kyung, Kee-Sung;Ahn, Ki-Chang;Kwon, Jeong-Wook
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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    • v.3 no.2
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    • pp.37-46
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    • 1999
  • In order to ascertain the safety of the systemic insecticide carbofuran-treated crops, samples of garlic, peanut and potato were collected randomly from markets located in the main producing areas and analyzed for the residue of carbofuran and its main metabolite, 3-hydroxycarbofuran. The in vitro metabolism of carbofuran in phosphate buffer extracts of the crops was investigated. Two (M-12 and M-16) out of 20 mature garlic samples contained 0.13 and 0.07 mg/kg of carbohran, respectively, showing a detection incidence of 10%. The residue levels were less than the maximum residue limit (0.5 ppm) set by Korean Food and Drug Administration. Only one sample of mature garlic (M-12) out of 20 contained 0.13 mg/kg of 3-hydroxycarbofuran. The residues of carbofuran and 3-hydroxycarbofuran in the immature garlic, peanut and potato samples were less than the detection limits, 0.02 mg/kg for carbofuran and 0.06 mg/kg for 3-hydroxycarbofuran. The application of carbofuran to the fields of garlic, peanut and potato would be safe, considering that the estimated maximum acceptable daily intake of carbofuran from garlic was 0.0013 mg which is 0.24% of the maximum acceptable daily intake (0.55 mg). Carbofuran was hydrolyzed in vitro mainly to carbofuran phenol (m/z 164) in the respective phosphate buffer extracts of the three crops in contrast to the major oxidative metabolism in situ. The amount of the metabolite increased with the incubation time.

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Evolution of Carbofuran in Soils Treated with Its Aminothio Derivatives, Carbosulfan, Furathiocarb and Benfuracarb (Carbosulfan, Furathiocarb 및 Benfuracarb 처리토양중 Carbofuran 방출특성)

  • Lee, Young-Deuk;Choi, Ju-Hyeon
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.179-185
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    • 1995
  • Three aminothio derivatives of carbofuran including carbosulfan, furathiocarb and benfuracarb were subjected to the degradation study in soils to investigate how fast and efficiently carbofuran would be evolved from them. Carbofuran was rapidly released from the derivatives in soils as the carbamoyl nitrogen-sulfur bond cleaved. Their degradation rates in soils, with half-lives of $23{\sim}68$ hours, were largely affected by structures of aminothio moieties and soil moisture conditions. Conversion rates into carbofuran ranged from 64 to 84% in soils on the basis of parent compounds 5 days after treatment. Application of aminothio derivatives led to less drastic increase in the carbofuran level in soils than when carbofuran was applied as such, and hence this might result in lower side effects in situ.

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Effects of Carbofuran and Compensation of Phenobarbital sodium in the NIH 3T3 Fibroblast and Rat Kidney (Carbofuran이 NIH 3T3섬유모세포와 흰쥐의 신장에 미치는 영향과 Phenobarbital sodium의 보상효과에 관한 연구)

  • 한두석;임요섭;한성수
    • Toxicological Research
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    • v.13 no.1_2
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    • pp.87-94
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    • 1997
  • This study was carried out to investigate toxicity of insecticide carbofuran and compensatory effects of phenobarbital sodium (PB) in vivo and in vitro. Sprague Dawley male rats were used as experimental animals and divided into carbofuran only administered group and simultaneous application group of carbofuran and PB. At 30 rain and 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48 and 96 hrs after each treatment, the animals were sacrificed by decapitation. Kidney were immediately removed, immersed in fixatives, and processed with routine method for light microscopic study. Paraffin sections were stained with H-E, PAM and PAS. $5.0\times 10^4$ cell/ml of NIH 3T3 fibroblast in each well of 24 multidish were cultured: After 24 hours, the cells were treated with solution of six groups; control group cultured in media only, carbofuran $MTT_50$ or $NR_50$ group cultured in the media containing carbofuran $MTT_50$ or $NR_50$ and four experimental groups cultured in the media containing carbofuran $NR_50$ plus various concentratins of PB. After the NIH 3T3 fibroblast of all groups were cultured in same condition for 48 hours, Tetrazolium MTT (MTT) and NR (neutral red) assay were performed to evaluate the cytotoxicity of cell organelles. Under the light microscope, atrophic change of renal corpuscles were frequently observed in 1 and 2 days after carbofuran treatment. The increase of the mesangium was apparent in 1 and 2 days after carbofuran treatment. Necrotic changes of the epithelium and loss of brush border of proximal tubules were most severe at 2 and 3 days after carbofuran treatment, respectively. In contrast, there were no evidences of the toxic effects on renal tissues at 48hrs in carbofuran-PB treated groups. Carbofuran $MTT_50$ and $NR_50$ were 78$\mu M$, 82.5$\mu M$ respectively. MTT and NR quantities were significantly increased in carbofuran-PB 100$\mu M$ treatment group and carbofuran-PB 100$\mu M$ treatment group. On the basis of these results, it is obvious that PB has compensatory effects against carbofuran toxicity.

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Effect of Insecticide Carbofuran and Phenobarbital Sodium and 3-Methylcholanthrene on Activity of Enzyme in Israeli Carp(Cyprinus israeli carpio L.) (살충제 Carbofuran과 Phenobarbital Sodium 및 3-Methylcholanthrene이 이스라엘 잉어의 효소활성에 미치는 영향)

  • Rim, Yo-Sup;Jeong, Jae-Hun;Han, Seong-Soo
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.39 no.1
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    • pp.77-83
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    • 1996
  • Effects of insecticide carbofuran and Phenobarbital sodium(PB) or 3-methylcholanthrene(3-MC) on activities of several enzymes in israeli carps were investigated. Survival number of Israeli carp was the same as that of control when PB and 3-MC only was treated, individually and that was low compared to control when carbofuran only was treated. But survival rate of Israeli carp was high compared to individual treatment of carbofuran when combination treatment of carbofuran and PB or 3-MC was carried out. These results indicate that PB and 3-MC can intervene to detoxify carbofuran exposed to israeli carp. In in vivo test for the effect of this chemicals on activity of enzyme in israeli carp, activities of acetylcholinesterase(AChE) and glutathione S-transferase(GST) were inhibited in carbofuran treatment, but did not in combination treatment of carbofuran and P3 or 3-MC. Activities of UDP-glucuronosyltransfe-rase (UDPGT) and cytochrome P-450-dependent monooxygenase increased in individual or combined treatments of carbofuran and PB or 3-MC. These results suggest that a simultaneous application of carbofuran and PB or 3-MC is critical for the enhancement of activity of AChE, GST, UDPGT and monooxygenase and the protection of Israeli carp from carbofuran toxicity.

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Effect of Insecticide Carbofuran and Phenobarbital Sodium and 3-Methylcholanthrene on Activity of Enzyme in Rat (살충제 Carbofuran과 Phenobarbital Sodium 및 3-Methylcholanthrene이 쥐의 효소활성에 미치는 영향)

  • Rim, Yo-Sup;Han, Seong-Soo
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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    • v.3 no.3
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    • pp.27-36
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    • 1999
  • Effect of insecticide carbofuran and phenobarbital sodium(PB) or 3-methylcholanthrene(3-MC), they were orally administered by the chemicals, alone or in combination, on activities of several enzymes in rats were investigated. In in vivo test for the effect of this chemicals on activity of enzyme in rat, activities of acetylcholinesterase(AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase(BuCheE) were inhibited by $20{\sim}70%$ for 48 hrs after the oral administration of carbofuran alone of 3.8mg/kg, whereas those were lowered at the beginning, but recovered to the control level after 24 hrs, in case of the mixed administration of carbofuran+PB or carbofuran+3-MC. The activity of glutathione S-transferase(GST) was inhibited by more than 15 to 35% for an early period of 0.5 to 6 hrs, in the case of the administration of carbofuran alone, whereas that was slightly inhibited at the beginning, recovered almost to the control level after 3 hrs, and raised by mere than 20% above the control after 6 hrs, in case of the mixed administration of carbofuran+PB or carbofuran+3-MC. When carbofuran was administered alorig with PB or 3-MC, the activities of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase(UDPGT) and cytochrome P-450 were more than 2.6 to 2.8 times higher than that in the case of the administration of carbofuran alone for 6 hrs. These results suggest that a simultaneous application of carbofuran and PB or 3-MC is critical for the enhancentment of activity of GST, UDPGT and cytochrome P450 and the protection of rat from carbofuran toxicity.

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Degradation Patterns of BPMC and Carbofuran in Flooded Soils (담수토양(湛水土壤)중 BPMC 및 Carbofuran의 분해특성(分解特性))

  • Park, Chang-Kyu;Je, Yeon-Tae
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.2 no.2
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    • pp.65-72
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    • 1983
  • The effects of soil factors, pesticide application levels and environmental factors on the degradation of two carbamate insecticides, BPMC and carbofuran, in soil were studied under flooded and non-flooded conditions. The degradation patterns of BPMC or carbofuran were similar in flooded and non-flooded soils. It was also found that carbofuran was more persistent than BPMC in the test soil. Regards to organic contents of soils, high contents of organic matter reduced degradation of either BPMC or carbofuran and high soil pH accelerated degradation of both insecticides. Soil microorganisms seem to play an important role in the degradation of BPMC and carbofuran. Both chemical and biological degradations appear to contribute transformation of BPMC and carbofuran in the flooded soil.

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carbofuran Induces Cardiovascular Dysfunction in Rat (휜쥐의 심혈관 기능에 대한 carbofuran독성작용)

  • 정이숙;이수환;백은주;문창규;문창현
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
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    • v.45 no.6
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    • pp.739-745
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    • 2001
  • Of all pesticides, carbamates are known to be most common, since alternatives such as organophosphates have long lifetime and are extremely toxic to produce a delayed neurotoxic effect. Although a number of studies about toxicity of carbofuran, a most widely used carbamate, have been reported, its cardiovascular toxicity has not yet been studied. In the present study, we investigated its cardiovascular toxic effect in anesthetized rat in vivo and in isolated Langendorff rat heart, In anesthetized rat model, carbofuran (10 mg/kg) significantly reduced heart rate, and transiently increased blood pressure. In isolated rat heart, carbofuran (10${\mu}{\textrm}{m}$) caused a significant depression in the left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP), indicating contractile dysfunction by carbofuran. Carbofuran (10${\mu}{\textrm}{m}$) also decreased coronary flow rate (CFR) in isolated heart, indicating carbofuran-induced coronary dysfunction. These results suggest that carbofuran can cause cardiac dysfunction in rat in vivo and vitro.

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