• Title, Summary, Keyword: carbon tetrachloride

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Effect of Codonopsis lanceolata Water Extract on the Activities of Antioxidative Enzymes in Carbon Tetrachloride Treated Rats (더덕 물추출물이 사염화탄소를 투여한 흰쥐의 항산화계 효소활성도에 미치는 영향)

  • 조수열;한은경
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.26 no.6
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    • pp.1181-1186
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    • 1997
  • This study was performed to investigate the effects of Codonopsis lanceolata extract on the activities of antioxidative enzymes in carbon tetrachloride treated rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed until they reached about 110$\pm$10g body weight. Thereafter they were divided into normal group(N), carbon tetrachloride treated group(T), carbon tetrachloride and Codonopsis lanceolata water extract treated group(TW). Normal group were fed standard diet and carbon tetrachloride treated group were fed carbon tetrachloride once a week at the level of 0.12ml/100g body weight. Carbon tetrachloride and Codonopsis lanceolata water extract treated group were fed carbon tetrachloride once a week at the level of 0.12ml/100g body weight and Codonopsis lanceolata water extract at the level of 0.1ml/100g body weight once a day. The rats were sacrificed after 6weeks of feeding period. Content of hepatic cytochrome P-450 diminished by carbon tetrachloride was significantly increased by Codonopsis lanceolata water extract. Significant decrease in hepatic xanthine oxidase activity was found in rats treated with Codonopsis lanceolata water extract. The activity of superoxide dismutase was decreased by carbon tetrachloride, but it was significantly increased by Codonopsis lanceolata water exract. The activity of glutathione peroxidase increased by carbon tetrachloride was significantly decreased by Codonopsis lanceolata water extract. The activities of catalase and glutathione S-transferase were significantly influenced by Codonopsis lanceolata water extract. Contents of glutathione and lipid peroxide were increased by carbon tetrachloride, but they were significantly diminished by Codonopsis lanceolata water extract.

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Pharmacokinetics of Paclitaxel in Rabbits with Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Hepatic Failure

  • Choi, Jun-Shik
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
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    • v.25 no.6
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    • pp.973-977
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    • 2002
  • The pharmacokinetic of paclitaxel (1 mg/kg, i.v.) was investigated in rabbits with carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic failure. The area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) of paclitaxel was significantly (p<0.01) increased in severe carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic failure rabbits ($1364.54{\pm}382.07$ ng/ml$\cdot$hr) compared to that of normal rabbits ($567.52{\pm}141.88$ ng/ml$\cdot$hr), but not significantly in moderate carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic failure rabbits ($803.1{\pm}208.81$ ng/ml$\cdot$hr). The volume of distribution (Vd) (6.25$\pm$1.56 L) and the elimination rate constant($\beta$) ($0.09{\pm}0.025{\;}hr^{-1}$) of paclitaxel in severe carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic failure rabbits were significantly (p<0.05) decreased compared to those of normal rabbits ($11.65<{\pm}2.91$L, $0.12{\pm}0.030{\;}hr^{-1}$), but not significantly in moderate carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic failure rabbits ($9.46{\pm}2.37$ L, $0.10{\pm}0.026{\;}hr^{-1}$). Total body clearance ($CL_t$) of paclitaxel in severe carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic failure rabbits ($0.733{\pm}0.183$ L/hr/kg) was significantly (p<0.01) decreased compared to that of normal rabbits ($1.762{\pm}0.440$ L/hr/kg), but not significantly in moderate carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic failure rabbits ($1.245{\pm}0.311$ L/hr/kg). The half-life(t1/2) of paclitaxel in severe carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic failure rabbits ($7.71{\pm}2.16$ hr) was significantly (p<0.05) increased compared to that of normal rabbits ($5.75{\pm}1.44$hr), but not significantly in moderate carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic failure rabbits ($6.77{\pm}1.76$hr). This results could be due to inhibition of paclitaxel metabolism in liver disorder rabbits since paclitaxel is essentially metabolized in liver. The findings suggest that the dosage regimen of paclitaxel should be adjusted when the drug would be administered in patients with liver disorder in a clinical situation.

A Study on Breakthrough of Respirator Cartridge Using Multi-Organic Vapor Mixtures (복합유기용제에 노출된 호흡보호구용 정화통의 파과에 관한 연구)

  • Chung, Hai-Dong;Paik, Nam Won
    • Journal of Korean Society of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
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    • v.6 no.1
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    • pp.55-66
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    • 1996
  • This study was conducted to evaluate breakthrough characteristics of respirator cartridge using multi-organic vapors, including carbon tetrachloride, trichloroethylene, and toluene. The organic vapors were used as single phase, binary system, and ternary system. The results are summarized as follows. 1. Organic vapors studied were 1,000 ppm, 750 ppm, 500 ppm and 250 ppm in single phase. Carbon tetrachloride having the highest molecular weight showed the breakthrough first, and breakthrough sequency by organic vapor was dependent on its molecular weight. The 10% breakthrough times at 1,000 ppm of organic vapor were 97 minutes for carbon tetrachloride, 129 minutes for trichloroethylene and 135 minutes for toluene. 2. When concentrations of organic vapors were at levels of the Threshold Limit Values, the lives of the respirator cartridges were 122 hours in carbon tetrachloride, 18 hours in trichloroethylene and 28 hours in toluene. 3. In the binary system at a total concentration of 1,000 ppm with carbon tetrachloride and trichloroethylene, breakthrough times ranged from 104 minutes to 125 minutes, which were longer than 97 minutes in a single phase (1,000 ppm) for carbon tetrachloride, but shorter than breakthrough times for TCE and Toluene. 4. Breakthrough times in the binary system with carbon tetrachloride and toluene were 131~132 minutes. 5. Breakthrough times in the ternary system with carbon tetrachloride, toluene, and trichloroethyl ene were $120{\pm}8$ minutes, which were longer than 97 minutes in the single phase (1,000 ppm) for carbon tetrachloride, equal to 129 minutes for trichloroethylene, and shorter than 135 minutes for toluene. Those were almost similar to $124{\pm}9$ minutes of breakthrough times in the binary systems.

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The Effect of Dimethyl-esculetin on the Serum Transaminase Activity of Rabbit Pretreated with Carbon-tetrachloride (Dimethyl-esculetin이 Carbon-tetrachloride 부하가토혈청 Transaminase 활성도에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Ton-Il
    • Korean Journal of Pharmacognosy
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    • v.1 no.4
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    • pp.115-118
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    • 1970
  • Antihepatotoxic effect of dimethyl-esculetin, the major constituent of herbal drug Artemisia capillaris $T_{HUNBERG}$ (Compositae) which has long been used as folk medicine for gall stone and hepatitis in Asian country (China and Japan, except Korea) was investigated on the rabbit intoxicated with carbon-tetrachloride. Ten rabbits were divided into two parts, group A and B in five each. The group A was injected with carbon-tetrachloride, 0.1ml per kg at begining of the experiments for control. The group B was injected with carbon-tetrachloride soon after 7 days treatment of dimethyl-esculetin, 30mg per day. The results obtained in this experiment were as follows.: 1) Antihepatotoxic activity of dimethyl esuletin on the rabbits intoxicated with carbon tetrachloride has shown the serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase activity and serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase activity decreased respectively. 2) The component of Artemisia capillaris, dimethyl-esculetin, has shown remarkable antihepatotoxic effect.

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Studies on Telomerization (I) Telomerization of Vinyl Acetate with Chlorinated Hydrocarbons (Telomerization 에 關한 硏究 (I) Vinyl Acetate 와 Chlorinated Hydrocarbons 과의 Telomerization 에 關하여)

  • Shim, Jyong-Sup;Hong, Suck-Joo
    • Journal of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.6 no.1
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    • pp.88-93
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    • 1962
  • The telomerization of vinyl acetate with carbon tetrachloride, chloroform and monochlorobenzene were investigated with respect to the synthesis of those telomers, properties and molecular weights of the formed telomers, and reaction mechanisms. Vinyl acetate reacted with carbon tetrachloride and chloroform to form telomers at 70-90$^{\circ}C$ and 60-70$^{\circ}C$, respectively and it formed polymer with monochlorobenzene. As a chain transfer agent, carbon tetrachloride was more effective than chloroform. In the telomerization of vinyl acetate and carbon tetrachloride: 1) The average molecular weight of the telomer decreased as the mole ratio of carbon tetrachloride to vinyl acetate increased. The optimum conditions for the highest yield of the telomer were as follows: Mole ratio of carbon tetrachloride to vinyl acetate : 2.5 Reaction time : 20 hours. 2) As the reaction proceeded, the refractive index and average molecular weight of the telomer increased rapidly in the first 10 hours but the increase was slow through the next 10 hours, so that, the average recurring number(n) of taxogen in the final product reached an almost definite value, i.e., 3. The telomer formed in the telomerization of vinyl acetate with carbon tetrachloride and chloroform turned to brown color in the air due to decomposition or polymerization. The suggested telomerization mechanism was supported by the hexachloroethane detected in the course of reaction.

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The Effect of Betaine on the $CCI_4$-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats (사염화탄소에 의하여 유발된 흰쥐의 간 독성에 미치는 비테인의 효과)

  • Kim, Sun-Yeou;Kim, Hong-Pyo;Lee, Mi-Kyeong;Byun, Soon-Jeong;Kim, Seung-Hee;Moon, Aree;Han, Hyung-Mi;Huh, Hoon;Kim, Young-Choong
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
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    • v.37 no.5
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    • pp.538-543
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    • 1993
  • Effects of betaine, a major component of Lycii Fructus, on carbon tetrachloride intoxicated rats were evaluated. Histological studies showed that betaine had improved the typical necrosis around centrilobular area in liver tissue due to the carbon tetrachloride intoxication. Betaine, whether it was administrated simultaneously or prior to carbon tetrachloride, prevented or retarded the elevation of liver-weight/body-weight ratio due to the carbon tetrachloride intoxication. Betaine also significantly elevated the reduced activities of some enzymes, cytochrome P-450, 7-ethoxycoumarin-0-deethylase and glutathione-S-transferase, involved in xenobiotic metabolism due to carbon tetrachloride intoxication. These results demonstrate a possible hepato-protective role of betaine against fatty liver that could be easily induced by carbon tetrachloride in rat.

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Effects of Protaetia Orientalis (Gory et Perchlon) Larva on the Lipid Metabolism in Carbon Tetrachloride Administered Rats (굼벵이가 사염화탄소를 투여한 흰쥐의 지질대사에 미치는 영향)

  • Kang, Il-Jun;Chung, Cha-Kwon;Kim, Soo-Jin;Nam, Sang-Myung;Oh, Sung-Hoon
    • Applied Microscopy
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    • v.31 no.1
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    • pp.9-18
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    • 2001
  • This study was designed to determine the effects of Protaetia Orientalis larva (Gory et Perchlon) on the in vivo lipid metabolism in Sprague Dawley rats with the administration of carbon tetrachloride to induce damage in the liver. At the end of 8th week, serum levels of GOP and GPT, hepatic cholesterol levels, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides and phospholipids were determined. In addition, activities of antioxidative enzymes were also determined. The administration of carbon tetrachloride resulted in increase of serum GOT and GPT, liver triglyceride and total cholesterol. On the other hand, those fed in combination with carbon tetrachloride and Protaetia Orientalis larva decreased those lipid parameters . Carbon tetrachloride feeding resulted in decrease of liver phospholipid, whereas that of the rat fed in combination with carbon tetrachloride and Protaetia Orientalis larva was increased. In antioxidative defense system, carbon tetrachloride led to a significant decrease in activities of catalase, total SOD, Cu, Zn-SOD and glutathione-S-transferase. However, those activities of the rat fed in combination with carbon tetrachloride and Protaetia Orientalis larva was significantly increased. Hepatocytes of carbon tetrachloride administered rats showed increased lipid droplets and micro-filaments. However, those of the rat fed in combination with carbon tetrachloride and Protaetia Orientalis larva were reduced in the number and the size.

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The Protective Effects of Garlic against Carbon tetrachloride-induced Hepatotoxicity (마늘에 의한 사염화탄소 간독성의 보호 효과)

  • Lee, Jong-Moon;Park, Jung-Duck;Hong, Yeon-Pyo;Choi, Byung-Sun
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.35 no.3
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    • pp.221-228
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    • 2002
  • Objectives : The purpose of this study was to find the protective effects of garlic on the halogenated hydrocarbon induced hepatotoxicities, and the possible protection mechanisms involved. Methods : Male Sprague-Dawley rats received garlic (0.5%) or regular diet, for 4 weeks. This was followed by a single dose of corn oil (the controls), carbon tetrachloride (400mg/kg body weight) and trichloroethylene (2,000mg/kg body weight) being administered to each diet group. Blood samples were collected 24 hours fellowing the administration, and the serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALD activities measured. The liver samples were studied for their cytochrome P450 and CYP2E1 contents, lipid peroxidation and histopathology. Results : rho results for the group receiving the 9.5% garlic diet showed a slight decrease of CYP2E1 expression compared with the regular diet group. Carbon tetrachloride was significantly decreased the CYP2E1 contents in both the regular and garlic diet groups, but the trichloroethylene remained unchanged. Garlic did not decrease the lipid peroxidation of the liver in the control group, but attenuated the increase of lipid peroxidation caused by carbon tetrachloride. Garlic attenuated the increase of both the serum AST and ALT activities caused by carbon tetrachloride. The histopathelogical observations also showed that garlic attenuated centrilobular necrosis and vacuolar degenerative changes significantly in the carbon tetrachloride treated group. Conclusions : The results indicate that garlic attenuates the carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity, through the prevention of the metabolic activation and lipid peroxidation.

Effect of Carbon Tetrachloride Administration on the Serum and Liver Xanthine Oxidase Activity in Ethanol-Pretreated Rats (Ethanol을 전처리한 흰쥐의 간 및 혈청 Xanthine Oxidase 활성에 미치는 사염화탄소의 영향)

  • 윤종국;김병렬;이상일
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.69-77
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    • 1993
  • In the present study, the comparison of liver damage in carbon tetrachloride (CCl$_4$)-treated rats with that those pretreated with ethanol and an effect of liver injury on the serum and liver xanthine oxidase (XOD) activity were evaluated. The increasing rate of liver weight per body wt., the levels of serum alanine aminotransferase, and the decreasing rate of hepatic glucose-6-phosphatase activity and the protein contents in the liver cell were higher in carbon tetrachloride-treated animals pretreated with ethanol than the carbon tetrachloride-treated group. Especially, the histopathological findings also showed more severe liver damage in the ethanol-pretreated rats than the rats treated with carbon tetrachloride only. In such a experimental condition the xanthine oxidase activity of serum and liver both of carbon tetrachloride-treated rats and those pretreated with ethanol were higher than that of each control group. And the increasing rate of xanthine oxidase enzyme activity to the control group was higher in carbon tetrachloride-treated group pretreated with ethanol than those treated with CCl$_4$. In addition, the heptic uricase activity and the serum levels of uric acid were more increased in carbon tetrachloride-treated group pretreated with ethanol than those in the CCl$_4$-treated rats. On the other hand, there were no statistical differences in hepatic catalase and glutathione S-transferase activities between the CCl$_4$-treated rats and those pretreated with ethanol. In conclusion, it is assumed that the more severe liver damage in ethanol pretreated rats would be due to oxygen free radical produced by the xanthine oxidase system.

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The Effects of Pretreatment with Carbon Tetrachloride on the Absorption and Excretion of Sulfisoxazole (사염화탄소(四鹽化炭素) 간장장해(肝臟障害) 동물(動物)에서의 Sulfisoxazole의 흡수(吸收)와 배설(排泄)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究))

  • Choi, Jun-Shik
    • Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation
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    • v.6 no.2
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    • pp.88-94
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    • 1976
  • This paper attempted to investigate the effect of pretreatment with carbon tetrachloride on absorption, excretion, protein binding, and biological half-life of sulfisoxazol from rats and rabbits. Absorption of sulfisoxazol was found to decrease in severe damage rats, compared with that of normal rats, but in mild rats, absorption of sulfisoxazol was similar to that of nomal rats. Absorption of sulfisoxazol was decreased significantly in severe damage rabbit pretreated with carbon tetrachloride but in mild damage rabbit, absorption of sulfisoxazol was not influenced significantly. Pretreatment with carbon tetrachloride gave the effect on clearance of sulfisoxazol in part but protein binding percent of sulfisoxazol was not influenced by concentration of carbon tetrachloride.

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