• Title, Summary, Keyword: carbonic maceration

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Study on the Deacidification of Wine Made from Campbell Early (Campbell Early를 이용하여 만든 포도주의 산도 감소에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Ju-Kyung;Kim, Jae-Sik
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.38 no.3
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    • pp.408-413
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    • 2006
  • The domestic grape cultivar Campbell Early has high levels of both malic acid and tartaric acid. Therefore, the processing of wine made from Campbell Early must include decreasing the acidity. Six different methods were tested for reducing excess acidity: traditional vinification, precipitation, cold stabilization, malolactic fermentation (MLF), carbonic maceration and cold fermentation. Wines had higher pH values and lower total acidity than control after all the processing methods except cold stabilization. With regard to the measured organic acid content, the control contained 2,927 ppm tartaric acid, 2,421 ppm malic acid and 486 ppm lactic acid, but the precipitated wine contained 2,346 ppm tartaric acid. The MLF wine contained 828 ppm malic acid and 2,394 ppm lactic acid. Wine after carbonic maceration contained 792 ppm malic acid and cold fermentation decreased the organic acid contents in general. Sensory analysis showed that the carbonic maceration and precipitation methods resulted in wines that were excellent in color, flavor, taste and overall preference.

Deacidification Effect of Campbell Early Must through Carbonic-Maceration Treatment: Isolation and Properties of the Bacteria Associated with Deacidification (Carbonic Maceration처리에 의한 Campbell Early 발효액의 감산 효과: 감산 관련 미생물의 분리 및 특성)

  • Chang, Eun-Ha;Jeong, Seok-Tae;Jeong, Sung-Min;Lim, Byung-Sun;Noh, Jung-Ho;Park, Kyo-Sun;Park, Seo-Jun;Choi, Jong-Uck
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.18 no.6
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    • pp.973-979
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    • 2011
  • The grape cultivar Campbell Early has high levels of malic acid as well as tartaric acid. The high concentration of total acid in the Campbell Early wine is a critical aspect of the wine's sensory characteristics. To prevent the deterioration of the wine's quality, which is caused by the strong sour taste derived from the raw material in wine making, the deacidification factor was investigated via carbonic maceration under different temperature conditions, especially in the presence or absence of malolactic bacteria. Based on the results of the presence test of the malolactic bacteria during carbonic-maceration treatment, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Streptococcus thermophilus were characterized morphologically and were identified via biochemical tests and 16S-rRNA-gene-sequencing analysis. The isolated strains were found not to consume malic acid and to produce lactic acid. Moreover, these strains were consumed as soluble solids. The isolated strains are popularly known as lactic-acid bacteria and should have produced lactic acid from glucose. The Oenococcus oeni of the malolactic bacteria was not isolated. These results showed that the isolated strains are not deacidified during carbonic-maceration treatment.

Deacidification Effect of Campbell Early Must via Carbonic Maceration : Effect of Enzyme Activity Associated with Malic-Acid Metabolism (Carbonic Maceration처리에 의한 Campbell Early 발효액의 감산 효과: 사과산 대사 관련 효소활성의 영향)

  • Chang, Eun-Ha;Jeong, Seok-Tae;Jeong, Sung-Min;Roh, Jeong-Ho;Park, Kyo-Sun;Park, Seo-Jun;Choi, Jong-Uck
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.18 no.5
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    • pp.795-802
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    • 2011
  • To determine the deacidification factor during carbonic maceration (CM), different temperature conditions were studied. The pH was higher in CM-$35^{\circ}C$ and CM-$25^{\circ}C$ and was lower in CM-$45^{\circ}C$. The total acid was inversely related to the pH. The malic-acid level decreased much more in CM-$35^{\circ}C$ than in CM-$45^{\circ}C$ while the lactic-acid level increased much more in CM-$35^{\circ}C$. The activity of the NADP-malic enzyme, which catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of L-malate into pyruvate, $CO_2$, and NADPH, was higher in CM-$25^{\circ}C$ and CM-$35^{\circ}C$ while CM-$45^{\circ}C$ showed no NADP-malic enzyme activity. The malic-dehydrogenase (MDH) activity was higher in CM-$25^{\circ}C$ and CM-$35^{\circ}C$ while CM-$45^{\circ}C$ showed no MDH activity. The oxalacetate decarboxylase activity was similar to the NADP-malic-enzyme and MDH activities. Pyruvate decarboxylase activity was shown in all the CM treatments. The L-lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) activity was not explored in the fermentation of pyruvate to lactate via LDH in the grapes during CM. In this study, it was confirmed that carbonic maceration reduced the malic acid during fermentation and was affected by the temperature. Moreover, it was assumed that the deacidification during the carbonic maceration of the grapes was probably correlated with the degradation enzyme activity of malic acid.

Properties of Wine from Domestic Grape, Vitis labrusca cultivar. Campbell's Early, Fermented by Carbonic Maceration Vinification Process (Carbonic maceration 발효 방법으로 제조된 국내산 포도, Vitis labrusca cultivar. Campbell's Early의 포도주 특성)

  • Park, Won-Mok;Park, Hyuk-Gu;Rhee, Sook-Jong;Kang, Kyung-Il;Lee, Cherl-Ho;Yoon, Kyung-Eun
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.36 no.5
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    • pp.773-778
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    • 2004
  • Properties of wine produced from domestic grape, cultivar Campbell's Early, by carbonic maceration vinification process (CM) were investigated. Process required whole grape clusters without crushing or destemming and no yeast inoculation for fermentation. Fermentation heat was not generated. Yield of wine was 77%, close to that obtained by conventional process, 76%. Acidities of CM wines, free run and pressed wines, and conventional wine were pH 3.6 and 3.3, respectively. Tartaric acid contents of conventional, free run, and pressed wines were 1,813, 4,691, and 5,633 ppm, while those of malic acid were 3,446, 2,077, and 2,275 ppm, respectively. CM could reduce malic acid content by 2/3 that of conventional process. Both processes gave almost equal amounts of citric and acetic acids. CM wines had intense grape aroma and deep purple-blue, natural grape color.

Enological Characteristics of Campbell Early Grape Must Studied Using Various Carbonic Maceration Temperatures (Carbonic Maceration 처리온도에 따른 캠벨얼리 발효액의 양조특성)

  • Chang, Eun-Ha;Jeong, Seok-Tae;Roh, Jeong-Ho;Jeong, Sung-Min;Park, Seo-Jun;Lee, Han-Chan;Choi, Jong-Uck
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.17 no.6
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    • pp.881-888
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    • 2010
  • We investigated the influence of carbonic maceration (CM) at different temperatures on the enological characteristics of Campbell Early grape must. Total acid levels decreased after 5 d, as CM temperature increased. All of pH; redness; and total anthocyanin, polyphenol, and tannin concentrations increased as CM temperature increased. Malic acid concentration fell at high CM temperatures, but lactic acid level increased under such conditions. Polyphenol levels and antioxidant activity were higher when CM was conducted at $35^{\circ}C$ than at other temperatures. The results show that the temperature of CM treatment greatly influences wine quality factors such as color, taste, and antioxidant capacity.

Effect on Wine Quality of Pre-treatment of Grapes prior to Alcohol Fermentation (포도주 품질에 미치는 알코올 발효전 포도 전처리 효과)

  • Chang, Eun-Ha;Jeong, Seok-Tae;Roh, Jeong-Ho;Yun, Hae-Keun;Park, Kyo-Sun;Choi, Jong-Uck
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.15 no.6
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    • pp.824-831
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    • 2008
  • This study was conducted to determine the influence of heating and carbonic maceration (CM) pre-treatments prior to alcohol fermentation on wine quality from the main Korean grape variety, Campbell Early. Wine fermented with CM treatment had lower total acidity than control and heated wines. Wine fermented with heat treatment contained higher concentrations of anthocyanin and tannin than control wines, while CM-treated wine had the lowest concentrations. The red coloration of the wine was highly correlated with the polyphenol content, as a high content of anthocyanin and tannin resulted in increased red color intensity. The significant differences found in wine quality as a consequence of the use of pre-treatment techniques (heating and CM treatments) suggest their potential application in wine making.