• Title, Summary, Keyword: carcinogenesis

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Dietary Fats and Cancer (식이 지방과 암)

  • Choe, Myeon
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.20 no.5
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    • pp.513-518
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    • 1991
  • Evidence from recent studies in several laboratories indicates a relationship between type or level of fat in the diet and occurance of tumor at specific sites. The essential fatty acids in fat and degree of their unsaturation are important to determine the influence of a dietary fats on carcinogenesis. Alteration of dietary fat can also change carcinogenesis of cell in several tissues. Dietary fats appear to be important in both initiation and promotion stages of carcinogenesis. Several possible mechanisms have been investigated how dietary fat could affect to carcinogenesis at cellular level. One potential mechanism of dietary fat on carcinogenesis is through modulation of protein kinase C activity in the cell.

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Amelioration of 1,2 Dimethylhydrazine (DMH) Induced Colon Oxidative Stress, Inflammation and Tumor Promotion Response by Tannic Acid in Wistar Rats

  • Hamiza, Oday O.;Rehman, Muneeb U.;Tahir, Mir;Khan, Rehan;Khan, Abdul Quaiyoom;Lateef, Abdul;Ali, Farrah;Sultana, Sarwat
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.9
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    • pp.4393-4402
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    • 2012
  • Colon cancer is the third most common malignant neoplasm in the world and it remains an important cause of death, especially in western countries. The toxic environmental pollutant, 1, 2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH), is also a colon-specific carcinogen. Tannic acid (TA) is reported to be effective against various types of chemically induced toxicity and also carcinogenesis. In the present study, we evaluated the chemopreventive efficacy of TA against DMH induced colon toxicity in a rat model. Efficacy of TA against the colon toxicity was evaluated in terms of biochemical estimation of antioxidant enzyme activities, lipid peroxidation, histopathological changes and expression of early molecular markers of inflammation and tumor promotion. DMH treatment induced oxidative stress enzymes (p<0.001) and an early inflammatory and tumor promotion response in the colons of Wistar rats. TA treatment prevented deteriorative effects induced by DMH through a protective mechanism that involved reduction of oxidative stress as well as COX-2, i-NOS, PCNA protein expression levels and TNF-${\alpha}$ (p<0.001) release. It could be concluded from our results that TA markedly protects against chemically induced colon toxicity and acts plausibly by virtue of its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative activities.

Serum Amyloid A is a Novel Prognostic Biomarker in Hepatocellular Carcinoma

  • Ni, Xiao-Chun;Yi, Yong;Fu, Yi-Peng;He, Hong-Wei;Cai, Xiao-Yan;Wang, Jia-Xing;Zhou, Jian;Fan, Jia;Qiu, Shuang-Jian
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.24
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    • pp.10713-10718
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    • 2015
  • Purpose: To investigate the prognostic value of serum amyloid A (SAA) in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) undergoing surgery. Materials and Methods: Preoperative serum samples of 328 patients with HCC who underwent curative resection and of 47 patients with benign liver lesion were assayed. Serum levels of SAA were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and its correlations with clinicopathological characteristics and survival were explored. Results: Levels of SAA were significantly higher in patients with HCC than those with benign liver lesion. There were strong correlations between preoperative serum SAA level and tumor size and more advanced BCLC stage. On univariate analysis, elevated SAA was associated with reduced disease-free survival and overall survival (p=0.001 and 0.03, respectively). Multivariate analyses showed that serum SAA level was an independent prognostic factor for overall survival (hazard ratio 2.80, p=0.01). Conclusions: High SAA serum level is a novel biomarker for the prognosis of HCC patients.

Prognostic Significance of Hes-1, a Downstream Target of Notch Signaling in Hepatocellular Carcinoma

  • Zou, Jing-Huai;Xue, Tong-Chun;Sun, Chun;Li, Yan;Liu, Bin-Bin;Sun, Rui-Xia;Chen, Jie;Ren, Zheng-Gang;Ye, Sheng-Long
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.9
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    • pp.3811-3816
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    • 2015
  • Background: Hairy and enhancer of split 1 (Hes-1) protein is a downstream target of Notch signaling and is a basic helix-loop-helix transcriptional repressor. However, definitive evidence for a role in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells has not been reported. Here, Hes-1 was revealed to an important component of the Notch signaling cascade in HCC cell lines possessing different potential for lung metastasis. Materials and Methods: RNAi mediated by plasmid constructs was used to analyze the role of Hes-1 in MHCC-97L HCC cells by assessing proliferation, apoptosis, cell migration and matrigel invasion following transfection. Hes-1 protein expression analysis in HCC tissue was also conducted by immunohistochemistry. Results: Our studies revealed that Hes-1 was decreased in HCC cell lines with higher lung metastasis potential at both the mRNA and protein levels. Down-regulation of the Hes-1 gene in MHCC-97L cells resulted in increased cell proliferation, reduced apoptosis and increased migration and invasion. Conclusions: Hes-1 has potential prognostic value in post-surgical HCC patients and may be an independent prognostic indicator for overall survival and tumor recurrence. These findings have important implications for understanding the mechanisms by which Hes-1 participates in tumor proliferation and invasion.

Expression Patterns of Cancer Stem Cell Markers During Specific Celecoxib Therapy in Multistep Rat Colon Carcinogenesis Bioassays

  • Salim, Elsayed I;Hegazi, Mona M;Kang, Jin Seok;Helmy, Hager M
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.1023-1035
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    • 2016
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of colon cancer stem cells (CSCs) during chemically-induced rat multi-step colon carcinogenesis with or without the treatment with a specific cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor drug (celecoxib). Two experiments were performed, the first, a short term 12 week colon carcinogenesis bioassay in which only surrogate markers for colon cancer, aberrant crypt foci (ACF) lesions, were formed. The other experiment was a medium term colon cancer rat assay in which tumors had developed after 32 weeks. Treatment with celecoxib lowered the numbers of ACF, as well as the tumor volumes and multiplicities after 32 weeks. Immunohistochemical proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) labeling indexes LI (%) were downregulated after treatment by celecoxib. Also different cell surface antigens known to associate with CSCs such as the epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM), CD44 and CD133 were compared between the two experiments and showed differential expression patterns depending on the stage of carcinogenesis and treatment with celecoxib. Flow cytometric analysis demonstrated that the numbers of CD133 cells were increased in the colonic epithelium after 12 weeks while those of CD44 but not CD133 cells were increased after 32 weeks. Moreover, aldehyde dehydrogenase-1 activity levels in the colonic epithelium (a known CSC marker) detected by ELISA assay were found down-regulated after 12 weeks, but were up-regulated after 32 weeks. The data have also shown that the protective effect of celecoxib on these specific markers and populations of CSCs and on other molecular processes such as apoptosis targeted by this drug may vary depending on the genetic and phenotypic stages of carcinogenesis. Therefore, uncovering these distinction roles of CSCs during different phases of carcinogenesis and during specific treatment could be useful for targeted therapy.

Neutrophil Count and the Inflammation-based Glasgow Prognostic Score Predict Survival in Patients with Advanced Gastric Cancer Receiving First-line Chemotherapy

  • Li, Qing-Qing;Lu, Zhi-Hao;Yang, Li;Lu, Ming;Zhang, Xiao-Tian;Li, Jian;Zhou, Jun;Wang, Xi-Cheng;Gong, Ji-Fang;Gao, Jing;Li, Jie;Li, Yan;Shen, Lin
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.945-950
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    • 2014
  • Purpose: To explore the value of systemic inflammatory markers as independent prognostic factors and the extent these markers improve prognostic classification for patients with inoperable advanced or metastatic gastric cancer (GC) receiving palliative chemotherapy. Methods: We studied the prognostic value of systemic inflammatory factors such as circulating white blood cell count and its components as well as that combined to form inflammation-based prognostic scores (Glasgow Prognostic Score (GPS), Neutrophil-Lymphocyte Ratio (NLR), Platelet Lymphocyte Ratio (PLR), Prognostic Index (PI) and Prognostic Nutritional Index (PNI)) in 384 patients with inoperable advanced or metastatic gastric cancer (GC) receiving first-line chemotherapy. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to examine the impact of inflammatory markers on overall survival (OS). Results: Univariate analysis revealed that an elevated white blood cell, neutrophil and/or platelet count, a decreased lymphocyte count, a low serum albumin concentration, and high CRP concentration, as well as elevated NLR/PLR, GPS, PI, PNI were significant predictors of shorter OS. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that only elevated neutrophil count (HR 3.696, p=0.003) and higher GPS (HR 1.621, p=0.01) were independent predictors of poor OS. Conclusion: This study demonstrated elevated pretreatment neutrophil count and high GPS to be independent predictors of shorter OS in inoperable advanced or metastatic GC patients treated with first-line chemotherapy. Upon validation of these data in independent studies, stratification of patients using these markers in future clinical trials is recommended.

Weight Loss Correlates with Macrophage Inhibitory Cytokine-1 Expression and Might Influence Outcome in Patients with Advanced Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  • Lu, Zhi-Hao;Yang, Li;Yu, Jing-Wei;Lu, Ming;Li, Jian;Zhou, Jun;Wang, Xi-Cheng;Gong, Ji-Fang;Gao, Jing;Zhang, Xiao-Tian;Li, Jie;Li, Yan;Shen, Lin
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.15
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    • pp.6047-6052
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    • 2014
  • Background: Weight loss during chemotherapy has not been exclusively investigated. Macrophage inhibitory cytokine-1 (MIC-1) might play a role in its etiology. Here, we investigated the prognostic value of weight loss before chemotherapy and its relationship with MIC-1 concentration and its occurrence during chemotherapy in patients with advanced esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Materials and Methods: We analyzed 157 inoperable locally advanced or metastatic ESCC patients receiving first-line chemotherapy. Serum MIC-1 concentrations were assessed before chemotherapy. Patients were assigned into two groups according to their weight loss before or during chemotherapy:>5% weight loss group and ${\leq}5%$ weight loss group. Results: Patients with weight loss>5% before chemotherapy had shorter progression-free survival period (5.8 months vs. 8.7 months; p=0.027) and overall survival (10.8 months vs. 20.0 months; p=0.010). Patients with weight loss >5% during chemotherapy tended to have shorter progression-free survival (6.0 months vs. 8.1 months; p=0.062) and overall survival (8.6 months vs. 18.0 months; p=0.022), and if weight loss was reversed during chemotherapy, survival rates improved. Furthermore, serum MIC-1 concentration was closely related to weight loss before chemotherapy (p=0.001) Conclusions: Weight loss both before and during chemotherapy predicted poor outcome in advanced ESCC patients, and MIC-1 might be involved in the development of weight loss in such patients.

Combined Expression of Metastasis Related Markers Naa10p, SNCG and PRL-3 and its Prognostic Value in Breast Cancer Patients

  • Min, Li;Ma, Ruo-Lan;Yuan, Hua;Liu, Cai-Yun;Dong, Bing;Zhang, Cheng;Zeng, Yan;Wang, Li;Guo, Jian-Ping;Qu, Li-Ke;Shou, Cheng-Chao
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.7
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    • pp.2819-2826
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    • 2015
  • Combinations of multiple biomarkers representing distinct aspects of metastasis may have better prognostic value for breast cancer patients, especially those in late stages. In this study, we evaluated the protein levels of N-${\alpha}$-acetyltransferase 10 protein (Naa10p), synuclein-${\gamma}$ (SNCG), and phosphatase of regenerating liver-3 (PRL-3) in 365 patients with breast cancer by immunohistochemistry. Distinct prognostic subgroups of breast cancer were identified by combination of the three biomarkers. The Naa10p+SNCG-PRL-3-subgroup showed best prognosis with a median distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) of 140 months, while the Naa10p-SNCG+PRL-3+subgroup had the worst prognosis with a median DMFS of 60.5 months. Multivariate analysis indicated Naa10p, SNCG, PRL-3, and the TNM classification were all independent prognostic factors for both DMFS and overall survival (OS). The three biomarker combination of Naa10p, SNCG and PRL-3 performed better in patients with lymph node metastasis, especially those with more advanced tumors than other subgroups. In conclusion, the combined expression profile of Naa10p, SNCG and PRL-3, alone or in combination with the TNM classification system, may provide a precise estimate of prognosis of breast cancer patients.

Effects of Buthus martensi Karsch on tumor promotion in two-stage carcinogenesis in mice (전갈(全蝎)이 노화(老化)에 따른 2단계(段階) 발암화(發癌化) 과정(過程)에 미치는 영향(影響))

  • Jeong, In-Chae;Jeong, Ji-Cheon;Yoon, Cheol-Ho
    • The Journal of Internal Korean Medicine
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.251-257
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    • 2000
  • To clarifiy the activating effects of Buthus martensi Karsch(BMK) on tumor promotion in two-stage carcinogenesis in mice was investigated. In vivo system, BMK was seen to gave an inhibitory activity on TPA-induced mouse ear edema. In addition, the BMK was proved to have antitumor-promoting activity in two-stage mouse skin carcinogenesis induced by DMBA and two-stage mouse lung carcinogenesis induced by 4-NQO as a initiator plus TPA and glycerol as a promoter. Moreover, BMK significantly exhibited an cytolytic effect in HepG2 cells and showed significant antitumor activity against Sarcoma-180 bearing mice by oral administration. These results suggest that BMK could be effective in adjuvant chemotherapy for human cancer.

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Effect of Natural Compounds on Catechol Estrogen-Induced Carcinogenesis

  • Sung, Nam-Ji;Park, Sin-Aye
    • Biomedical Science Letters
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    • v.25 no.1
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    • pp.1-6
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    • 2019
  • The hydroxylation of estradiol results in the formation of catechol estrogens such as 2-hydroxyestradiol ($2-OHE_2$) and 4-hydroxyestradiol ($4-OHE_2$). These catechol estrogens are further oxidized to quinone metabolites by peroxidases or cytochrome P450 (CYP450) enzymes. Catechol estrogens contribute to hormone-induced carcinogenesis by generating DNA adducts or reactive oxygen species (ROS). Interestingly, many of the natural products found in living organisms have been reported to show protective effects against carcinogenesis induced by catechol estrogens. Although some compounds have been reported to increase the activity of catechol estrogens via oxidation to quinone metabolites, many natural products decreased the activity of catechol estrogens by inhibiting DNA adduct formation, ROS production, or oxidative cell damage. Here we focus specifically on the chemopreventive effects of these natural compounds against carcinogenesis induced by catechol estrogens.