• Title, Summary, Keyword: carnosine

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Effects of Carnosine Supplementation on Carnosine Concentrations in Muscles and Blood Biochemical Indices of Rats

  • Yi, Hae-Chang;Kim, Mi-Young;Choi, Chang-Sun;Kim, Young-Nam;Han, Chan-Kyu;Lee, Bog-Hieu
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.32 no.5
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    • pp.584-590
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    • 2012
  • This study evaluated the effects of carnosine supplementation on carnosine concentration in muscles and blood biochemical indices of rats. Thirty-two eight-week-old Sprague-Dawley male rats were randomly divided into a control group (CON) as well as three carnosine-treated groups. The carnosine-treated groups included groups fed diets composed of 0.01% carnosine (LC), 0.1% carnosine (MC), and 1.0% carnosine (HC). Body weight gain, food intake, feed efficacy rate, protein efficacy rate, and organ weights were not significantly different among the groups. In all groups, the mean carnosine levels in gastrocnemius muscles were higher than the mean carnosine levels in soleus muscles. Carnosine concentrations in soleus muscles and gastrocnemius muscles were significantly higher in the HC group compared to all other groups (p<0.05). Serum triglyceride and LDL-cholesterol concentrations in all of the carnosine-supplemented groups were significantly lower than those of the control group (p<0.05), while HDL-cholesterol levels were significantly higher than those of the control group (p<0.05). Aspartate aminotransferase levels in rats supplemented with carnosine were significantly higher than those of the control group. In conclusion, diets supplemented with high levels of carnosine can increase carnosine concentrations in skeletal muscles, which might contribute to increased exercise capacity. Furthermore, these findings suggest that high levels of dietary carnosine improve the lipid profile of rats by lowering blood LDL-cholesterol and increasing HDL-cholesterol levels.

Antioxidant Effects of Carnosine Extracted from the Eel Anguilla japonica (뱀장어 Anguilla japonica 추출 Carnosine의 항산화 효과)

  • Lee, Keun-Tae;Song, Ho-Su;Park, Seong-Min
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.40 no.4
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    • pp.193-200
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    • 2007
  • Ion-exchange chromatography and ultra-filtration permeation were used to extract carnosine from the eel Anguilla japonica. In an investigation of its antioxidant properties, the eel carnosine prevented lipid peroxidation in linoleic acid systems, scavenged free radicals, and exhibited superoxide dismutase-like activity. These activities increased as the carnosine concentration increased. The nitrite scavenging effects (NSEs) of commercial carnosine and the eel carnosine were measured at various acidic pHs (1.2, 3.0, and 4.2). For both types of carnosine, the maximum NSE was observed at pH 1.2. At this pH, the NSE of the eel carnosine was 65.3%. Both types of carnosine were effective at maintaining reasonably good color of ground beef patties over 5 days of storage at $4^{\circ}C$ and inhibited metmyoglobin formation as well as lipid peroxidation. These data suggest that the eel carnosine might be useful as a "natural" antioxidant in commercial production and storage of muscle foodstuffs.

Anti-glycemic effect of L-carnosine in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice (Streptozotocin으로 유도된 당뇨 마우스에서 L-carnosine의 혈당강하 효과)

  • Hue, Jin-Joo;Kim, Jong-Soo;Kim, Jun-hyeong;Nam, Sang Yoon;Yun, Young Won;Jeong, Jae-Hwang;Lee, Beom Jun
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.50 no.2
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    • pp.105-111
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    • 2010
  • Carnosine is a dipeptide $(\beta-alanyl-L-histidine)$ found in mammalian brain, eye, olfactory bulb and skeletal muscle at high concentrations. Its biological functions include antioxidant and anti-glycation activities. The objectives of this study were to investigate anti-diabetic effects of carnosine as determined by blood glucose levels, glucose tolerance test (GTT), glycosylated hemoglobin, and serum biochemical and lipid levels in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. There were five experimental groups including normal (ICR mice), control (saline), and three groups of carnosine at doses of 6, 30, and 150 mg/kg b.w.. Carnosine was orally administered to the diabetic mice everyday for 12 weeks. There was no significant difference in body weight changes in carnosine-treated groups compared to the control. The treatments of carnosine at the dose of 6 mg/kg significantly decreased the blood glucose level compared with the control at 2 and 4 weeks. The treatments of carnosine at the doses of 6 and 30 mg/kg significantly decreased the blood glucose levels in GTT and glycosylated hemoglobin compared with the control. Carnosine significantly increased total proteins compared with the control. Carnosine at the dose of 6 mg/kg significantly decreased total cholesterol and triglyceride in the serum compared to the control. These results suggest that carnosine at a low level has a hypoglycermic effect resulting from reduction of blood glucose and that a carnosine-containing diet or drug may give a benefit for controlling diabetes mellitus in humans.

Carnosine and Related Compounds Protect Against HOCI-Induced Damage of Biomolecules

  • Lee, Beom-Jun;Park, Jae-Hak;Lee, Yong-Soon;Cho, Myung-Haing
    • Toxicological Research
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.109-115
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    • 1999
  • The antiosidant activity of carnosine and related compounds such as anserine, homo-carnosine, histidine, and $\beta$-alanine which are found in most mammalian tissues, was investigated using hypochlorite (HOCl)-induced oxidant systems. Carnosine and related compounds were protective against HOCl-induced ascorbic acid oxidation, as determined by UV absorbance at 265nm. L-histidine was the most effective among them. The inhibitory effect of these compounds was strongly associated with a decrease in HOCl. It was also found that carnosine and related compounds significantly protected against the HOCl-mediated erythrocyte damage, as determined by hemoglobin release and gemolysis (p<0.05). Carnosine and anserine also inhibited of $\alpha$-antiprotease($\alpha$-AP) by HOCl, thereby inactivating porcine elastase. The inhibitory effect of carnosine on inactivation of $\alpha$-AP by HOCl depended on the concentration of carnosine and on the time preincubated with HOCl. Homocarnosine, histidine, and $\beta$-alanine did not inhibit the reaction. These results indicate that carnosine and related compounds can neutralize or scavenge HOCl. Thus, these compounds may play an important role in protecting against HOCl-mediated damage of biomolecules in vivo.

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The Effect of Carnosine Extracted from Eels Anguilla japonica on Oxidative DNA Damage Induced by Hydrogen Peroxide and the DNA Repair Capacity of Human Leukocytes (뱀장어(Anguilla japonica) 추출 Carnosine이 과산화수소로 유도된 인체 백혈구의 DNA 손상과 Repair에 미치는 효과)

  • Song, Ho-Su
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.50 no.5
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    • pp.520-526
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    • 2017
  • Carnosine was recently reported to protect against the DNA damage induced by oxidative stress. In this study, we investigated the protective effect of eel Anguilla japonica carnosine extracts prepared using different methods (heat treatment extracts, HTEs; ion exchange chromatography, IEC; ultrafiltration permeation, UFP) on leukocyte DNA damage using the comet assay. Human leukocytes were incubated with extracts of eel carnosine at concentrations (of 10, 50, $100{\mu}g/mL$), and then subjected to an oxidative stimulus [$200{\mu}M$ hydrogen peroxide ($H_2O_2$)]. Pretreatment of the cells for 30 min with carnosine significantly reduced the genotoxicity of $H_2O_2$ measured as DNA strand breaks. The protective effects of the three types of extract (HTE, IEC, and UFP) increased with concentration. At the highest concentration (100 g/mL). there were no statistical differences in oxidative damage between each extract treatment and PBS-treated negative controls. When leukocytes were incubated with carnosine for 30 min after exposure to $H_2O_2$. the protective ability of each extract changed. Therefore, eel carnosine inhibits the $H_2O_2$ induced damage to cellular DNA in human leukocytes, supporting the protective effect of this compound against oxidative damage.

Antiglycemic Effect of Carnosine in Diabetic Mice (당뇨 마우스에서 카르노신의 혈당강하 효과)

  • Hue, Jin-Joo;Kim, Jong-Soo;Kim, Jun-Hyeong;Nam, Sang-Yoon;Yun, Young-Won;Jeong, Jae-Hwang;Lee, Beom-Jun
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.24 no.4
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    • pp.391-397
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    • 2009
  • Carnosine is a dipeptide ($\beta$-alanyl-L-histidine) found in mammalian brain, eye, olfactory bulb and skeletal muscle at high concentrations. Its biological functions include antioxidant and anti-glycation activities. The objectives of this study were to investigate anti-diabetic effects of carnosine as determined by blood glucose levels in glucose tolerance test (GTT) and insulin tolerance test (ITT), insulin level and serum biochemical and lipid levels in male C57BL/6J db/db mice. There were five experimental groups including normal (C57BL/6J), control (vehicle), and three groups of carnosine at doses of 6, 30, and 150 mg/kg b.w. Carnosine was orally administered to the diabetic mice everyday for 8 weeks. There was no significant difference in body weight changes in carnosine-treated groups compared to the control. The treatments of carnosine significantly decreased the blood glucose level in the diabetic mice compared with the control (p < 0.05) after 5 weeks. The treatments of carnosine also significantly decreased the blood glucose levels in GTT and ITT and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), compared with the control (p < 0.05). Carnosine at the dose of 6 mg/kg significantly decreased the serum insulin level compared to the control (p < 0.05). Carnosine significantly increased total proteins but significantly decreased lactate dehydrogenase and blood urea nitrogen compared with the control (p < 0.05). Carnosine also significantly decreased glucose, LDL, and triglyceride in the serum of diabetic mice compared to the control (p < 0.05). These results suggest that carnosine has a hypoglycermic effect resulting from reduction of glucose and lipid levels and that high carnosine-containing diets or drugs may give a benefit for controlling diabetes mellitus in humans.

Protection by Carnosine and Homocarnosine against L-DOPA-Fe(III)-Mediated DNA Cleavage

  • Kang, Jung-Hoon
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.26 no.8
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    • pp.1251-1254
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    • 2005
  • It has been proposed that oxidation of L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) may contribute to the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disease. In this study, L-DOPA-Fe(III)-mediated DNA cleavage and the protection by carnosine and homocarnosine against this reaction were investigated. When plasmid DNA was incubated with L-DOPA in the presence of Fe(III), DNA strand was cleaved. Radical scavengers and catalase significantly inhibited the DNA breakage. These results suggest that $H_2O_2$ may be generated from the oxidation of DOPA and then $Fe^{3+}$ likely participates in a Fenton’s type reaction to produce hydroxyl radicals, which may cause DNA cleavage. Carnosine and homocarnosine have been proposed to act as anti-oxidants in vivo. The protective effects of carnosine and homocarnosine against L-DOPA-Fe(III)-mediated DNA cleavage have been studied. Carnosine and homocarnosine significantly inhibited DNA cleavage. These compounds also inhibited the production of hydroxyl radicals in L-DOPA/$Fe^{3+}$ system. The results suggest that carnosine and homocarnosine act as hydroxyl radical scavenger to protect DNA cleavage. It is proposed that carnosine and homocarnosine might be explored as potential therapeutic agents for pathologies that involve damage of DNA by oxidation of DOPA.

The Neuroprotective Effects of Carnosine in Early Stage of Focal Ischemia Rodent Model

  • Park, Hui-Seung;Han, Kyung-Hoon;Shin, Jeoung-A;Park, Joo-Hyun;Song, Kwan-Young;Kim, Doh-Hee
    • Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society
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    • v.55 no.3
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    • pp.125-130
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    • 2014
  • Objective : This study was conducted to elucidate neuroprotective effect of carnosine in early stage of stroke. Methods : Early stage of rodent stroke model and neuroblastoma chemical hypoxia model was established by middle cerebral artery occlusion and antimycin A. Neuroprotective effect of carnosine was investigated with 100, 250, and 500 mg of carnosine treatment. And antioxidant expression was analyzed by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and western blot in brain and blood. Results : Intraperitoneal injection of 500 mg carnosine induced significant decrease of infarct volume and expansion of penumbra (p<0.05). The expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD) showed significant increase than in saline group in blood and brain (p<0.05). In the analysis of chemical hypoxia, carnosine induced increase of neuronal cell viability and decrease of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Conclusion : Carnosine has neuroprotective property which was related to antioxidant capacity in early stage of stroke. And, the oxidative stress should be considered one of major factor in early ischemic stroke.

The effect of L-carnosine on the rheological characteristics of erythrocytes incubated in glucose media

  • Nam, Jeong-Hun;Kim, Chang-Beom;Shin, Se-Hyun
    • Korea-Australia Rheology Journal
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.103-108
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    • 2009
  • Hemorheological properties are easily modified by glucose-induced oxidation and glycation. Carnosine, a naturally occurring dipeptide ($\beta$-alanyl-LFull-size image-histidine), has been recently proposed to act as an antioxidant as well as a free-radical scavenger. In the present study, we investigate its protective and rejuvenating effects in erythrocytes that are exposed to glucose-rich plasma. Erythrocytes that were incubated in glucose solutions were treated with different concentrations of carnosine and for different incubation times. Their hemorheological alterations were examined. The results reveal that the presence of carnosine effectively prevented these rheological alterations in a concentration-dependent manner in glucose-rich media. It is proposed that moderate concentrations of carnosine might be further explored as potential therapeutic agents for pathologies that involve hemorheological modification.

Protective effects of carnosine and homocarnosine on ferritin and hydrogen peroxide-mediated DNA damage

  • Kang, Jung-Hoon
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.43 no.10
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    • pp.683-687
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    • 2010
  • Previous studies have shown that one of the primary causes of increased iron content in the brain may be the release of excess iron from intracellular iron storage molecules such as ferritin. Free iron generates ROS that cause oxidative cell damage. Carnosine and related compounds such as endogenous histidine dipetides have antioxidant activities. We have investigated the protective effects of carnosine and homocarnosine against oxidative damage of DNA induced by reaction of ferritin with $H_2O_2$. The results show that carnosine and homocarnosine prevented ferritin/$H_2O_2$-mediated DNA strand breakage. These compounds effectively inhibited ferritin/$H_2O_2$-mediated hydroxyl radical generation and decreased the mutagenicity of DNA induced by the ferritin/$H_2O_2$ reaction. Our results suggest that carnosine and related compounds might have antioxidant effects on DNA under pathophysiological conditions leading to degenerative damage such as neurodegenerative disorders.