• Title, Summary, Keyword: catechins

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Suppressive Effects of Defatted Green Tea Seed Ethanol Extract on Cancer Cell Proliferation in HepG2 Cells (HepG2 Cell에서 녹차씨박 에탄올 추출물의 암세포 증식 억제효과)

  • Noh, Kyung-Hee;Min, Kwan-Hee;Seo, Bo-Young;Kim, Hye-Ok;Kim, So-Hee;Song, Young-Sun
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.40 no.6
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    • pp.767-774
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    • 2011
  • Defatted green tea seed was extracted with 100% ethanol for 4 hr and then fractionated with petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and butanol. The ethanol and butanol extracts showed greater increases in antiproliferation potential against liver cancer cells than petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, $H_2O$, and hot water extracts did. Thus, this study was carried out to investigate the anti-proliferative actions of defatted green tea seed ethanol extract (DGTSE) in HepG2 cancer cells. The DGTSE contained catechins including EGC ($1039.1{\pm}15.2\;g/g$), tannic acid ($683.5{\pm}17.61\;{\mu}g/g$), EC ($62.4{\pm}5.00\;{\mu}g/g$), ECG ($24.4{\pm}7.81\;{\mu}g/g$), EGCG ($20.9{\pm}0.96\;{\mu}g/g$) and gallic acid ($2.4{\pm}0.68\;{\mu}g/g$), but caffeic acid was not detected when analyzed by HPLC. The anti-proliferation effect of DGTSE toward HepG2 cells was 83.13% when treated at $10\;{\mu}g$/mL, of DGTSE, offering an $IC_{50}$ of $6.58\;{\mu}g$/mL. DGTSE decreased CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 protein expressions in a dose-dependent manner. Quinone reductase and antioxidant response element (ARE)-luciferase activities were increased about 2.6 and 1.94-fold at a concentration of $20\;{\mu}g$/mL compared to a control group, respectively. Enhancement of phase II enzyme activity by DGTSE was shown to be mediated via interaction with ARE sequences in genes encoding the phase enzymes. DGTSE significantly (p<0.05) suppressed prostaglandin $E_2$ level, tumor necrosis factor-${\alpha}$ (TNF-${\alpha}$) protein expressions, and NF${\kappa}$B translocation, but did not affected nitric oxide production. From the above results, it is concluded that DGTSE may ameliorate tumor and inflammatory reactions through the elevation of phase II enzyme activities and suppression of NF${\kappa}$B translocation and TNF-${\alpha}$ protein expressions, which support the cancer cell anti-proliferative effects of DGTSE in HepG2 cells.

Physicochemical Properties of Powdered Green Teas in Korea (국내 시판 가루녹차의 이화학적 품질특성)

  • Lee, Lan-Sook;Park, Jong-Dae;Cha, Hwan-Soo;Lee, You-Min;Park, Jae-Woong;Kim, Sang-Hee
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.42 no.1
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    • pp.33-38
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    • 2010
  • This study was conducted to compare the physicochemical properties of powdered green teas produced in Korea and Japan including particle size, color, chlorophyll, caffeine and theanine. The average particle size of Korean powered green tea ($14.63-25.39\;{\mu}m$) was similar to that of Japanese powdered green tea ($15.46-21.02\;{\mu}m$). The surface color of shade-cultivated Haenam Green Tea (HN-1) had the highest negative 'a' value, which represents 'green' color. When the TCD (total color difference value) was measured in the samples, HN-1 was most similar to the premium powdered green tea of Japan (JA-1). Domestic shade-cultivated powdered green teas had 1.5-2 times greater chlorophyll content than powdered green teas produced from plants that were not cultivated in the shade. The presence of chlorophyll a resulted in a higher intensity of green color than the presence of chlorophyll b. A significant negative correlation was also observed between the color and the chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and total chlorophyll contents. Specifically, chlorophyll a had the greatest impact on the green color of powdered green tea. The content of catechins, caffeine and theanine in Korean powdered green teas ranged from 14.679-20.128, 1.496-3.237 and 0.926-1.977 g/100 g, respectively. The caffeine and theanine contents were high in shade-cultivated powdered green teas. Based on the above results, domestic powdered green teas cultivated under shaded conditions had a quality similar to that of medium-quality green teas produced in Japan, and the overall quality of Korean powdered green tea was poorer than that of Japanese powdered green tea.

Aqueous Spray-dried Green Tea Extract Regulates Body Weight and Epididymal Fat Accumulation in Mice (열수 녹차추출물이 생쥐의 체중 및 부고환 지방축적 조절에 미치는 영향)

  • Park, Pil-Joon;Kim, Chae-Wook;Cho, Si-Young;Rha, Chan-Su;Seo, Dae-Bang;Lee, Sang-Jun
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.42 no.1
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    • pp.103-108
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    • 2010
  • To obtain the best yield of the beneficial ingredients in green tea, such as catechins, green tea powder is most often prepared by ethyl alcohol extraction. However, the taste, cost and composition of ethyl alcohol extract is different from aqueous spray-dried green tea extract (aq-GTE). Specifically, aq-GTE has a better flavor, lower production costs and higher purity when compared to ethyl alcohol extract. In this study, we elucidated the effect of aq-GTE on diet-induced obesity in male C57BL/6J mice following dose-dependent oral administration of aq-GTE. After eight weeks, the body weight was reduced by 13-17% in mice fed 200 mg/kg bw aq-GTE ($12.468{\pm}0.45\;g$; p<0.05) and 20-25% in mice fed 400 mg/kg bw aq-GTE ($11.259{\pm}0.61\;g$; p<0.05) when compared with the high-fat diet (HFD) control group mice ($14.714{\pm}0.95\;g$; p<0.05). The correlation between epididymal fat accumulation and body weight also decreased by approximately 26.6% (p<0.05) in mice fed a HFD with aq-GTE 400 mg/kg bw. Finally, serum parameters such as the triglyceride, glucose and cholesterol levels in the HFD groups were reduced by the aq-GTE 400 mg/kg bw diet. Analysis on glutamic-pyruvic transaminase, blood urea nitrogen and development of hepatic steatosis revealed no histologic evidence of hepatotoxicity in HFD mice fed aq-GTE. Overall, our results imply that aq-GTE is able to regulate body weight and fat accumulation in mice.

Antioxidative activity, including Inhibitory activities of ACE, APN and $\alpha$-amylase, in Theaceae Plants Native to Jeju Island (제주도 자생 차나무과 식물의 ACE, APN, $\alpha$-amylase 저해 활성 및 항산화활성에 대한 연구)

  • Oh, Soon-Ja;Lee, Jin-Ho;Ko, Kwang-Sup;Shin, Dong-Bum;Koh, Seok-Chan
    • Korean Journal of Plant Resources
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    • v.23 no.5
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    • pp.406-414
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    • 2010
  • Antioxidative activity, including inhibitory activities of angiotensin I converting enzyme(ACE), aminopeptidase N(APN) and $\alpha$-amylase, was investigated in the methanol extracts from Theaceae plants native to Jeju island, in order to select the plant species containing bioactive materials for functional food or medicines. ACE inhibitory activity was above 50% in Ternstroemia japonica(stem bark) and Cleyera japonica(leaf), and APN inhibitory activity was low to be positive only in C. japonica(leaf, stem bark) and T. japonica(stem bark). $\alpha$-Amylase inhibitory activity was above 30% in Camellia japonica(fruit), Eurya emarginata(stem), T. japonica(stem bark) and Thea sinensis(stem). The antioxidative activity, estimated by the DPPH radical scavenging capacity, was above 30% in C. japonica(stem bark), T. japonica(stem bark) and T. sinensis(leaf). Particularly, the antioxidative activity analyzed by dot-blot test was very high in C. japonica(stem bark) relatively to those of other plants, and remained high in the low concentration($1.25\;{\mu}g/m{\ell}$). From the TLC analysis of antioxidative compounds, EGC(Rf 0.26) was found to have high activity in stem bark of C. japonica and EGCG(Rf 0.09) was found to have high activity in stem bark of C. japonica, E. emarginata, and T. japonica. Five bands (Rf 0.54, 0.46,0.44, 0.16, 0.03) which were not identified as compared with catechins were detected as polyphenolic compounds on the TLC plates sprayed with the Folin-Ciocalteu solution or the Ferric chloride-alcohol solution. These results suggests that Theaceae plants except E. japonica could be potentially used as a resource of bioactive materials for functional foods or medicines and further research is reguired to identify the bioactive substances and determine the functions of them.

Physicochemical Properties and Antioxidant Activities of Green Tea with Reference to Extraction Conditions (추출조건에 따른 녹차음료의 이화학적 특성 및 항산화활성)

  • Kang, Su-Tae;Jeong, Chang-Ho;Joo, Ok-Soo
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.16 no.6
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    • pp.946-952
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    • 2009
  • We investigated the physicochemical properties and antioxidant activities of green tea with respect to extraction conditions. The values of pH, and the L, a, and b Hunter parameters of green tea beverage 1 (GTB 1), green tea beverage 2 (GTB 2), and commercial green tea beverage (CGTB) were 6.22, 96.91, -1.06, and 7.77 5.40, 96.39, -1.73, and 13.68 and 6.20, 95.40, -4.75, and 25.51, respectively. The total free amino acid content of GTB 1 and 2, and CGTB, were 253.21, 262.65, and 58.36 mg/100 mL, and the major free amino acids were aminoadipic acid (102.56, 136.29, and 27.02 mg/100 mL), arginine (23.32, 30.75, and 7.31 mg/100 mL), and serine (18.22, 17.96, and 5.94 mg/100 mL). The levels of total phenolics and caffeine were higher in GTB 2 (852.58 and $225.51\;{\mu}g/mL$) than in GTB 1 (500.65 and $317.34\;{\mu}g/mL$) or CGTB (387.14 and $164.53\;{\mu}g/mL$). The catechin content of GTBs 1 and 2, and CGTB, were 294.8, 415.7, and $130.99\;{\mu}g/mL$, respectively. The major catechins of GTB 1 and 2, and CGTB were epigallocatechin, catechin, and epigallocatechin gallate, in that order, and the epigallocatechin contents were 186.50 in GTB 1, 268.10 in GTB 2, and $82.26\;{\mu}g/mL$ in CGTB. GTB 1 and 2 and CGTB showed substantial dose-dependent antioxidative activities. The DPPH radical-scavenging activities of GTB 1 and 2, and CGTB, were 85.48, 87.09, and 87.03%, respectively at a concentration of $125\;{\mu}g/mL$. The ferric reducing/antioxidant activities (FRAPs) of GTB 1 and 2 and CGTB were 2.66, 2.70 and 2.67 absorbance at a concentration of $1,000\;{\mu}g/mL$. Sensory evaluation tests revealed no significant differences among the three green tea beverages.

Quality Properties of Appenzeller Cheese Containing Green Tea Powder (녹차 첨가 아펜젤러 치즈의 품질 특성)

  • Choi, Hee-Young;Choi, Hyo-Ju;Yang, Chul-Ju;Lee, Sang-Suk;Choi, Gap-Sung;Park, Jeong-Ro;Chun, Sun-Sil;Shin, Hyon-Jung;Jeong, Seok-Geun;Bae, In-Hyu
    • Journal of Dairy Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.27 no.2
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    • pp.7-16
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    • 2009
  • Appenzeller cheese samples were prepared by addition of 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0% green tea (Camellia sinensis, CS) powder and control cheese. We examined various quality characteristics of the novel cheese, such as viable-cell counts, pH, water-soluble nitrogen (WSN), non-casein nitrogen (NCN), non-protein nitrogen (NPN), and catechin level during maturation for 16 weeks at $14^{\circ}C$. To develop a Korean natural cheese containing green tea powder, we also analyzed the changes in the polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis pattern, chemical composition, and sensory qualities. The viable cell counts of the samples were not significantly different. Until the $3^{rd}$ week, the pH of the CS cheese decreased with an increase in the maturation time. However, the pH gradually increased by the $12^{th}$ week, while WSN, NCN, NPN also increased. The WSN, NCN, NPN, and catechin values for the CS cheese samples were significantly higher than the values for the control cheese. The polyacrylamide gel electrophoretic pattern of caseins for the CS cheese indicated that this cheese degraded more rapidly than the control cheese did. In the sensory evaluation, cheese with 1.0% CS powder showed the highest scores in taste and appearance and good scores in flavor and texture. These results indicate that 1.0% CS is the optimal value for addition to cheese, and cheese containing 1.0% CS shows good physiological properties and reasonably high overall sensory acceptability.

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Anti-inflammatory Effects of Purpurogallin Carboxylic Acid, An Oxidation Product of Gallic Acid in Fermented Tea (발효차중의 미량 성분인 gallic acid 산화물 purpurogallin carboxylic acid의 항염증 효과)

  • Jhoo, Jin-Woo
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.40 no.6
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    • pp.707-711
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    • 2008
  • The principal objective of the current study was to isolate a purpurogallin derivative as an oxidation product from gallic acid, in an effort to assess the anti-inflammatory effects of this compound. Purpurogallin derivative is known to be the one of the oxidation products of gallic acid. This compound has been identified as a minor chemical component in fermented tea products. It has been previously demonstrated that theaflavins, the oxidation products of catechins found in fermented tea products, exert profound antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. However, the biological activities of a minor chemical component in fermented teas have yet to be evaluated. Purpurogallin carboxylic acid (PCA) was identified as a major oxidation product of gallic acid from a peroxidase/hydrogen peroxide oxidation model system. The identity of the PCA was verified by $^{1}H$ NMR, $^{13}C$ NMR and MS techniques. PCA treatment significantly suppressed the generation of pro-inflammatory mediators including nitric oxide and IL-6 in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 murine macrophages. According to the nitrite assay, PCA 100, 75, and $50{\mu}g/mL$ treatment dose-dependently inhibited NO production by 57.6, 41.5, and 21.8%, respectively, in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 murine macrophage cells. Moreover, IL-6 production was inhibited to a significant degree with PCA treatment of 100 and $75{\mu}g/mL$ at 43.1 and 23.9%, respectively. PCA treatment also significantly suppressed $PGE_2$ production at levels of 100 and $75{\mu}g/mL$. These results showed that PCA exerts inhibitory effects on the production of inflammatory mediators.

Effect of Relative Humidity and Storage Temperature on the Quality of Green Tea Powder (상대습도 및 저장 온도가 분말녹차의 품질에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Jung-Min;Lim, Sang-Wook;Cho, Sung-Hwan;Choi, Sung-Gil;Heo, Ho-Jin;Lee, Seung-Cheol
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.38 no.1
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    • pp.83-88
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    • 2009
  • After storing green tea powder for three months at three different temperatures (-20, 4, and $20^{\circ}C$) with three different relative humidities (RHs) (23, 69, and 81%), the chemical quality was evaluated with green tea, which was prepared by soaking 1.5 g of the powder into 100 mL of distilled water at $70^{\circ}C$ for 5 min. Total phenolic contents, total flavanol contents, and ascorbic acid contents of green tea powder stored at $4^{\circ}C$ with 23% RH changed from 267.5, 49.4, and 24.2 mg/g to 287.1, 44.9, and 36.9 mg/g, respectively, compared to the powder before storage. EGC and EGCG, the main catechins of green tea, also changed from 16.9 and 27.3 mg/g to 24.3 and 36.5, g/g, respectively, after storage for 3 months at $4^{\circ}C$ with 23% RH. However, when the green tea powder was stored at -20 or $20^{\cric}C$ with higher RH such as 69 and 81%, the chemical compounds were significantly decreased. The results indicate that temperature and RH are important during storage of green tea powder, and low RH and refrigerated condition ($-4^{\cric}C$) are preferable to increase or preserve the chemical compounds of the tea.

Physicochemical Properties and Antioxidant Capacities of Different Parts of Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) (생강(Zingiber officinale Roscoe) 부위별 이화학적 특성 및 항산화 활성)

  • Lee, Hye-Ryun;Lee, Jong-Hun;Park, Cheol-Seong;Ra, Kyung-Ran;Ha, Jin-Sook;Cha, Mi-Hyun;Kim, Se-Na;Choi, Youngmin;Hwang, Jinbong;Nam, Jin-Sik
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.43 no.9
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    • pp.1369-1379
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    • 2014
  • The physicochemical characteristics and antioxidant activities of leaf, stem, and root of ginger (Zingiber officinale R.) were determined. Nutrient composition, reducing sugar, saponin, mineral, heavy metal, total phenolic and total flavonoid contents, and antioxidant activities based on DPPH radical scavenging and FRAP assay were measured. Catechins, gingerols, shogaols, and capsaicin compositions were also determined by HPLC. The contents of water, proteins, fats, carbohydrates, fiber, and ash from ginger root were 6.4, 6.8, 3.2, 65.4, 7.3, and 18.2%, respectively. Crude fiber contents of leaf and stem were 4~5 times higher than those of root (P<0.05), and reducing sugar content of stem was about 3 times higher than those of root. Crude saponin contents were in the order of stem

Main constituents and bioactivities of different parts of aronia (Aronia melanocarpa) (아로니아 부위별 주요 성분 정량 및 생리활성 평가)

  • Gim, Sung Woong;Chae, Kyu Seo;Lee, Su Jung;Kim, Ki Deok;Moon, Jae-Hak;Kwon, Ji Wung
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.52 no.3
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    • pp.226-236
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    • 2020
  • This study was designed to evaluate the biological activities and main constituents of different parts (fruit, leaf, and stem) of aronia (Aronia melanocarpa). The total phenolic and flavonoidcontents, DPPH and ABTS+ radical-scavenging activity, reducing power, and ferric reducing/antioxidant power were observed to follow the order of: leaves > stems > fruits, regardless of extraction solvents. The inhibitory activity against lipopolysaccharide-induced NO production in Raw 264.7 cells was significantly higher in the aronialeaf extract-treated group than in the groups treated with stem and fruit extracts. The ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) analysis was mainly composed of routine. In addition, the highest content level was measured in the case of the catechinmemberepigallocatechin witha higher value than that found in green tea. Theresults of this studyprovide useful information for understanding the chemical constituents and biological activities of aroniafruits and byproducts.