• Title/Summary/Keyword: cell arrangement

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Physicochemical Factors Affecting Cooking and Eating Qualities of Rice and the Ultrastructural Changes of Rice during Cooking (쌀의 취반 및 식미특성에 영향을 주는 요인들과 취반 시 쌀의 배유 조직의 변화)

  • 이영은;오스만엘리자베쓰엠
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.20 no.6
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    • pp.637-645
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    • 1991
  • Physicochemical factors affecting cooking and eating quality of rice and their mechanisms were investigated. The stickiness of cooked rice was negatively correlated with amylose content(r=0.58, p<0.05) and protein content(r=-0.72, p<0.01), but not affected by crude fat content of rice. The ultrastructure of cooked rice grain showed the progressive gelatinization of starch from the periphery toward the center of the endosperm as water and heat energy diffused into. The rate of water diffusion appears to be dependent on the cell arrangement in the endosperm and the protein content of milled rice. Once water and heat reach the starch granules, the rate of in situ gelatinization of starches appears to be dependent on their own gelatinization temperature range and amylose content. Protein acts as a barrier for the swelling of starch and water diffusion in two ways : 1) by encasing starch granules in the starchy endosperm, and 2) by forming a barrier between the subaleurone layer and the starchy endosperm. Therefore, the separation and fragmentation of the outermost layers of the endosperm occurred more easily in the low-protein content rices, and was associated with increases of solids lost in cooking-water at 95$^{\circ}C$ and stickiness of cooked rice.

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A Study on the Cytologic Features of Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology in the Thyroid Follicular Neoplasm and Nodular Goiter (갑상선의 여포상 종양과 결절성 갑상선 종대에 대한 세침 흡인 세포학적 연구)

  • Yoo, Jin-Ye;Cho, Hye-Jae;Ko, Il-Hyang
    • The Korean Journal of Cytopathology
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.69-78
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    • 1998
  • There is a lot of difficulty in the diagnosis of follicular lesions of the thyroid by fine needle aspiration cytology(FNAC). The main purpose of this report is offering more guidance regarding the cytologic appearance to distinguish follicular neoplasm from nodular golfer and laying stress on the presence of mixed group. The histologic and cytologic findings of 23 follicular neoplasms and 13 nodular (adenomatous) getters were reviewed. Histologic specimens were classified into the microfollicular(MIF), mixed(MIX), and nodular getter(NG) groups. The comparison of histologic patterns with histologic diagnosis revealed that all the lesions with predominantly microfollicular, trabecular, or solid pattern were follicular carcinoma and all the lesions with predominantly macrofollicular pattern were nodular goiter. The distinguishing cytologic features for the MIF group were irregular cell arrangement in cell groups(100%, p=0.00001), absence of atrophic follicular cells(100%, p=0.0007), abundant microfollicles(100%, 0=0.002), pleomorphic nuclei(100%, p=0.002), not predominant syncytial smear pattern(100%, p=0.002), heterochromatin(100%, p=0.032), absence of macrofollicles(100%, p=0.038), scant colloid(100%, 0=0.04), clear back-ground(83%, p=0.00006), and uniform sized follicles(83%, p=0.014). And regular cell arrangement(honeycomb appearance) in cell groups(85%, p=0.0000), atrophic change of follicular cells(69%, p=0.0002), syncytial smear pattern(54%, p=0.000), monomorphic nuclei(85%, p=0.008), and hemorrhagic background(100%, p=0.027) were characteristic features of the NG group. Seventeen out of 36 cases(47%) were the MIX group composed of combined cytologic features of the MIF and NG groups. Therefore the frequent presence of the MIX group is considered to be main cause of the difficulty in the diagnosis of follicular lesions by FNAC. The mixed morphologic feature may support the hypothesis of a biologic 'continuum' between nodular goiter and follicular neoplasm of thyroid gland.

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Development, Structure and Dehiscence of Follicles of Calotropis procera (Ait.) R. Br. (Asclepiadaceae)

  • Kuriachen, P.M.;Dave, Yash;Thomas, Vbinoth
    • Journal of Plant Biology
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    • v.34 no.2
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    • pp.107-112
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    • 1991
  • The atrichomatous wall of ovary in Calotropis procera becomes highly pubescent in the young fruit, but scabrous I the mature fruit. The single layered epicarp develops from the outer epidermis of the ovary wall. The mesocarp which develops from the mesodermis is distinguished into outer, middle and inner zones. The central mesocarp breaks up in the course of fruit development and disintegrate to form large air chambers. The 2-3 layered lignified endocarp develops from the inner epidermis as well as from the inner mesodermis layers of the ground tissue and shows a‘parquetry pattern’of cell arrangement in surface view. The parenchymatous becomes aerenchymatous in the mature fruit. Fruit dehiscence in marginicidal (ventricidal).

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Evolving Cellular Automata Neural Systems(ECANS 1)

  • Lee, Dong-Wook;Sim, Kwee-Bo
    • Proceedings of the Korean Institute of Intelligent Systems Conference
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    • 1998.06a
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    • pp.158-163
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    • 1998
  • This paper is our first attempt to construct a information processing system such as the living creatures' brain based on artificial life technique. In this paper, we propose a method of constructing neural networks using bio-inspired emergent and evolutionary concept, Ontogeny of living things is realized by cellular automata model and Phylogeny that is living things adaptation ability themselves to given environment, are realized by evolutionary algorithms. Proposing evolving cellular automata neural systems are calledin a word ECANS. A basic component of ECANS is 'cell' which is modeled on chaotic neuron with complex characteristics, In our system, the states of cell are classified into eight by method of connection neighborhood cells. When a problem is given, ECANS adapt itself to the problem by evolutionary method. For fixed cells transition rule, the structure of neural network is adapted by change of initial cell' arrangement. This initial cell is to become a network b developmental process. The effectiveness and the capability of proposed scheme are verified by applying it to pattern classification and robot control problem.

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The Effect of Quercetin in Corneal Opacity Induced by Mitomycin-C

  • Lee, Yoon Jeong
    • Applied Microscopy
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    • v.44 no.3
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    • pp.88-95
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    • 2014
  • This study examined the effects of quercetin on corneal opacity caused by corneal edema by suppressing the damage on corneal endothelial cell, which was induced by mitomycin-C (MMC). In the MMC-treated group, the number of keratocytes was noticeably fewer compared to that of other groups. Although this group showed normal amount of fiber in the corneal stroma, the thickness was shown to be very thick and the alignment of the corneal endothelial cells that worked as the barrier against aqueous humor was irregular. According to such results, it was known that corneal opacity induced by MMC is not caused by proliferation of keratocytes, but by corneal edema triggered by the infiltration of aqueous humor. In the MMC+quercetin and quercetin+MMC-treated groups, the number of keratocytes was higher and polymorphonuclear leukocytes infilteration was lower significantly compared to that of the MMC-treated group. Although the amounts of fiber and endothelioid cell arrangement were normal, there was more space observed in the corneal stroma. Nonetheless, these groups showed significantly lower stromal thickness compared to that of the MMC group. In conclusion, quercetin has the effect on the reduction of corneal opacity caused by corneal edema that work MMC-induced damage to the corneal endothelial cells.

Bi-electrolyte Carbon Dioxide Gas Sensor Based on Paste Sodium-Beta Alumina and Yttria-stabilized Zirconia

  • Han, Hyeuk Jin;Park, Chong Ook
    • Journal of Sensor Science and Technology
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    • v.23 no.3
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    • pp.170-172
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    • 2014
  • $CO_2$ sensor was used only one solid electrolyte in many cases. To improve the sensing characteristics of $CO_2$ sensors, solid electrolyte $CO_2$ sensor has been developed by bi-electrolyte type sensor using Na-Beta-alumina and YSZ. However, in many further studies, bi-electrolyte type sensor was made by pellet pressed by press machine and additional treatment for formation of interface. In the aspect of mass production, using thick film and additional treatment is not suitable. In this study, $CO_2$ sensor was fabricated by bi-electrolyte structure which was made by an NBA paste layer deposited on YSZ pellet and fired at $1650^{\circ}C$ for 2 hour. The formation of stable interface between YSZ and NBA were confirmed by SEM image. When the type IV electrochemical cell arrangement represented by $CO_2,O_2,Pt{\mid}Li_2CO_3-CaCO_3{\parallel}NBA{\parallel}YSZ{\mid}O_2,Pt$ is used to measure the $CO_2$ concentration in air. This sensor EMF should depend only on the concentration of $CO_2$ by logarithmic. Also, sensor shows $P_{CO_2}$ and EMF relationship like nerstian reaction at a temperature of $450^{\circ}C$.

Digital Logic Extraction from Quantum-dot Cellular Automata Designs (Quantum-dot Cellular Automata 회로로부터 디지털 논리 추출)

  • Oh, Youn-Bo;Lee, Eun-Choul;Kim, Kyo-Sun
    • Proceedings of the KIEE Conference
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    • 2006.10c
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    • pp.139-141
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    • 2006
  • Quantum-dot Cellular Automata (QCA) is one of the most promising next generation nano-electronic devices which will inherit the throne of CMOS which is the domineering implementation technology of large scale low power digital systems. In late 1990s, the basic operations of the QCA cell were already demonstrated on a hardware implementation. Also, design tools and simulators were developed. Nevertheless, its design technology is not quite ready for ultra large scale designs. This paper proposes a new approach which enables the QCA designs to inherit the verification methodologies and tools of CMOS designs, as well. First, a set of disciplinary rules strictly restrict the cell arrangement not to deviate from the predefined structures but to guarantee the deterministic digital behaviors. After the gate and interconnect structures of the QCA design are identified, the signal integrity requirements including the input path balancing of majority gates, and the prevention of the noise amplification are checked. And then the digital logic is extracted and stored in the OpenAccess common engineering database which provides a connection to a large pool of CMOS design verification tools. Towards validating the proposed approach, we designed a 2-bit QCA adder. The digital logic is extracted, translated into the Verilog net list, and then simulated using a commercial software.

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Study on Development of the Bi-directional High Pressure Pile Load Test(BDH PLT) and Its Application (양방향 고유압 말뚝재하시험(BDH PLT)의 개발 및 적용성에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Chung-Sook;Lee, Min-Hee;Kim, Sang-Il;Choi, Yong-Kyu
    • Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society
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    • v.23 no.6
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    • pp.23-36
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    • 2007
  • To overcome the limits of the static pile load test for large diameter drilled shafts, bi-directional low pressure pile load test (BDL PLT) has been used but this test method containes some problems that has not been solved basically. That is, BDL PLT has some problems: difficulty in jack (or cell) arrangement for large test capacity, void remain inside jack (or cell) due to the unrecovery of piston after test etc. In this study, bi-directional double-acting high pressure pile load test (BDH PLT W/DOJ) was developed and confirmed for a in-situ large diameter drilled shaft. At present, test specification of bi-directional pile load test (BDPLT) is being made, and severed main issues (such as, test kinds, test capacity, necessity of use of double-acting and attention of application to service pile) will be contained at the specification.

A STUDY ON THE PRE-AND POST-IRRADIATION EFFECT OF BLOOD VESSELS IN THE EXPERIMENTALLY INDUCED TONGUE CANCER (실험적 설암에서 방사선 조사전후의 혈관분포에 관한 연구)

  • Kim Young-Tae;Park Tae-Won
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.41-49
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    • 1990
  • The author observed the changes of vasculature of pre-and post-irradiation on DMBA induced rat tongue cancer. The study was performed by using vascular corrosion resin casting, and scanning electron microscopy. The results were as follows. 1. The capillaries runned parallely and formed bundles and, sometimes, plexus. The endothelial cells were arranged regularly and small pores were observed. 2. In irradiated normal tongue the capillaries were curved slightly and formed plexus on initial day of post-irradiation. On third day the capillaries and capillary pores were dilated and the endothelial cell arrangement was irregular. The effects of irradiation were gradually increased from initial to the 3rd day, though it was decreased after 7th day. 3. The vasculature of DMBA induced tongue cancer group were very irregular, and large avascular lesions were formed according to the cancer necrosis or tumor cell nest and the vasculature was narrowed and paralleled around the avascular lesion by compression of cancer cell nest. The vascular wall was roughened and dilated, forming club shaped or varix. 4. The vessels were curved and formed reticular network in irradiated DMBA induced tongue carinoma group. The free end of newly formed capillaries had regular width, and also irregular club shaped or aneurysmal dilatation were observed. The vascular structures were destroyed and vessels were fused in tumor necrosis lesion. The radiation effects were marked on the first and third day of irradiation and the effects were decreased after seventh day and showed capillary regeneration.

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