• Title, Summary, Keyword: cell fusion

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Design and Analysis of the Microfabricated Cell Fusion System using Dielectrophoretic Force (Dieletrophoresis를 이용한 초소형 세포융합시스템의 설계 및 해석)

  • Yang, Sung-Dong;Lee, Sang-Wook;Kim, Yong-Kweon
    • Proceedings of the KIEE Conference
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    • pp.201-203
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    • 1993
  • Recently, micro-scaled cell fusion system in the bioiogical cell fusion is preferred to Nacro-scaled one by dint of microelectronic processes. The microfabricated cell fusion system has its components such as fusion chamber, selector and detector. In this paper, we describe the design rules of the micro-fabricated cell fusion system using dielectrophoretic force and analyze its components using finite element method.

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Production of Clone Animals by Nuclear Transplantation I. Effects of Electrostimulation on Membrane Fusion of Embryos and Activation of Oocytes in Mouse (핵치환에 의한 Clone Animal의 생산에 관한 연구 I. 생쥐 수정란의 세포막 융합과 난모세포의 활성화에 미치는 전기자극의 효과)

  • 이상진;구덕본;이상민;박흠대;정순영;정길생
    • Korean Journal of Animal Reproduction
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.217-228
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    • 1994
  • These experiments were carried out to establish the optimal condition of electrostimulatin inducing cell fusion and oocyte activation for nuclear transplantation in mouse embryos. Eggs selected for cell fusion or activation by electrostimulation were equilibrated for 5~10 min. in 0.3M sucrose solution and electrostimulated for 60$\mu$sec using 1 pulse of 60, 70, 80, 90 or 100 volts DC with electrodes 0.2 mm apart. Then they were cultured in 20${mu}ell$ dropsof Tyrode's solution. The results of these experiments are as follows : 1. When one pulse of 60, 70, 80, 90 or 100 volts DC for 60$\mu$sec were applied to 2-cell embryos for fusion of blastomeres, fusion rates were 50.0, 81.7, 91.7, 100 and 100%, respectively ; and developmental rates of fused embryos to blastocyst were 76.7 to 81.5%. Higher fusion rates were observed in 90V and 100V. 2. The average cell number in fused embryos developed to blastocyst was about half of the cell number in diploid controls; and the cell number decreased with increasing of voltages. 3. When pulse numbers were increased, fusion rates improved, but developmental rates were not signficiantly different from the group for which the number of pulse was not increased. And the cell number of blastocyst decreased even more. 4. Oocytes aged for 6hrs after ovulation were electrostimulated for oocyte activation by the same method used for cell fusion. Rates of oocyte activated by electrostimulation were 45.3 to 60.4%, and fragmentation rates were 7.5~15.1%. The lysis rates were 17.0~34.0%. The results of these experiments indicate that the optimal condition for achieving cell fusion and activation is 1 pulse, duration 60$\mu$sec in 90 Volt. The results also show that this condition is suitable for nuclear transplantation using mouse eggs.

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Defining the N-Linked Glycosylation Site of Hantaan Virus Envelope Glycoproteins Essential for Cell Fusion

  • Zheng, Feng;Ma, Lixian;Shao, Lihua;Wang, Gang;Chen, Fengzhe;Zhang, Ying;Yang, Song
    • Journal of Microbiology
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    • v.45 no.1
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    • pp.41-47
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    • 2007
  • The Hantaan virus (HTNV) is an enveloped virus that is capable of inducing low pH-dependent cell fusion. We molecularly cloned the viral glycoprotein (GP) and nucleocapsid (NP) cDNA of HTNV and expressed them in Vero E6 cells under the control of a CMV promoter. The viral gene expression was assessed using an indirect immunofluorescence assay and immunoprecipitation. The transfected Vero E6 cells expressing GPs, but not those expressing NP, fused and formed a syncytium following exposure to a low pH. Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against envelope GPs inhibited cell fusion, whereas MAbs against NP did not. We also investigated the N-linked glycosylation of HTNV GPs and its role in cell fusion. The envelope GPs of HTNV are modified by N-linked glycosylation at five sites: four sites on G1 (N134, N235, N347, and N399) and one site on G2 (N928). Site-directed mutagenesis was used to construct eight GP gene mutants, including five single N-glycosylation site mutants and three double-site mutants, which were then expressed in Vero E6 cells. The oligosaccharide chain on residue N928 of G2 was found to be crucial for cell fusion after exposure to a low pH. These results suggest that G2 is likely to be the fusion protein of HTNV.

Virus-Cell Fusion Inhibitory Compounds from Ailanthus altissima Swingle (저근백피의 Virus-Cell Fusion 저해활성 성분)

  • Chang, Young-Su;Moon, Young-Hee;Woo, Eun-Rhan
    • Korean Journal of Pharmacognosy
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    • v.34 no.1
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    • pp.28-32
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    • 2003
  • In order to search for the anti-HIV agents from natural products, eighty MeOH extracts of medicinal plants were applied to a syncytia formation inhibition assay which is based on the interaction between the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein gp120/gp41 and the cellular membrane protein CD4 of T lymphocytes. Among them, Ailanthus altissima showed a potent virus-cell fusion inhibitory activity. Repeated column chromatoghaphy of the methylene chloride fraction of A. altissima afforded compounds 1$({\beta}-sitosterol-3-O-{\beta}-D-glucoside)$, 2(tetramethoxycoumarin), and 3(ocotillone). Virus-cell fusion inhibitory activity of compound 3(ocotillone) was $70.76{\pm}4.09%$ at the concentration of $100\;{\mu}g/ml$.

Survivin protects fused cancer cells from cell death

  • Do, Mihyang;Kwak, In-Hae;Ahn, Ju-Hyun;Lee, In Jeong;Lee, Jae-Ho
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.50 no.7
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    • pp.361-366
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    • 2017
  • Tetraploidy, a potential precursor of cancer-associated aneuploidy, is produced either by cell fusion or failure of cytokinesis. In this study, low p53-expressing HeLa cells were used to address the fate of cancer cells after fusion. We found that massive cell death or growth arrest occurred a few days after fusion. Interestingly, cells with larger nuclei preferentially died after fusion, suggesting that a larger deviation of DNA content is a strong inducer of apoptosis. Notably, a fraction of cells escaped cell death. Also, the stability of survivin increased, and its localization changed preferentially to the cytosol in fused cells. Knockdown of survivin decreased the survival of fused cells, more than observed in unfused cells, showing increased dependency of fused cells on survivin. Collectively, after cancer cell fusion, some fused cells avoid the apoptotic crisis partly owing to survivin, and continue to proliferate, a process that contributes to human cancer progression.

Optimization of Electrofusion Condition for the Production of Korean Cattle Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer Embryos

  • Kim, Se-Woong;Kim, Dae-Hwan;Jung, Yeon-Gil;Roh, Sang-Ho
    • Reproductive and Developmental Biology
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    • v.35 no.1
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    • pp.17-22
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    • 2011
  • This study was designed to determine the effect of electric field strength, duration and fusion buffer in fusion parameters on the rate of membrane fusion between the somatic cell and cytoplast for Korean cattle (HanWoo) somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) procedure. Following electrofusion, effect of 5 or $10\;{\mu}M$ $Ca^{2+}$-ionophore of activation treatment on subsequent development was also evaluated. Cell fusion rates were significantly increased from 23.1% at 20 V/mm to 59.7% at 26 V/mm and 52.9% at 27 V/mm (p<0.05). Due to higher cytoplasmic membrane rupture or cellular lysis, overall efficiency was decreased when the strength was increased to 30 V/mm (18.5%) and 40 V/mm (6.3%) and the fusion rate was also decreased when the strength was at 25 V/mm or below. The optimal duration of electric stimulation was significantly higher in $25\;{\mu}s$ than 20 and $30\;{\mu}s$ (18.5% versus 9.3% and 6.3%, respectively, p<0.05). Two nonelectrolyte fusion buffers, Zimmermann's (0.28 M sucrose) and 0.28 M mannitol solution for cell fusion, were used for donor cell and ooplast fusion and the fusion rate was significantly higher in Zimmermann's cell fusion buffer than in 0.28 M mannitol (91.1% versus 48.4%, respectively, p<0.05). The cleavage and blastocyst formation rates of SCNT bovine embryos activated by $5\;{\mu}M$ $Ca^{2+}$-ionophore was significantly higher than the rates of the embryos activated with $10\;{\mu}M$ of $Ca^{2+}$-ionophore (70.0% versus 42.9% and 22.5% versus 14.3%, respectively; p<0.05). This result is the reverse to that of parthenotes which shows significantly higher cleavage and blastocyst rates in $10\;{\mu}M$ $Ca^{2+}$-ionophore than $5\;{\mu}M$ counterpart (65.6% versus 40.3% and 19.5% versus 9.7%, respectively; p<0.05). In conclusion, SCNT couplet fusion by single pulse of 26 V/mm for $25\;{\mu}s$ in Zimmermann's fusion buffer followed by artificial activation with $5\;{\mu}M$ $Ca^{2+}$-ionophore are suggested as optimal fusion and activation methods in Korean cattle SCNT protocol.

Role of the Promoter Region of a Chicken H3 Histone Gene in Its Cell Cycle Dependent Expression

  • Son, Seung-Yeol
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.32 no.4
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    • pp.345-349
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    • 1999
  • We fused the promoter region of an H3.2 chicken histone gene, whose expression is dependent on the cell cycle, to the 5' coding region of an H3.3 chicken histone gene, which is expressed constitutively at a low level throughout the cell cycle. This fusion gene showed a cell cycle-regulated pattern of expression, but in a different manner. The mRNA level of the fusion gene increase during the S phase of the cell cycle by about 3.7-fold at 6 h and 2.7-fold at 12 h after the serum stimulation. The mRNA level of the intact H3.2 gene, however, increased by an average of 3.6-fold at 6 h and 8.7-fold at 12 h. This different expression pattern might be due to the differences in their 3' end region that is responsible for mRNA stability. The 3' end of the H3.2 mRNA contains a stem-loop structure, instead of a poly(A) tail present in the H3.3 mRNA. We also constructed a similar fusion gene using a H3.3 histone gene whose introns had been eliminated to rule out the possibility of involvement of the introns in cell cycle-regulated expression. The expression of this fusion gene was almost identical to the fusion gene made previously. These results indicate that the promoter region of the H3.2 gene is only partially responsible for its expression during the S phase of the cell cycle.

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Virus-cell Fusion Inhibitory Activity for the Polysaccharides from Various Korean Edible Clams

  • Woo, Eun-Rhan;Kim, Wan-Seok;Kim, Yeong-Shik
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
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    • v.24 no.6
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    • pp.514-517
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    • 2001
  • In order to find potent virus-cell fusion inhibitory components from Korean edible clams, thirteen prepared polysaccharides were introduced to syncytia formation inhibition assay, which is based on the interaction between the HIV-1 envelope protein gp 120/41 and the cellular membutane protein CD4 of T lymphocytes. Among them, Meretrix petechialis showed a potent viruscell fusion inhibitory activity. Fusion index (F1) and percent (%) fusion inhibition of the polysaccharide of this clam were $0.21{\pm}0.02$, and $67.52{\pm}4.09$ at 100781m1, respectively. It exhibited almost equivalent virus-cell fusion inhibitory activity to that of dextran sulfate which was used as a standard control.

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토양에서 분리한 pseudomonas sp. 에 의한 phosphinothricin 과 glyphosate의 생분해

  • 정광보;조홍범;채영규;최영길
    • Korean Journal of Microbiology
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.47-52
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    • 1992
  • This study describes isolation and identification of a soil bacterium which is degradable of phosphinothricin and improvement of the isolated strain by using mutagenesis and spheroplast fusion. The experiment was performed to search for a possibility of development of a new strain which is both PPT-degradable and glyphosate-resistant by using interspecies cell fusion between the PPT-degrading bacterium. Pseudornonu.\ puucimohlis and a glyphosate -resistant strain, Pseudornonu.~ cc,pucicl. Auxotrophic mutants were obtained by the treatement of P. puucimohili.\ with ethylmethanosulfate, and used to cell fusion. Lysozyme and EDTA were used to spheroplast formation and regeneration rates :)f the spheroplast were 6.5'%1 in P. pauc.irnohili.\ and 8.8% in P.ci,j~u[,i(lr, espctively. Polyethylenglycol 5.000 was used to cell fusion as fusogen. The fusant\ulcorner F1. F2. F\ulcorner and F4 werc- obtained by the intra- and interspecies cell fusion. The fusant Fl of intraspecies cell fusion was higher to the wild type by 1 I'%l in PPT degrading ability, and the fusant F3 of inierspesis cell fusion developed plyphosatc-resistant and PPI-dcgrading ability which were propertics of two parental strains.

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Studies on the Polyethylene Glycol-induced Fusion of Two-cell Mouse Embryo Blastomeres (Polyethylene Glycol 처리에 의한 생쥐 2세포기배의 분할구 융합에 관한 연구)

  • 양부근
    • Korean Journal of Animal Reproduction
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.133-140
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    • 1990
  • This study was conducted to develop a simple and efficient technique for fusing 2-cell mouse embryos to obtain tertraploid embryos. Various concentration of PEG and exposure times were compared in order to determine the best condition for fusion and subsequent of fused embryos. The results obtained were follows ; 1. The incidence of fusion induction treated with 40% PEG(70.8%) and 45%(62.7%) for 60 sec. exposure were higher than those of 40% and 45% PEG for 30 sec., 90 sec., or 120 sec. exposure group. Also, the highest incidence of fusion induction(76.9%) was achieved with 120 sec. exposure at 50% PEG concentration. 2. Fused embryos after PEG treatment were cleavaged 2-to 4-cell, 8-cell, morula and blastocyst at 20-24 hr., 30-34., 44-52 hr., respectively, and were not different from those obtained fleshly. 3. The high proportions of the embryos developed to blastocysts after blastomere fusion with 40% PEG for 60 sec., 45% PEG for 60 sec. and 50% for 120 sec. were 66.7%(42/63), 69.0%(29/42) and 32.0%(16/50), respectively, this trend indicated that the fusion rate was similar to the incidence of fused embryos forming blastocysts. 4. The cell number of blastocyst developed from fused embryos(18.7 2.6) was samller than that of untreated embryos(48.9 1.69)

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