• Title, Summary, Keyword: cellulosic biomass

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Production of Acetic Acid from Cellulosic Biomass (섬유성 바이오매스를 이용한 Acetic Acid 생산)

  • 우창호;박준호;윤현희
    • KSBB Journal
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    • v.15 no.5
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    • pp.458-463
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    • 2000
  • Production of acetic acid from cellulosic biomass by Simultaneous Saccharification and Extractive Fermentation (SSEF) was investigated. The homoacetate organism used in this study was a strain of Clostridium thermoaceticum, ATCC # 49707. A batch operation of Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation(SSF) using ${\alpha}$-cellulose at pH 5.5 and 55$^{\circ}C$ yielded 40% conversion of cellulose to acetic acid, while a fed-batch SSF operation produced a maximum acetic acid concentration of 25 g/L, with 50% overall yield. In-situ extractive fermentation to reduce the end-product inhibition on both bacteria and enzyme was carried out. in a batch SSEF using 200 g/L IRA-400 resin, acetic acid concentration reached to 23.9 g/L and acetic acid yield and productivity were observed to be 48% and 0.20 g/L-hr, respectively.

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Isolation of cellulosic biomass degrading microorganisms from different sources for low cost biofuel production

  • Sheikh, M. Mominul Islam;Kim, Chul-Hwan;Lee, Ji-Yong;Yeasmin, Shabina;Park, Hyeon-Jin;Kim, Gyeong-Chul;Kim, Sung-Ho;Kim, Jae-Won
    • Proceedings of the Korea Technical Association of the Pulp and Paper Industry Conference
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    • pp.81-91
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    • 2011
  • Current fuel ethanol research and development deals with process engineering trends for improving biotechnological production of ethanol. Recently, a large amount of studies regarding the utilization of lignocellulosic biomass as a good feedstock for producing fuel ethanol is being carried out worldwide. The plant biomass is mainly composed of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. The main challenge in the conversion of biomass into ethanol is the complex, rigid and harsh structures which require efficient process and cost effective to break down. The isolation of microorganisms is one of the means for obtaining enzymes with properties suitable for industrial applications. For these reasons, crude cultures containing cellulosic biomass degrading microorganisms were isolated from rice field soil, cow farm soil and rotten rice straw from cow farm. Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), xylan and Avicel (microcrystalline cellulose) degradation zone of clearance on agar platefrom rice field soil resulted approximately at 25 mm, 24 mm and 22 mm respectively. As for cow farm soil, CMC, xylan and Avicel degradation clearancezone on agar plate resulted around at 24mm, 23mm and 21 mm respectively. Rotten rice straw from cow farm also resulted for CMC, xylan and Avicel degradation zone almost at 24 mm, 23 mm and 22 mm respectively. The objective of this study is to isolatebiomass degrading microbial strains having good efficiency in cellulose hydrolysis and observed the effects of different substrates (CMC, xylan and Avicel) on the production of cellulase enzymes (endo-glucanase, exo-glucanase, cellobiase, xylanase and avicelase) for producing low cost biofuel from cellulosic materials.

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Preparation of Cellulose Acetate Produced from Lignocellulosic Biomass

  • Jo, Jong-Soo;Jung, Ji Young;Byun, Ji-Hye;Lim, Bu-Kug;Yang, Jae-Kyung
    • Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology
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    • v.44 no.2
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    • pp.241-252
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    • 2016
  • Cellulose acetate is one of well-known industrial materials which have various commercial uses. We treated the lignocellulosic biomass using two-step (steam explosion-chemical) reaction followed by acetylation to get the cellulose acetate in this study. The two-step treatment was done to improve the yields of acetylation of the substrates. The yields of the cellulose acetate were about 88.4, 88.1, and 151.7% in barley straw, rice straw, and oak tree, respectively. Also the degree of substitution (DS) of the acetates was 2.1 to 2.5 in the biomass. We found that the biomass were valuable cellulosic sources, including their derivatives, in this study. This means that the biomass can be converted into the high-valued cellulosic stuff.

Design of Pretreatment Process in Cellulosic Ethanol Production (목질계 셀룰로오스 에탄올 생산공정에서 전처리과정의 설계)

  • Kim, Hyungjin;Lee, Seung Bum
    • Applied Chemistry for Engineering
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    • v.26 no.4
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    • pp.511-514
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    • 2015
  • A pretreatment process of cellulose decomposition to a monosaccharide plays an important role in the cellulosic ethanol production using the lignocellulosic biomass. In this study, a cellulosic ethanol was produced by using acidic hydrolysis and enzymatic saccharification process from the lignocellulosic biomass such as rice straw, sawdust, copying paper and newspaper. Three different pretreatment processes were compared; the acidic hydrolysis ($100^{\circ}C$, 1 h) using 10~30 wt% of sulfuric acid, the enzymatic saccharification (30 min) using celluclast ($55^{\circ}C$, pH = 5.0), AMG ($60^{\circ}C$, pH = 4.5), and spirizyme ($60^{\circ}C$, pH = 4.2) and also the hybrid process (enzymatic saccharification after acidic hydrolysis). The yield of cellulosic ethanol conversion with those pretreatment processes were obtained as the following order : hybrid process > acidic hydrolysis > enzymatic saccharification. The optimum fermentation time was proven to be two days in this work. The yield of cellulosic ethanol conversion using celluclast after the acidic hydrolysis with 20 wt% sulfuric acid were obtained as the following order : sawdust > rice straw > copying paper > newspaper when conducting enzymatic saccharification.

Isolation of Mutant Yeast Strains having Resistance to 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium Acetate through a Directed Evolutionary Approach (유도적 돌연변이 유발 방법을 통한 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate에 대해 내성을 갖는 돌연변이 효모 선별)

  • Lee, Yoo-Jin;Kwon, Deok-Ho;Park, Jae-Bum;Ha, Suk-Jin
    • Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
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    • v.45 no.1
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    • pp.51-56
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    • 2017
  • Cellulosic biomass is a renewable source for biofuel production from non-edible biomass. An optimized pretreatment process is required for the efficient utilization of cellulosic biomass. Among various pretreatment processes, the use of ionic liquids has been reported recently. However, the residual ionic liquid after pretreatment acts as an inhibitor of microbial fermentation. Recently, we isolated mutant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains resistant to the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([EMIM][Ac]) by using a directed evolutionary approach. When 3% [EMIM][Ac] was added to a medium containing 80 g/l of glucose, mutants D452-B2 and D452-S3 produced 35.6 g/l and 36.3 g/l of ethanol, respectively, for 18 h while the parental strain (S. cerevisiae D452-2) produced 1.3 g/l of ethanol. Thus, these mutant S. cerevisiae strains might prove advantageous when ionic liquids are used for biofuel production from cellulosic biomass.

Characteristics of Lignin Removal in Cellulosic Ethanol Production Process (셀룰로오스 에탄올 생산공정에서 리그닌의 제거특성)

  • Lee, You-Na;Lee, Seung-Bum;Lee, Jae-Dong
    • Applied Chemistry for Engineering
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.77-80
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    • 2011
  • In this study, we measured changes in the lignin content of acidified lignocellulosic biomass such as rice straw, saw dust, chestnut shell and peanut hull and analyzed the conversion property to cellulosic ethanol. It turns out that the lignin content increases in chestnut shell, rice straw, saw dust, peanut hull order and the conversion property to cellulosic ethanol is superior in the reverse order. Thus, the removal of lignin by acidification is necessary. In addition, as the concentration of sulfuric acid increases, the lignin content decreases and the yield of cellulosic ethanol increased. The optimum concentration of sulfuric acid is 20 wt%.

Development of Transportation Bio-energy and Its Future (수송용 바이오에너지 개발과 미래)

  • Chung, Jay-H.;Kwon, Gi-Seok;Jang, Han-Su
    • Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
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    • v.36 no.1
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    • pp.1-5
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    • 2008
  • Negative environmental consequences of fossil fuels and the concerns about their soaring prices have spurred the search for alternative energy sources. While other alternative energies-like solar, wind, geothermal, hydroelectric, and tidal-offer viable options for electricity generation, around 40% of total energy consumption requires liquid fuels like gasoline or diesel fuel. This is where bio-energy/biofuels is especially attractive, where they can serve as a practical alternative to oil. The production of liquid biofuels for transportation will depend upon a stable supply of large amount of inexpensive cellulosic biomass obtained on a sustainable basis. This paper reviewed development status of transportation bio-energy for vehicles, technical barriers to the production of cellulosic ethanol, and the global future of bio-diesel and ethanol production.

Ethanol Production from Various Sugars and Cellulosic Biomass by White Rot Fungus Lenzites betulinus

  • Im, Kyung Hoan;Nguyen, Trung Kien;Choi, Jaehyuk;Lee, Tae Soo
    • Mycobiology
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    • v.44 no.1
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    • pp.48-53
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    • 2016
  • Lenzites betulinus, known as gilled polypore belongs to Basidiomycota was isolated from fruiting body on broadleaf dead trees. It was found that the mycelia of white rot fungus Lenzites betulinus IUM 5468 produced ethanol from various sugars, including glucose, mannose, galactose, and cellobiose with a yield of 0.38, 0.26, 0.07, and 0.26 g of ethanol per gram of sugar consumed, respectively. This fungus relatively exhibited a good ethanol production from xylose at 0.26 g of ethanol per gram of sugar consumed. However, the ethanol conversion rate of arabinose was relatively low (at 0.07 g of ethanol per gram sugar). L. betulinus was capable of producing ethanol directly from rice straw and corn stalks at 0.22 g and 0.16 g of ethanol per gram of substrates, respectively, when this fungus was cultured in a basal medium containing 20 g/L rice straw or corn stalks. These results indicate that L. betulinus can produce ethanol efficiently from glucose, mannose, and cellobiose and produce ethanol very poorly from galactose and arabinose. Therefore, it is suggested that this fungus can ferment ethanol from various sugars and hydrolyze cellulosic materials to sugars and convert them to ethanol simultaneously.

The Effect of Extrusion Treatment on Aqueous Ammonia Soaking Method in Miscanthus Biomass Pretreatment (억새 바이오매스 전처리에서 압출 처리가 액상 암모니아 침지 처리에 미치는 영향)

  • Bark, Surn-Teh;Koo, Bon-Cheol;Choi, Yong-Hwan;Moon, Youn-Ho;Ahn, Seung-Hyun;Cha, Young-Lok;Kim, Jung-Kon;An, Gi-Hong;Suh, Sae-Jung;Park, Don-Hee
    • New & Renewable Energy
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    • v.6 no.4
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    • pp.6-14
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    • 2010
  • Pretreatment of cellulosic biomass is necessary before enzymatic saccharification and fermentation. Extrusion is a well established process in food industries and it can be used as a physicochemical treatment method for cellulosic biomass. Aqueous ammonia soaking treatment at mild temperatures ranging from 60 to $80^{\circ}C$ for longer reaction times has been used to preserve most of the cellulose and hemicellulose in the biomass. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of extrusion treatment on aqueous ammonia soaking method. Extrusion was performed with miscanthus sample conditioned to 2mm of particle size and 20% of moisture content at $200^{\circ}C$ of barrel temperature and 175rpm of screw speed. And then aqueous ammonia soaking was performed with 15%(w/w) ammonia solution at $60^{\circ}C$ for 1, 2, 4, 8, 12 hours on the extruded and raw miscanthus samples respectively. In the combined extrusion-soaking treatment, most compositions removal occurred within 1~2 hours and on a basis of 1 hour soaking treatment values, cellulose was recovered about 85% and other compositions, including hemicellulose, are removed about 50% from extruded miscanthus sample. The combined extrusion-soaking treated and soaking only treated samples were subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis using cellulase and ${\beta}$-glucosidase. The enzymatic digestibility value of combined extrusion-2 hours soaking treated sample was comparable to 12 hours soaking only treated sample. It means that extrusion treatment can shorten the conventional long reaction time of aqueous ammonia soaking. The findings suggest that the combination of extrusion and soaking is a promising pretreatment method to solve both problems for no lignin removal of extrusion and long reaction time of aqueous ammonia soaking.

Pretreatment Characteristics of Ammonia Soaking Method for Cellulosic Biomass (암모니아 Soaking 방법을 이용한 섬유소계 바이오매스의 전처리 특성)

  • Park, Yong-Cheol;Kim, Jin-Woo;Kim, Jun-Seok
    • Korean Chemical Engineering Research
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    • v.49 no.3
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    • pp.292-296
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    • 2011
  • Liberation of fermentable sugars from lignocellulosic biomass is one of the key challenges in production of cellulosic ethanol. Aqueous ammonia cleaves ether and ester bonds in lignin carbohydrate complexes. It is an effective swelling reagent for lignocellulosic biomass. The aqueous ammonia pretreatment selectively reduces the lignin content of biomass. However, at high temperatures, this process solubilizes more than 50% of the hemicellulose in the biomass. Here we conducted a SAA(Soaking in Aqueous Ammonia) process by moderate reaction temperatures at atmospheric pressure using various lignocellulosicbiomass. The optimum condition of this process was 15 wt% of aqueous ammonia at 50 of reaction time during 72 hr. The delignification was up to 60% basis on initial biomass and the enzymatic digestibility was 60-90% for agricultural biomass, respectively.