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Potential Study for the Sedimentary Exhalative Pb-Zn Mineralization in Dyusembay Area, Kazakhstan (카자흐스탄 듀셈바이지역의 퇴적분기형 연-아연 광화작용에 대한 잠재력 연구)

  • No, Sang-gun;Lee, Seung-han;Park, Ki-woong;Jeong, Hyeon-guk;Yun, Ji-seong;Kim, Sun-ok;Park, Maeng-eon
    • Economic and Environmental Geology
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    • v.51 no.3
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    • pp.213-222
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    • 2018
  • Metasediment-hosted Pb-Zn mineralized zone has been found in Dyusembay of Kazakhstan. Its petrological properties, metal index, alteration index and redox-sensitivity are compared with those of SEDEX type deposit. Mineralization is developed along foliation of host rock (graphitic phyllite) and controlled by folds and faults; major ore minerals including pyrite, pyrrhotite, sphalerite, and galena are disseminated or interlayered with fine-grained quartz. The margin of the mineralized zone is metamorphosed accompanying sericite and chlorite. Hydrothermal brecciation and Pb-Zn mineralization formed in quartz-calcite stockworks are confirmed at the around of Maytyubin granitoid intrusions. The mineralization is classified into three types according to those of occurrence, paragenesis, chemical composition and isotopic characteristics. Type 1 whose fine-grained pyrite, pyrrhotite and sphalerite are formed in parallel yet discontinuous to well-developed foliations of the host rock; its geochemistry is similar to those of the earlier stage in SEDEX-type mineralization. In case of type 2, the ore minerals of which are concentrated being parallel to a foliation by regional metamorphism, and most of them associated with quartz and muscovite (${\pm}$ biotite) paragenetically. Type 3 is formed in the hydrothermal breccia zone whose ore minerals are controlled by foliation and breccia and developed in quartz ${\pm}$ calcite veins having a form such as stratification, stockwork or veinlets. Host rocks in the mineralized zone indicate homogeneous metamorphic grade and there is no specific alteration zonation. Also, all types (type 1, type 2, and type 3) represent similar REEs patterns, it can be interpreted that these are originated from a same source. Sulphides occurred in mineralized zone indicate a limited range of sulphur isotope values (type 2, ${\delta}^{34}S=-13.3{\sim}-11.7$‰; type 3, ${\delta}^{34}S=-13.9{\sim}-8.2$‰), and a result of geothermometry presents different temperature ranges: type 2($251{\pm}38^{\circ}C{\sim}277{\pm}40^{\circ}C$); type 3($360{\pm}2^{\circ}C$ to $537{\pm}29^{\circ}C$). It is estimated to be due to the effect of metamorphism and Maytyubin granitoid intrusions, respectively. In addition, ternary chart of thorium, scandium, and zircon for discrimination of tectonic setting and redox sensitivity using V/Mo values indicate that hydrothermal sediments put on reduction environment after precipitation, before being affected by metamorphism and intrusion activity. Geochemical data are plotted on a distal trend of SEDEX-type with discrimination plot using SEDEX index. As a result, petrological-geochemical properties demonstrate that Dyusembay Pb-Zn mineralized zone is comparable to distal-type of SEDEX deposit.

A Study on the Fabrication of the Laminated Wood Composed of Poplar and Larch (포푸라와 일본잎갈나무의 집성재 제조에 관한 연구)

  • Jo, Jae-Myeong;Kang, Sun-Goo;Kim, Ki-Hyeon;Chung, Byeong-Jae
    • Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology
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    • v.2 no.2
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    • pp.25-31
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    • 1974
  • 1. Various gluing qualities applying Resorcinol Plyophen #6000 were studied on aiming the strength relationships of laminated woods resulted by single species [poplar (Populus deltoides), larch(Larix leptolepis)], mixed species of (poplar and larch), preservatives, treated poplar the scarf joint with mixed species of poplar and larch and the scarf joint treated with preservatives. 1. 1 On the block shear and on the DVL tension test, the mean wood failure ratio showed an excellent value i.e., above 65% and the tangential strength for larch was higher than that of radial, but it was reversed for poplar as shown in Tables 1 and 2. 1. 2 The lamina treated with Na-PCP reduced slightly the strength but the limited strength allowed for manufacturing laminated wood was not influenced by treating Na-PCP as shown in Tables 3 and 4. 1. 3 The safe scarf ratio in the plane scarf joint was above 1/12 for larch and 1/6 for poplar regard less of the chemical treatment or untreatment as shown in Tables. 5, 6, 7 and 8. 2. In the normal and boiled state, the gluing quality of the laminated wood composed of single[poplar (Populus deltoides), larch (Larix leptolepis)] and double species (poplar and larch) glued with Resorcinol Plyophen #6000 were measured as follow, and also represented the delamination of the same laminated wood. 2.1 The normal block shear strength of the straight and curved laminated wood (in life size) were more than three times of the standards adhesion strength. And, the value of the boiled stock was decreased to one half of the standard shear adhesion strength, but it was more than twice the standard strength for the boiled stock. Thus, it was recognized that the water resistance of the Resorcinol Plyophen #6000 was very high as shown in Tables 9 and 10. 2. 2 The delamination ratio of the straight and curved laminated woods in respect of their composition were decraesed, in turn, in the following order i. e., larch, mixed stock (larch+poplar) and poplar. The maximum value represented by the larch was 3.5% but it was below the limited value as shown in Table 11. 3. The various strengthes i.e., compressive, bending and adhesion obtainted by the straight laminaced wood which were constructed by five plies of single and double species of lamina i. e., larch (Larix leptolepis) and poplar (Populus euramericana), glued with urea resin were shown as follows: 3. 1 If desired a higher strength of architectural laminated wood composed of poplar (P) and larch (L), the combination of the laminas should be arranged as follows, L+P+L+P+L as shown in Table 12. 3.2 The strength of laminated wood composed of laminas which included pith and knots was conside rably decreased than that of clear lamina as shown Table 13. 3.3 The shear strength of the FPL block of the straight laminated wood constructed by the same species which were glued with urea adhesives was more than twice the limited adhesion strength, thus it makes possible to use it for interior constructional stock.

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Studies on the chemical composition of citrus fruits in Korea(II) -Changes of acid and sugar components with growth- (한국산(韓國産) 감귤류(柑橘類)의 화학성분(化學成分)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究) (II) -주요품종별(主要品種別) 당(糖) 및 산조성(酸組成)의 시기별(時期別) 변화(變化)에 관(關)하여-)

  • Park, H.;Kim, Y.S.;Kim, Z.U.
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.9
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    • pp.41-57
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    • 1968
  • Changes of acids (total, titratable and combined form) and sugars (total, reducing and non-reducing) in the edible part and the rind of 17 varieties the in growing and ripening period were investigated. The results were summarized as follows. 1) The percentage of rind was notably decreased in growing period and slightly in the ripening period- It may suggest that the rates of translocation of metabolite from leaves to each part of fruit are different with growth phase. 2) The heavier the weight of fruit, the higher the percentage of rind was and the varieties having over 200 g per fruit showed the value over 30 in the rind percentage and over 15 in the number seeds per fruit. 3) Total acid contents in the rind were highest at the maximum grow th of fruit except in Citrus grandis having tie lowest value (below 20 me/100 g F.W). of total acid at maximum point in which total acid content is steadily increase. 4) Total acid and titratable acid in the edible part and total acid and combined acid in whole fruit life showed 0.933 and 0.970 of correlation coefficient significant at 1% level respectively, and most acid in the edible part was titratable acid(73%) whereas acid in the rind consists mostly of combined acid. 5) The content of combined acid in the ripening period increased in the edible part and decreased in the rind. It may be contributed to translocation of some cations from the rind to the edible part. 6) The grouping criteria on citrus fruit were applicable on melon, watermelon and tomatoes. 7) The contents of total sugar and non-reducing sugar in the edible part were continuously increased whereas the content of reducing sugar were decreased in certain varieties, notablly in citrus natsudaidai. The correlation coefficient between total sugar and reducing sugar in the edible part with ripening decreased as $0.849^{**},\;0.732^{**}.\;0.583^*$. ( $^{**}$: significant at 1% level and $^{*}:$: at 5%) 8) 61% of total sugar in the edible part was non-reducing sugar whereas 88% of total sugar in the rind was reducing form at the end of ripening and the correlation coefficient between total and non-reducing sugar in the edible part was 0.861 end total and reducing sugar in the rind was 0.972, both significant at 1% level. 9) Varieties having the percentage of the rind below 36 showed higher value than I in the ratio of total sugar in the edible part to one in the rind. It may suggest that there exists any intimate relation between relative sugar content and growth rate of fruit parts. 10) Citrus unshiu in Guje island showed lower values in the content of acid and sugar, and the rind percentage but higher sweetness index (the ratio of total sugar to titratable acid) comparing with the same variety in Jeiu.

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The Factors Influencing the Systemic Action of Dimethoate (O.O-dimethyl-S-(N-methylcarbamoylmethyl) phosphorodithioate) to the Rice Seeds and Phytotoxic Effects (수도종자에의 Dimethoate 침투력 및 발아저해에 관여하는 요인에 관한 연구)

  • Choi Seung Yoon
    • Korean journal of applied entomology
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.57-74
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    • 1970
  • These experiments were conducted to investigate the :actors influencing the systemic action of Dimethoate (O,O-dimethyl-S-(N-methylcarhamoylmethyl) photphorodithioate) to rice seeds and the phytotoxic effects on the seed germination. Dimethoate $(Roxion^{(R)})$ $40\%$ emulsion was used. The varieties tested were Jinheung. Nongkwang,Suwon #82, Norm #6, Paltal, Shirogane, Suseong, Pungkwang, Shin #2, Fujisaka #5, Kwanok, and Jaekeun. The permeated Dimethoate was extracted from the treated seeds by chloroform and quantities were determined by Spectrophotometer. The phytotoxicity was evaluated from the effects on the germination of the treated seeds which were kept in an incubator. The oxygen consumption was measured by Warburg Manometer at $30^{\circ}C$ for 60 minutes. Indices of KOH disintegration of seeds and chemical composition of the seeds were also determined. The results obtained were as followings; 1) The amount of permeated Dimethoate in the seeds showed remarkable differences with varieties. The amount of Dimethoate per 100 grains was greater as in the ascending order of Suseong, Kwanok, Nongkwang, Jinheung, Paltal, Fujisaka #5, Suwon #82, Norm #6, Shirogane, Shin #2, Pungkwang and Jaekeun. 2) It was observed that the total amount of Dimethoate in the seeds(mg./100 grains) were greater among the varieties with large grain than those with small grains, while reverse cases were true in the amount of Dimethoate in a gramme of seeds, probably because of the greater surface areas In a small grains for a gramme weight. 3) There was no significant correlation between the permeated amount of Dimethoate and amount of absorbed water by the seeds when the seeds were treated with $0.1\%$ Dimethoate for 24 and 48 hours. 4) The permeability of Dimethoate to seeds significantly increased in the prolonged soaking periods, higher concentration, and higher temperature. 5) When the seeds were treated with $0.1\%$ Dimethoate for 24 and 48 hours at $15^{\circ},\;20^{\circ},\; 20^{\circ},\; and \;30^{\circ}C$, the permeated amount of Dimethoate were increased at higher temperature. It seems to be that the more active penetration of Dimethoate was involved at the higher temperature. 6) The phytotoxic effects of Dinethoate on the seed germination varied with the varieties. An descending order of varietal tolerance of seeds was as followings: Jinheung, Fujisaka #5, Suwon #82, Paltal, Nongkwang, Jaekeun, Shin #2, Kwanok, Shirogane, Pungkwang, Suseong, and Norm #6. 7) There was a positive correlation between the amount of Dimethoate permeated into the seeds (mg./gram. of seeds) and phytotoxicity of seeds. 8) The Phytotoxic effects of Dimethoate showed close correlation with the degree of KOH disintegration of seeds, average germination periods, and oxygen respiration of seeds. 9) It was observed that higher protein contents of the seeds decreased the phytotoxic effects of Dimethoate. 10) Relatively high negative correlation between the degree of KOH disintegration of seeds and crude protein content of the seeds was observed. 11) The average germination period was delayed for about 2 days when the seeds were treated with $0.2\%$ Dimethoate for 24 hours at $30^{\circ}C$. 12) The oxygen consumption of the seeds treated with $0.2\%$ Dimethoate for 24 hours at $30^{\circ}C$ was greatly decreased when compared with that of the normal seeds. 13) The amount of oxygen consumption of the seeds (in 24 hours after 24 hours water soaking) was negatively correlated with the average germination periods of the seeds.

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Clinical Applications and Efficacy of Korean Ginseng (고려인삼의 주요 효능과 그 임상적 응용)

  • Nam, Ki-Yeul
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.26 no.3
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    • pp.111-131
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    • 2002
  • Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) received a great deal of attention from the Orient and West as a tonic agent, health food and/or alternative herbal therapeutic agent. However, controversy with respect to scientific evidence on pharmacological effects especially, evaluation of clinical efficacy and the methodological approach still remains to be solved. Author reviewed those articles published since 1980 when pharmacodynamic studies on ginseng have intensively started. Special concern was paid on metabolic disorders including diabetes mellitus, circulatory disorders, malignant tumor, sexual dysfunction, and physical and mental performance to give clear information to those who are interested in pharmacological study of ginseng and to promote its clinical use. With respect to chronic diseases such as diabetes mellitus, atherosclerosis, high blood pressure, malignant disorders, and sexual disorders, it seems that ginseng plays preventive and restorative role rather than therapeutics. Particularly, ginseng plays a significant role in ameliorating subjective symptoms and preventing quality of life from deteriorating by long term exposure of chemical therapeutic agents. Also it seems that the potency of ginseng is mild, therefore it could be more effective when used concomitantly with conventional therapy. Clinical studies on the tonic effect of ginseng on work performance demonstrated that physical and mental dysfunction induced by various stresses are improved by increasing adaptability of physical condition. However, the results obtained from clinical studies cannot be mentioned in the indication, which are variable upon the scientist who performed those studies. In this respect, standardized ginseng product and providing planning of the systematic clinical research in double-blind randomized controlled trials are needed to assess the real efficacy for proposing ginseng indication. Pharmacological mode of action of ginseng has not yet been fully elucidated. Pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic researches reveal that the role of ginseng not seem to be confined to a given single organ. It has been known that ginseng plays a beneficial role in such general organs as central nervous, endocrine, metabolic, immune systems, which means ginseng improves general physical and mental conditons. Such multivalent effect of ginseng can be attributed to the main active component of ginseng,ginsenosides or non-saponin compounds which are also recently suggested to be another active ingredients. As is generally the similar case with other herbal medicines, effects of ginseng cannot be attributed as a given single compound or group of components. Diversified ingredients play synergistic or antagonistic role each other and act in harmonized manner. A few cases of adverse effect in clinical uses are reported, however, it is not observed when standardized ginseng products are used and recommended dose was administered. Unfavorable interaction with other drugs has also been suggested, which the information on the products and administered dosage are not available. However, efficacy, safety, interaction or contraindication with other medicines has to be more intensively investigated in order to promote clinical application of ginseng. For example, daily recommended doses per day are not agreement as 1-2g in the West and 3-6 g in the Orient. Duration of administration also seems variable according to the purpose. Two to three months are generally recommended to feel the benefit but time- and dose-dependent effects of ginseng still need to be solved from now on. Furthermore, the effect of ginsenosides transformed by the intestinal microflora, and differential effect associated with ginsenosides content and its composition also should be clinically evaluated in the future. In conclusion, the more wide-spread use of ginseng as a herbal medicine or nutraceutical supplement warrants the more rigorous investigations to assess its effacy and safety. In addition, a careful quality control of ginseng preparations should be done to ensure an acceptable standardization of commercial products.

Feed Intake and Digestibility in Korean Native Goats Fed Fermented Domestic Agricultural By-Products (국내산 농산부산물 발효사료를 급여한 재래산양의 사료섭취량 및 소화율)

  • 안종호;유황종;김현진;조익환;이주삼
    • Korean Journal of Organic Agriculture
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    • v.8 no.3
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    • pp.111-120
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    • 2000
  • In this study, by-products of rice bran, rice hull, bean curd dregs and food waste were fermented with different ratios of 26, 26, 34 and 14% respectively and the experimental diets were prepared mixing it with various ratios of commercial diets (fermented feed commercial feed : A 80 : 20, B 70 : 30, C 60 : 40, D 50:50). In Experiment I, feed intake, nutrients digestibilities and nitrogen retention were investigated and body weight gain in Experiment 1. For chemical composition of experimental diets, crude protein contents were 13.73, 13.78, 14.45 and 15.14% in A, B, C and D respectively and the contents of crude fat and crude fiber were highest in A as 8.66 and 27.82% respectively. 2. Dry hurler intakes were significantly higher (P<0.05) in A(362.06g/d) and C(358.49g/d) than B and D. Intakes of crude protein and crude fat were not significantly different (P>0.05) among treatments however those of crude fiber and crude ash were significantly higher (P>0.05) in A(101.47g/d). 3. Dry matter digestibilities in the range of 53.38∼68.81% in all treatments have shown the highest value in C of 60% fermented feed plus 40% commercial diet but the lowest in A of 80% of fermented feed plus 20% commercial diet (P<0.05). 59.85% of digestibility of crude protein in A was also lowest among all treatments (p<0.05), 4. 8.47g/d of nitrogen intake in C was recorded highest (P<0.05) however the highest nitrogen retention was marked in B of 50% fermented feed plus 50% of commercial diet due mainly to lower excretion of nitrogen through feces. 5. The data of live weight gain in Experiment II has not been shown as a result since the proper daily gain of body weight was achieved only in D as 88.89g/d and the goats in other treatments have shown frequent diarrhea. However, neglecting the animals with diarrhea, higher amounts of concentrates in the diets (C and D) showed the tendency of higher weight gain. 6. In this study, feeding 60% fermented feed manufactured with domestic agricultural by-products of rice bran, rice hull, bean curd dregs and food waste to Korean native goats have shown satisfactory results of intake and digestibility and it indicates that utilization of domestic agricultural by-products in goats could be improved by the process of fermentation. However it's effects on body weight gain and nitrogen retention were below than expected. Different sources of feedstuff for fermentation may result in different performances of animals. However, to draw overall conclusion from this study, 50∼60% of fermented feed can be recommended in the case of mixing with concentrates.

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The Ripening of Camembert Cheese Made with Mucor Miehei Rennet (Mucor Miehei 응유효소(凝乳酵素)로 제조(製造)한 Camembert Cheese의 숙성(熟成)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究))

  • Park, Mooh Il;Kim, Jong Woo
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.179-200
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    • 1989
  • Mucor miehei rennet(MR) was added as calf rennet(CR) substitutes in the fixed amounts of mixed rennets in making Camembert cheese. The conditions in the variations of chemical composition: water-soluble nitrogen, non-caseinic nitrogen, non-proteinic nitrogen, amino nitrogen, ammoniacal nitorgen, electrophoresis, molecular fractionation, mineral distribution, texture characterisitics, free amino acids and free fatty acids, were checked up with the sensory test and the chesse yields at each ripening period. The results obtained by investigating the utility of Mucor rennet were summarized as follows: 1. CR chesse, MR cheese and the mixed-rennet chesse failed to show any significant difference in their yields of 15%. 2. The contents of protein, fat and ash in MR cheese gave lower value than CR cheese did and with progress of ripening lactose decreased rapidly after 14 days of ripening. The difference among the rate of addition of mucor rennet was not recognized. 3. The WSN contents of 5 fresh sample chesse were from 14.7% to 17.3% and WSN increased from 39.7% to 41.0% with progress of ripening. After 21 days of ripening MR chesse had more WSN than CR cheese did. In NCN and ammoniacal nitrogen MR cheese showed higher value. 4. As the ripening progressed, MR chesse showed more cystein, phenylalanine and proline than CR chesse did but it failed to show any increase in aspartic acid, threonine and glutamic acid etc. 5. In the content of free fatty acid MR chesse showed higher value than CR cheese did and with the progress of ripening fatty acids increased from 8.36 mEq to 26.36 mEq but did not show any significant difference in the cheese types by the coagulant ratio. 6. Ca contents in the sample chesse were 0.238-0.27%, Mg 0.019-0.022%, Na 0.910-1.047%, and K 0.175-0.200%. The important non-sedimentable Ca in casein remained from 61 % to 77% without regard the ripening periods and added-rennets and Mg remained from 59.1% to 92.5% in non-sedimentable and water-soluble conditions. 7. In the fractionation of protein by ultrafilteration, MW> $5{\times}10^4$ decresed from 95% at the beginning period of ripening to 45% and MW< $10^4$ increased from 0.2% to 38% and definite caseinolysis was shown in all samples. 8. All the cheese showed to different electrophoretic patterns for the added-amounts of mucor rennet in the 14 days of ripenig. In the 28 days or ripening, MR cheese kept some bands on the patterns compared with CR cheese. 9. In vitro digestibility increased from 81.48-94.81 % to 94.47-98.61% but failed to show any significant difference in the cheese types by the coagulant ratio. 10. In hardness, MR cheese showed lower value compared with CR cheese as the ripening progressed. 11. The results of the sensory test failed to show any difference in flora rind, feelings in mouth and hands, deep structure, flavor and bitterness between CR Camembert cheese and MR Camembert chesse.

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The Bonggil Pseudotachylyte, SE Korea: Its occurrence and characteristics (봉길 슈도타킬라이트: 산상과 특성)

  • Kang, Hee-Cheol;Han, Raehee;Kim, Chang-Min;Cheon, Youngbeom;Cho, Hyeongseong;Yi, Keewook;Son, Moon;Kim, Jong-Sun
    • Journal of the Geological Society of Korea
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    • v.53 no.1
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    • pp.173-191
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    • 2017
  • Pseudotachylytes, i.e., solidified friction-induced melts, are strong evidence of seismic slip on faults. Here we report pseudotachylyte (PT)-bearing faults studied in outcrops of granodiorite (SHRIMP U-Pb zircon age, $75.0{\pm}1.5Ma$) and biotite granite (SHRIMP U-Pb zircon age, $58.4{\pm}1.1Ma$) on the coast of Bonggil-ri, Yangbuk-myeon, Gyeongju, SE Korea. Three types of pseudotachylyte are identified on the basis of thickness and morphology: Single dyke-, fault vein-, and injection vein-type PT. The single dyke-type PT shows a variation of thickness from 15~40 centimeters along its strike and has an average thickness of 21 cm, which is the largest in the world, as far as we know. The PT is dark gray and neighbors with several tens meters-thick cataclasite zone. At a first glance it looks like a mafic dike, but it has a chemical composition almost identical to the wall rock of granodiorite. Also, it has many subrounded clasts which consist predominantly of quartz and feldspar and newly crystallized tiny grains (submicrometers to several micrometers in size) such as plagioclase, K-feldspar, quartz, biotite, and Fe-oxides. The feldspars and biotite are euhedral and some plagioclase grains show zoning. Flow structures and embayed clasts are also observed. A number of fault vein-type PTs occur as thin (as thick as 2 cm) layers generated on the fault plane, and striations, such as slickensides indicating slip direction, develop along the fault planes and formed during co-seismic slip at the interface between the wall rock and frictional melt. Smaller injection vein-type PTs are found along the single dyke-type PT and the fault vein-type PTs, and appear in a variety of shapes (bleb, lens, sigmoid, network, and breccia) based on field occurrence and vein geometry. All of these observations indicate the PT formed due to frictional melting of the wall rock minerals during fault slip. We propose to call the single dyke type-PT to "Bonggil Pseudotachylyte" considering the thickness of the PT and the locality of the study area. The Bonggil PT-bearing fault strikes $N54^{\circ}W$, dips to NE with an angle of $65{\sim}72^{\circ}$, shows sinistral-reverse oblique-slip sense, and can be traced continuously over ~110 m. Since $^{40}Ar/^{39}Ar$ whole rock age of the Bonggil PT is $47.3{\pm}1.4Ma$, the age of seismic faulting which is responsible for the formation of the Bonggil PT should be younger than the Middle Eocene. Further work will be conducted to understand the mechanical aspect of the PT formation.

Studies on Microbial and Enzymatic Actions during the Ripening Process of Salted Alaska Pollack Tripe (창난 젓갈의 숙성 과정 중 미생물 및 자기소화효소 작용에 관한 연구)

  • Chae, Soo-Kyu
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.24 no.3
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    • pp.340-349
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    • 2011
  • This study examined the roles of autolytic enzymes and microorganisms in the ripening process of salted Alaska pollack tripe made with various concentrations of salt i.e, 7.5% and 20% by weight. Salted Alaska pollack tripe treated with antibiotic agents for the inhibition of microbial growth and a control were prepared experimentally, and changes in chemical composition and viable cell counts were investigated, individually, during the ripening process. Just after the preparation of the low salt Alaska pollack tripe made with 7.5% salt, viable bacterial cells occurred at a level of $10^5$ CFU/g. In the control, bacterial counts increased rapidly to $10^7$ CFU/g by the 14th day of ripening. However, in the sample treated with antibiotic agents, counts were decreased to a level of $10^4$ CFU/g by the 3rd day of ripening and increased gradually to $10^6$ CFU/g by the 5th day of ripening, and then the same value was maintained there-after. Just after the preparation of the high salt Alaska pollack tripe made with 20% salt, viable bacterial cells occurred at a level of $10^3$ CFU/g. In both the samples treated with antibiotic agents and the control, bacterial counts decreased rapidly to $10^0$ CFU/g by the 45th day of ripening and increased gradually there-after. The content of amino type nitrogen was 76.3 mg% just after the preparation of the low salt Alaska pollack tripe made with 7.5% salt. Amino type nitrogen content was increased to 283.5 mg% by the 5th day of proper ripening in the control, but it was increased to 208.0 mg% in the sample treated with antibiotic agents. The difference in amino type nitrogen content was 75.5 mg/100 g. The content of amino type nitrogen was 57.2 mg% just after the preparation of the high salt Alaska pollack tripe made with 20% salt. Amino type nitrogen content was increased to 198.3 mg by the 60th day of proper ripening in the control, but it was increased to 162.0 mg% in the sample treated with the antibiotic agents. The difference in amino type nitrogen content was 36.3 mg/100 g. The contents of VBN and TMA-N were 102.1 mg% and 20.5 mg%, respectively, at the 7th day of ripening in the low salt Alaska pollack tripe made with 7.5% salt. The content of VBN was 60.0 mg% and TMA-N was not detected at the 21st day of ripening in the sample treated with antibiotic agents. The control sample was spoiled by the 7th day of ripening but the sample treated with antibiotic agents was not spoiled by the 21st day of ripening. On the other hand, VBN content was 37.2 mg% and TMA-N was not detected at the 90th day of ripening in the high salt Alaska pollack tripe made with 20% salt, and the control sample was not spoiled.

Mineralogy and Mineral-chemistry of REE Minerals Occurring at Mountain Eorae, Chungju (충주 어래산 일대에서 산출하는 희토류 광물의 광물학적 및 광물화학적 특성)

  • You, Byoung-Woon;Lee, Gill Jae;Koh, Sang Mo
    • Economic and Environmental Geology
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    • v.45 no.6
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    • pp.643-659
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    • 2012
  • The Chungju Fe-REE deposit is located in the Kyemyeongsan Formation of the Ogcheon Group. The Kyemyeongsan Formation includes meta-volcanic rocks and pegmatite hosted REE deposit which show different kind of REE-containing minerals. The meta-volcanic rocks hosted REE deposits' main REE minerals are allanite, zircon, apatite, and sphene, whereas the pegmatite hosted REE deposits is mainly composed of fergusonite, and karnasurtite, zircon, thorite. The meta-volcanic rock hosted major REE mineral is allanite as the form of aggregation and contains 23.89-29.19 wt% TREO (Total Rare Earth Oxide), 4.71-9.92 wt% $La_2O_3$, 11.30-14.33 wt% $Ce_2O_3$, 0.11-0.29 wt% $Y_2O_3$, 0.15-0.94 wt% $ThO_2$, as a formula of (Ca, Y, REE, Th)$_{2.095}$(Mg, Al, Ti, Mn, $Fe^{3+})_{2.770}(SiO_4)_{2.975}(OH)$. Accompanying REE in a coupled substitution for $Ca^{2+}$ (M1 site) and $Al^{3+}-Fe^{2+}$ (M2 site) leads to a large chemical variety. Due to the allanite's high contents of Fe, it belongs to Ferrialanite. The pegmatite hosted deposit's domi-nant REE mineral is fergusonite as prismatic or subhedral grains associated with zircon, fluorite and karnasurtite. Geochemical composition of the fergusonite($YNbO_4$) suggests substitution of Y-REE and Y-Th in A-site, and Nb-Ta-Ti in B-site, furthermore the proportion of $Y_2O_3$ and $Nb_2O_5$ is oddly 1:1.5 comparing to the ideal ratio 1:1 and Nb is higher than Y, also A-site Y actively substitutes with REE. Karnasurtite in pegmatite variously ranges 9.16-22.88 wt% $Ce_2O_3$, 2.15-9.16 wt% and $La_2O_3$, 0.44-10.8 wt% $ThO_2$, as a calculated formula (Y, REE, Th, K, Na, Ca)$_{1.478}(Ti, Nb)_{1.304}$(Mg, Al, Mn, $Fe^{3+})_{0.988}$(Si, P)$_{1.431}O_7(OH)_4{\cdot}3H_2O$. Firstly the 870-860 Ma is the initial age of the supercontinent Rhodinia dispersal and subsequent A-1 type volcanism, which contains Fe, REE, and HFS(High Field Strength elements; Nb, Zr, Y etc.) elements in Fe-rich meta-volcanic rocks dominant Kyemyeongsan Formation, might mineralized allanite. Another synthesis is that regional metamorphism at late Paleozoic 300-280 Ma(Cho et al., 2002) might cause allanite mineralization. Also pegmatite REE mineralization highly related to the granite intrusion over the Chungju area in Jurassic(190 Ma; Koh et al., 2012). Otherwise above all, A-1 type volcanism at the same time of the Kyemyeongsan Formation development, regional metamorphism and pegmatite, might have caused REE mineralization. Although REE ore bodies display a close spatial association, each ore bodies display temporal distinction, different mineral assemblage and environment of ore formation.