• Title, Summary, Keyword: chemical hypoxia

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Role of Poly (ADP-ribose) Polymerase Activation in Chemical Hypoxia-Induced Cell Injury in Renal Epithelial Cells

  • Jung Soon-Hee
    • Biomedical Science Letters
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    • v.11 no.4
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    • pp.441-446
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    • 2005
  • The molecular mechanism of ischemia/reperfusion injury remains unclear. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are implicated in cell death caused by ischemia/reperfusion in vivo or hypoxia in vitro. Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) activation has been reported to be involved in hydrogen peroxide-induced cell death in renal epithelial cells. This study was therefore undertaken to evaluate the role of P ARP activation in chemical hypoxia in opossum kidney (OK) cells. Chemical hypoxia was induced by incubating cells with antimycin A, an inhibitor of mitochondrial electron transport. Exposure of OK cells to chemical hypoxia resulted in a time-dependent cell death. In OK cells subjected to chemical hypoxia, the generation of ROS was increased, and this increase was prevented by the $H_2O_2$ scavenger catalase. Chemical hypoxia increased P ARP activity and chemical hypoxia-induced cell death was prevented by the inhibitor of PARP activation 3-aminobenzamide. Catalase prevented OK cell death induced by chemical hypoxia. $H_2O_2$ caused PARP activation and $H_2O_2-induced$ cell death was prevented by 3-aminobenzamide. Taken together, these results indicate that chemical hypoxia-induced cell injury is mediated by PARP activation through H202 generation in renal epithelial cells.

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Delivery of Hypoxia Inducible Heme Oxygenase-1 Gene Using Dexamethasone Conjugated Polyethylenimine for Protection of Cardiomyocytes under Hypoxia

  • Kim, Hyun-Jung;Kim, Hyun-Ah;Choi, Joon-Sig;Lee, Min-Hyung
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.30 no.4
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    • pp.897-901
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    • 2009
  • Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is an anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic protein and has been applied to various gene therapy researches. However, constitutive expression of HO-1 may induce deleterious side effects. In this research, hypoxia inducible HO-1 expression plasmid, pEpo-SV-HO-1, was constructed with the erythropoietin (epo) enhancer and simian virus 40 (SV40) promoter to avoid these unwanted side effects. Dexamethasone conjugated polyethylenimine (PEI-Dexa) was used as a gene carrier. It was previously reported that dexamethasone protected cardiomyocytes from apoptosis under hypoxia. In this research, PEI-Dexa reduced the caspase-3 level in hypoxic H9C2 cardiomyocytes as a derivative of dexamethasone, suggesting that PEI-Dexa is an anti-apoptotic reagent as well as a gene carrier. pEpo-SV-HO-1 was transfected to H9C2 cardiomyocytes using PEI-Dexa and the cells were incubated under normoxia or hypoxia. HO-1 expression was induced in the pEpo-SV-HO-1 transfected cells under hypoxia. In addition, cell viability under hypoxia was higher in the pEpo-SV-HO-1 transfected cells than the pEpo-SV-Luc transfected cells. Also, caspase-3 level was reduced in the pEpo-SV-HO-1 transfected cells under hypoxia. In addition to the anti-apoptotic effect of PEI-Dexa, hypoxia inducible HO-1 expression by pEpo-SVHO- 1 may be helpful to protect cardiomyocytes under hypoxia. Therefore, pEpo-SV-HO-1/PEI-Dexa complex may be useful for ischemic heart disease gene therapy.

Hypoxia Induces Paclitaxel-Resistance through ROS Production

  • Oh, Jin-Mi;Ryu, Yun-Kyoung;Lim, Jong-Seok;Moon, Eun-Yi
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.145-151
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    • 2010
  • Oxygen supply into inside solid tumor is often diminished, which is called hypoxia. Many gene transcriptions were activated by hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-$1{\alpha}$. Here, we investigated the effect of hypoxia on paclitaxel-resistance induction in HeLa cervical tumor cells. When HeLa cells were incubated under hypoxia condition, HIF-$1{\alpha}$ level was increased. In contrast, paclitaxel-mediated tumor cell death was reduced by the incubation under hypoxia condition. Paclitaxel-mediated tumor cell death was also inhibited by treatment with DMOG, chemical HIF-$1{\alpha}$ stabilizer, in a dose-dependent manner. A significant increase in intracellular ROS level was detected by the incubation under hypoxia condition. A basal level of cell density was increased in response to 10 nM $H_2O_2$. HIF-$1{\alpha}$ level was increased by treatment with various concentration of $H_2O_2$. The increased level of HIF-$1{\alpha}$ by hypoxia was reduced by the treatment with N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a well-known ROS scavenger. Paclitaxel-mediated tumor cell death was increased by treatment with NAC. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that hypoxia could play a role in paclitaxel-resistance induction through ROS-mediated HIF-$1{\alpha}$ stabilization. These results suggest that hypoxia-induced ROS could, in part, control tumor cell death through an increase in HIF-$1{\alpha}$ level.

Protective effect of 3-(naphthalen-2-yl(propoxy)methyl)azetidine hydrochloride on hypoxia-induced toxicity by suppressing microglial activation in BV-2 cells

  • Kim, Jiae;Kim, Su-Min;Na, Jung-Min;Hahn, Hoh-Gyu;Cho, Sung-Woo;Yang, Seung-Ju
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.49 no.12
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    • pp.687-692
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    • 2016
  • We recently reported the anti-inflammatory effects of 3-(naphthalen-2-yl(propoxy)methyl)azetidine hydrochloride (KHG26792) on the ATP-induced activation of the NFAT and MAPK pathways through the P2X7 receptor in microglia. To further investigate the underlying mechanism of KHG26792, we studied its protective effects on hypoxia-induced toxicity in microglia. The administration of KHG26792 significantly reduced the hypoxia-induced expression and activity of caspase-3 in BV-2 microglial cells. KHG26792 also reduced hypoxia-induced inducible nitric oxide synthase protein expression, which correlated with reduced nitric oxide accumulation. In addition, KHG26792 attenuated hypoxia-induced protein nitration, reactive oxygen species production, and NADPH oxidase activity. These effects were accompanied by the suppression of hypoxia-induced protein expression of hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha and NADPH oxidase-2. Although the clinical relevance of our findings remains to be determined, these data results suggest that KHG26792 prevents hypoxia-induced toxicity by suppressing microglial activation.

Establishment of a Stable Cell Line Expressing Green Fluorescence Protein-fused Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1α for Assessment of Carcinogenicity of Chemical Toxicants

  • Kim, Sung-Hye;Seo, Hee-Won;Lee, Min-Ho;Chung, Jin-Ho;Lee, Byung-Hoon;Lee, Mi-Ock
    • Toxicological Research
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    • v.25 no.4
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    • pp.189-193
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    • 2009
  • Hypoxia inducible factor $1\alpha$ (HIF-$1\alpha$) is a potential marker of carcicnogenesis since it is overexpresssed in many human cancers such as brain, breast, and uterus, and its role has implicated in tumor cell growth and metastasis. In this study, we established a stable cell line that express green fluorescence protein (GFP)-fused hypoxia inducible factor $1\alpha$ (HIF-$1\alpha$) and evaluated the potential use of this cell line for assessment of carcinogenicity of chemical toxicants. Western blot analysis as well as fluorescence measurements showed that protein-level of GFP-HIF-$1\alpha$ was significantly enhanced in a dose-dependent manner upon treatment of hypoxia mimicking agents such as dexferrioxamine and $CoCl_2$. Well-Known tumor promoters such as mitomycin and methyl methanesulfonate. significantly induced the fluorescence intensity of GFP-HIF-$1\alpha$, whereas the known negative controls such as o-anthranilic acid and benzethonium chloride, did not. These results indicate that HIF-$1\alpha$ could be a biological parameter for detection of tumor initiators/promoters and suggest that the GFP-HIF-$1\alpha$ cell line is a useful system for screening of carcinogenic toxicants.

Regulation of Magnesium Release by cAMP during Chemical Hypoxia in the Rat Heart and Isolated Ventricular Myocytes

  • Kim, Jin-Shang;Scarpa, Antonio
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.3 no.1
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    • pp.59-68
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    • 1999
  • Chemically induced hypoxia has been shown to induce a depletion of ATP. Since intracellular free $Mg^{2+}\;([Mg^{2+}]_i)$ appears to be tightly regulated following cellular energy depletion, we hypothesized that the increase in $[Mg^{2+}]_i$ would result in $Mg^{2+}$ extrusion following hormonal stimulation. To determine the relation between $Mg^{2+}$ efflux and cellular energy state in a hypoxic rat heart and isolated myocytes, $[Mg^{2+}]_i,$ ATP and $Mg^{2+}$ content were measured by using mag-fura-2, luciferin-luciferase and atomic absorbance spectrophotometry. $Mg^{2+}$ effluxes were stimulated by norepinephrine (NE) or cAMP analogues, respectively. $Mg^{2+}$ effluxes induced by NE or cAMP were more stimulated in the presence of metabolic inhibitors (MI). Chemical hypoxia with NaCN (2 mM) caused a rapid decrease of cellular ATP within 1 min. Measurement of $[Mg^{2+}]_i$ confirmed that ATP depletion was accompanied by an increase in $[Mg^{2+}]_i.$ No change in $Mg^{2+}$ efflux was observed when cells were incubated with MI. In the presence of MI, the cAMP-induced $Mg^{2+}$ effluxes were inhibited by quinidine, imipramine, and removal of extracellular $Na^+.$ In addition, after several min of perfusion with $Na^+-free$ buffer, a large increase in $Mg^{2+}$ efflux occurred when $Na^+-free$ buffer was switched to 120 mM $Na^+$ containing buffer. A similar $Mg^{2+}$ efflux was observed in myocytes. These effluxes were inhibited by quinidine and imipramine. These results indicate that the activation of $Mg^{2+}$ effluxes by hormonal stimulation is directly dependent on intracellular $Mg^{2+}$ contents and that these $Mg^{2+}$ effluxes appear to occur through the $Na^+-dependent\;Na^+/Mg^{2+}$ exchange system during chemical hypoxia.

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Suppression of Akt-HIF-1α signaling axis by diacetyl atractylodiol inhibits hypoxia-induced angiogenesis

  • Choi, Sik-Won;Lee, Kwang-Sik;Lee, Jin Hwan;Kang, Hyeon Jung;Lee, Mi Ja;Kim, Hyun Young;Park, Kie-In;Kim, Sun-Lim;Shin, Hye Kyoung;Seo, Woo Duck
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.49 no.9
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    • pp.508-513
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    • 2016
  • Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α is a key regulator associated with tumorigenesis, angiogenesis, and metastasis. HIF-1α regulation under hypoxia has been highlighted as a promising therapeutic target in angiogenesis-related diseases. Here, we demonstrate that diacetyl atractylodiol (DAA) from Atractylodes japonica (A. japonica) is a potent HIF-1α inhibitor that inhibits the Akt signaling pathway. DAA dose-dependently inhibited hypoxia-induced HIF-1α and downregulated Akt signaling without affecting the stability of HIF-1α protein. Furthermore, DAA prevented hypoxia-mediated angiogenesis based on in vitro tube formation and in vivo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assays. Therefore, DAA might be useful for treatment of hypoxia-related tumorigenesis, including angiogenesis.

Gold nanoparticles enhance anti-tumor effect of radiotherapy to hypoxic tumor

  • Kim, Mi Sun;Lee, Eun-Jung;Kim, Jae-Won;Chung, Ui Seok;Koh, Won-Gun;Keum, Ki Chang;Koom, Woong Sub
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.34 no.3
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    • pp.230-238
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    • 2016
  • Purpose: Hypoxia can impair the therapeutic efficacy of radiotherapy (RT). Therefore, a new strategy is necessary for enhancing the response to RT. In this study, we investigated whether the combination of nanoparticles and RT is effective in eliminating the radioresistance of hypoxic tumors. Materials and Methods: Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) consisting of a silica core with a gold shell were used. CT26 colon cancer mouse model was developed to study whether the combination of RT and GNPs reduced hypoxia-induced radioresistance. Hypoxia inducible $factor-1{\alpha}$ ($HIF-1{\alpha}$) was used as a hypoxia marker. The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining were conducted to evaluate cell death. Results: Hypoxic tumor cells had an impaired response to RT. GNPs combined with RT enhanced anti-tumor effect in hypoxic tumor compared with RT alone. The combination of GNPs and RT decreased tumor cell viability compare to RT alone in vitro. Under hypoxia, tumors treated with GNPs + RT showed a higher response than that shown by tumors treated with RT alone. When a reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger was added, the enhanced antitumor effect of GNPs + RT was diminished. Conclusion: In the present study, hypoxic tumors treated with GNPs + RT showed favorable responses, which might be attributable to the ROS production induced by GNPs + RT. Taken together, GNPs combined with RT seems to be potential modality for enhancing the response to RT in hypoxic tumors.