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Kinetics of Thermal Inactivation of Peroxidases and Polyphenol Oxidase in Pineapple (Ananas comosus)

  • Lee, Ting Hun;Chua, Lee Suan;Tan, Eddie Ti Tjih;Yeong, Christina;Lim, Chew Ching;Ooi, Siew Yin;Aziz, Ramlan bin Abdul;Aziz, Azila binti;Sarmidi, Mohd Roji bin
    • Food Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.661-666
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    • 2009
  • The heat tolerance and the inactivation kinetics of peroxidase (POD) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) in pineapples (Ananas comosus) were studied in the temperature range $45-95^{\circ}C$. The kinetic parameters, such as deactivation rate constant (k), activation energy ($E_a$), and decimal reduction rate (D) of the thermal inactivation process, were determined. POD in pineapples showed biphasic inactivation behavior at temperatures range $45-75^{\circ}C$ but was monophasic at $85-95^{\circ}C$. This indicate that POD has 2 isozymes, namely heat labile and heat resistant, with $E_a$ of 68.79 and 93.23 kJ/mol, respectively. On the other hand, the heat denaturation of pineapple PPO could be described as simple monophasic first-order behavior with $E_a$ of 80.15 kJ/mol. Thus, the results of this study is useful in blanching technology where it shows a shortened time with higher temperature can be applied. The determination of the heat tolerance and inactivation POD and PPO, at different temperature range as done in the present work, was very important to improve the blanching process. This also will help to optimize the pineapple canning process which is one of the most important food industries in many tropical regions.

Screening for Antifungal Endophytic Fungi Against Six Plant Pathogenic Fungi

  • Park, Joong-Hyeop;Park, Ji-Hyun;Choi, Gyung-Ja;Lee, Seon-Woo;Jang, Kyoung-Soo;Choi, Yong-Ho;Cho, Kwang-Yun;Kim, Jin-Cheol
    • Mycobiology
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    • v.31 no.3
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    • pp.179-182
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    • 2003
  • A total of 187 endophytic fungi were isolated from 11 plant species, which were collected from 11 locations in Korea. Their antifungal activities were screened in vivo by antifungal bioassays after they were cultured in potato dextrose broth and rice solid media. Antifungal activity against plant pathogenic fungi such as Magnaporthe grisea(rice blast), Corticium sasaki(rice sheath blight), Botrytis cinerea(tomato gray mold), Phytophthora infestans(tomato late blight), Puccinia recondita(wheat leaf rust), and Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei(barley powdery mildew) was determined in vivo by observing the inhibition of plant disease development. Twenty(11.7%) endophytic fungi fermentation broths were able to control, by more than 90%, at least one of the six plant diseases tested. Among 187 liquid broths, the F0010 strain isolated from Abies holophylla had the most potent disease control activity; it showed control values of more than 90% against five plant diseases, except for tomato late blight. On the other hand, fourteen(7.5%) solid culture extracts exhibited potent disease control values of more than 90% against one of six plant diseases. The screening results of this study strongly suggested that metabolites of plant endophytic fungi could be good potential sources for screening programs of bioactive natural products.

Antifungal Activity of the Methanol Extract of Myristica malabarica Fruit Rinds and the Active Ingredients Malabaricones Against Phytopathogenic Fungi

  • Choi, Nam-Hee;Choi, Gyung-Ja;Jang, Kyoung-Soo;Choi, Yong-Ho;Lee, Sun-Og;Choi, Jae-Eul;Kim, Jin-Cheol
    • The Plant Pathology Journal
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    • v.24 no.3
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    • pp.317-321
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    • 2008
  • In a search for plant extracts with in vivo antifungal activity for plant diseases, we found that the methanol extract of Myristica malabarica fruit rinds effectively suppressed the development of several plant diseases. The methanol extract exhibited potent 1-day protective activity against rice blast, tomato late blight, wheat leaf rust and red pepper anthracnose. It also showed 7-day and 4-day protective activities against the plant diseases. Three antifungal resorcinols were isolated from the methanol extract of M. malabarica fruit rinds and identified as malabaricones A(MA), B(MB), and C(MC). Inhibitory activity of the three resorcinols against mycelial growth of plant pathogenic fungi varied according to compound and target species. All three compounds effectively reduced the development of rice blast, wheat leaf rust and red pepper anthracnose. In addition, MC was highly active for reducing the development of tomato late blight. This is the first report on the antifungal activities of malabaricones against filamentous fungi.

Antimicrobial activity of Mongolian medicinal plants

  • Gonchig, Enkhmaa;Erdenebat, Sarnaizul;Togtoo, Ouyntsetseg;Bataa, Sukhkhuu;Gendaram, Odontuya;Kim, Young-Sup;Ryu, Shi-Yong
    • Natural Product Sciences
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.32-36
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    • 2008
  • The antimicrobial activity of seventy five ethanol extracts obtained from 67 different kinds of plant species of the Mongolian flora were evaluated by means of the disc diffusion method against five species of microorganisms, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Micrococcus luteus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Among the plant extracts examined, 34 kinds of extracts demonstrated significant antibacterial activity against one or more species of microorganisms, respectively. Especially, the root extract of Paeonia anomala, the whole herb extract of Myricaria alopecuroides, the whole herb extract of comarum zalesovianum, the whole herb extract of Agrimonia pilosa and some other plant extracts demonstrated a particularly potent antimicrobial activity. The ethylacetate fractions obtained from the whole herb extract of Myricaria alopecuroides and from those of Sedum aizoon, Paeonia anomala, Sedum hybridum and Dasiphora fruticosa exhibited a particularly potent antibacterial activity especially against Staphylococcus aureus and Micrococcus luteus.

Changes in Chemical Composition of Sorghum as Influenced by Growth Stage and Cultivar

  • Firdous, Rafia;Gilani, Abrar Hussain
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.14 no.7
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    • pp.935-940
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    • 2001
  • To determine the effect of different growth stages and cultivars on the chemical composition of sorghum plant and its morphological fractions, samples of whole plant, leaf and stem of J.S-263, J.S-88 and Hegari cultivars, harvested at various growth stages were drawn for analysis. All the samples were analysed for their dry matter contents and various cell wall components such as NDF, ADF. hemicellulose, cellulose, lignin, cutin and silica. Significant increase in DM contents of whole sorghum plant, leaf and stem was observed with advancing stage of growth. The highest DM content was recorded in leaf fraction of the plant. All the cell wall constituents increased significantly in whole sorghum plant, leaf and stem as the plant matured. The maximum NDF, ADF, cellulose and lignin contents were observed in stem fraction, followed by whole plant. However, the hemicellulose, cutin and silica contents were higher in leaf fraction of the plant. The cultivars were found to have some effect on the chemical composition of whole plant, leaf and stem fractions. The results indicated that plant maturity had a much greater effect on the chemical composition of sorghum plant, whereas it was little affected by cultivars.

Performance and Economic Analysis of Natural Gas/Syngas Fueled 100 MWth Chemical-Looping Combustion Combined Cycle Plant (천연가스/합성가스 이용 100 MWth 매체순환연소 복합발전 플랜트의 성능 및 경제성 평가)

  • Park, Young Cheol;Lee, Tai-yong;Park, Jaehyeon;Ryu, Ho-Jung
    • Korean Chemical Engineering Research
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    • v.47 no.1
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    • pp.65-71
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    • 2009
  • In this study, performance and economic analysis of natural gas/syngas fueled 100 MWth chemical-looping combustion (CLC) combined cycle plant were performed. Net efficiency of both cases was 53~54%, corresponding to previous research. We used Chemical Engineering Plant Cost Index and Guthrie method to evaluate plant cost. For syngas fueled CLC combined cycle plant, the plant cost was higher since lower heating value(LHV) of syngas was lower than that of natural gas and cost of electricity(COE) was also higher since the cost of syngas was higher than that of natural gas. By sensitivity analysis, it was shown that the cost of syngas should be less than 5.3 $/GJ in order to make COE lower than 5.8 ¢/kWh which was COE of natural gas fueled CLC combined cycle plant.

In Vivo Antifungal Activities of 57 Plant Extracts Against Six Plant Pathogenic Fungi

  • Choi, Gyung-Ja;Jang, Kyoung-Soo;Kim, Jin-Seok;Lee, Seon-Woo;Cho, Jun-Young;Cho, Kwang-Yun;Kim, Jin-Cheol
    • The Plant Pathology Journal
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.184-191
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    • 2004
  • Methanol extracts of fresh materials of 57 plants were screened for in vivo antifungal activity against Magna-porthe grisea, Corticium sasaki, Botrytis cinerea, Phyto-phthora infestans, Puccinia recondita, and Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei. Among them, seven plant extracts showed disease-control efficacy of more than 90% against at least one of six plant diseases. None of the plant extracts was highly active against tomato gray mold. The methanol extracts of Chloranthus japonicus (roots) (CjR) and Paulownia coreana (stems) (PcS) displayed the highest antifungal activity; the CjR extract controlled the development of rice blast, rice sheath blight, and wheat leaf rust more than 90%, and tomato gray mold and tomato late blight more than 80%. The PcS extract displayed control values of more than 90 % against rice blast, wheat leaf rust, and barley powdery mildew and more than 80% against tomato gray mold. The extract of PcS also had a curative activity against rice sheath blight and that of CjR had a little curative activity against rice blast. On the other hand, the extract of Rumex acetocella roots reduced specifically the development of barley powdery mildew. Further studies on the characterization of antifungal substances in antifungal plant extracts are underway and their disease-control efficacy should be examined under greenhouse and field conditions.

Application of the Electrochemical Noise Method with Three Electrodes to Monitor Corrosion and Environmental Cracking in Chemical Plants

  • Ohtsu, Takao;Miyazawa, Masazumi;Ebara, Ryuicluro
    • Corrosion Science and Technology
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    • v.7 no.3
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    • pp.173-178
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    • 2008
  • Recently an electrochemical noise method (ENM) with three electrodes has gained attention as a corrosion monitoring system in chemical plants. So far a few studies have been carried out for localized corrosion and environmental cracking of chemical plant materials. In this paper the ENM system is briefly summarized. Then an application of ENM to general corrosion for chemical plant materials is described. The emphasis is focused upon the analysis of stress on the corrosion cracking process of austenitic stainless steel in 30% $MgCl_2$ aqueous solution and the corrosion fatigue crack initiation process of 12 Cr stainless steel in 3% NaCl aqueous solution by ENM. Finally future problems for ENM to monitor regarding corrosion and environmental cracking in chemical plants are discussed.