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Pathogenicity of Salmonella gallinarum isolated from chickens in Korea (국내 분리주 Salmonella gallinarum의 닭에 대한 병원성)

  • Lee, Hee-soo;Kim, Soon-jae;Kim, Ki-seuk;Mo, In-pil;Kim, Tae-jong
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.37 no.3
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    • pp.569-576
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    • 1997
  • Fowl typhoid(FT) caused by Salmonella gallinarum is an infectious, egg-transmitted disease and characterized by swollen bronze liver, greenish-yellow diarrhea and high mortality in growing and adult chickens. Since 1992 the outbreak of FT has been increased. Several problems have been occurred such as absence of appropriate vaccines and lack of useful therapeutic methods. In these studies we investigated the pathogenicity of S gallinarum isolated in chickens. To compare the pathogenicity among the species of chickens, all chickens were challenged intramuscularly or orally with $1{\times}10^7$ CFU of S gallinarum. The brown-colored layers were more susceptible and white leghone chickens were more resistant than other species. In the brown layer chickens orally challenged, lethal doses ($LD_{50}$) of the isolates were inoculated at 1 day, 2 weeks, 4 weeks and 8 weeks old chickens with amount of $10^{4.2}$, $10^{4.7}$, $10^{7.0}$ and $10^{7.6}$ CFU, respectively. The chickens which were intramuscularly challenged with the less amount than $10^2$ CFU showed higher mortality than that of the chickens orally inoculated with same dose. Also, we investigated the recovery rates of bacteria from various organs of survival chickens which were challenged orally with $5{\times}l0^7$ CFU of S gallinarum. The bacteria was more frequently and isolated earlier from the liver and spleen than from any other ogans. In the pathogenicity test, the white-leghorn chickens which were known as resistant-strain against Salmonella were artificially immunosuppressed using bursectomy and/or dexamethasone treatment. Mortality of chickens with both bursectomized and treated with dexamethasone was higher(90%) than that of the control group(10%), the bursectomized chickens(10%) and the dexamethasone only treated group(20%). It was suggested that the protective mechanism in chickens against S gallinarum may be required both the functions of B-cells and T-cells.

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Immunosuppressive effects of a Korean isolate of reticuloendotheliosis virus (국내 분리 세망내피증 바이러스의 면역억제능)

  • Seong, Hwan-woo;Kim, Sun-jung
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.38 no.4
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    • pp.811-817
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    • 1998
  • Humoral and cellular immune responses are depressed in chickens infected with reticuloendotheliosis virus(REV). The extent of depression is influenced by the age of infection and strain of virus. This study was conducted for investigation of immunosuppressive effects of a Korean isolate of REV. Chickens infected with REV-HI, a Korean isolate, at 1 day old were severely suppressed in the vaccinal immunity against Newcastle disease, infectious bronchitis and infectious bursal disease. But these immunosuppressive effects were not observed in chickens infected with the virus at 2 weeks of age, or contact infected by growing in-contact with inoculated chickens from one day old. The clinical signs following infectious laryngotracheitis(ILT) vaccination in chickens infected with REV-HI at 1 day old were more severe than those of uninfected chickens, and some of REV-infected chickens(21.4%) were died after the vaccination. Mortality following virulent ILT virus infection was increased in REV-HI infected chickens. Effects of REV infection at one day old to susceptibilities to subsequent Chicken anemia agent (CAA) infection were also studied. Chickens were infected with REV-HI at 1 day old and subsequently inoculated CAA at 1, 7, 14 and 28 days old, respectively. Mortalities of the chickens infected with REV-HI and subsequent CAA infection were 100, 100, 40 and 0%, respectively, whereas 23, 8, 0 and 0% of chickens infected with only CAA were died, respectively. These above all results suggest that a Korean isolate of REV may be highly immunosuppressive.

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Immunosuppressive effects and pathogenicity of a Korean isolate of reticuloendotheliosis virus in chickens (Reticuloendotheliosis virus의 닭에 대한 면역억제효과와 병원성)

  • Han, Myung-guk;Kim, Sun-joong
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.40 no.2
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    • pp.311-323
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    • 2000
  • Immunosuppressive effects of reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) infection in chickens were investigated. Primary antibody responses to Newcastle disease virus (strain B1) and sheep red blood cells were significantly low in chickens inoculated with the local isolate 89-74 of REV compared to those of uninfected chickens. In chickens infected with REV strain T or 89-74, blastogenesis of spleen cells and peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) to concanavalin A (Con A) was severely suppressed. When specific pathogen free (SPF) chickens were inoculated with the isolate, the suppressive effect was observed up to 7 weeks of age while, in the contact infected chickens, the suppression was absent. Similar suppressive effects were observed in chickens inoculated with REV strain T at 2, 3 and 4 weeks of age. When spleen cells or PBL from uninfected chickens were co-cultured with spleen cells or PBL from chickens infected with REV at 1 day-old or 2 week-old, the blastogenesis of the normal cells was suppressed. The suppressive effect of PBL from REV-infected chickens on normal lymphocytes was abrogated by the treatment with trypsin. However the suppressive activity of the REV-infected PBL was not influenced at removing machrophage from the cell suspension by incubation in plastic petri dishes. In addition to the immunosuppression, chickens infected with the REV isolate showed abnormal feather development (nakanuke), anemia, paralysis and retarded growth. Three out of 11 chickens inoculated with the isolate at day-old died between 6 and 9 weeks of age by bacterial infections.

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Longevity of Toxocara cati Larvae and Pathology in Tissues of Experimentally Infected Chickens

  • Oryan, Ahmad;Sadjjadi, Seyyed-Mahmoud;Azizi, Shahrzad
    • The Korean Journal of Parasitology
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    • v.48 no.1
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    • pp.79-80
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    • 2010
  • This study was conducted to determine the distribution patterns and duration of stay of Toxocara cati larvae in organs of chickens and to investigate chronic phase and potential zoonotic risk of toxocariasis in chickens. Chickens were orally infected with 1,000 embryonated T. cati eggs and necropsied 240 days post-infection. Organs of the chickens were examined at gross and microscopic levels; tissues were digested to recover larvae. Peribronchiolitis with infiltration of lymphocytes, and hyperplasia of bronchiolar associated lymphatic tissues (BALT) and goblet cells, were evident in the lungs of infected chickens. There were mild hemorrhages and infiltration of lymphocytes and a few eosinophils in the meninges. Larvae were recovered from 30% of the exposed chickens. Larvae recovery indicated that T. cati larvae stay alive for at least 240 days in the chicken brain. Therefore, chickens may potentially act as a paratenic host in nature and transfer T. cati larvae to other hosts.

Pathogenicity of a Local Isolate of Chicken Anemia Agent for Chickens and Prevalence of Antibody in Chicken Flocks (국내분리 chicken anemia agent의 닭에 대한 병원성과 야외계군의 항체 보유상황)

  • 김선중
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.141-150
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    • 1991
  • A local isolate of chicken anemia agent (CAA), isolate 89-69. was tested for pathogenicity for chickens. When chickens from a specific pathogen free (SPF) flock were inoculated intramuscularly with the isolate at one day old, all the chickens showed severe anemia at 14 to 18 days post inoculation(DPI) and returned to normal at 25DPI, Some of the inoculated chickens (27∼33%) died between 13 to 17 DPI's with lesions of severe aplasia of bone marrow and thymic atrophy. In chickens kept in contact with inoculated chickens, some of the chickens had anemia at 25 and 28 DPI's. Virus could be reisolated from inoculated as well as in contact chickens till 21 DPI. Antibodies to CAA could be detected in all inoculated and in contact chickens when tested at 42 DPI by the indirect fluorescent antibody method. When chickens from a different SPF flock were inoculated at one day old, degrees of anemia, both in frequency of incidence and severity, were low These chickens were proved partly to have antibodies to CAA when tested for hatchmates. In a survey for antibodies to CAA in field chicken flocks, one out of 7 flocks(14%) aged 3 to 10weeks was antibody positive whereas 19 out of 20 flocks(95%) over 20 weeks of age were positive. Altogether 29 out of 39 flocks (74%) were antibody positive.

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Evaluation of the genetic diversity of six Chinese indigenous chickens

  • Sha, Yuzhu;Gao, Caixia;Liu, Meimei;Zhao, Shengguo
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.33 no.10
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    • pp.1566-1572
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    • 2020
  • Objective: The extensive breeding of commercial chickens has led to a sharp decrease in the resources of many indigenous chickens, especially the indigenous chickens in the southeastern coastal region, which are on the verge of extinction, and the indigenous chickens in the northwestern region of China, which are also at risk. However, there are few reports on the evaluation of genetic diversity and conservation of genetic resources of indigenous chickens in remote areas in the Northwest of China. Methods: In the present study, the genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationship of six indigenous chickens from different regions were studied based on variation in mitochondrial DNA control region (D-loop), and the degree of introgression from commercial breeds into these chickens was determined by the amount of haplotype sharing between indigenous and commercial breeds. Results: Twenty-five polymorphic sites and 25 haplotypes were detected in 206 individuals. Principal component analysis showed that the Jingning chicken had the highest genetic diversity among the six indigenous chickens. According to the degree of introgression, the six indigenous breeds may be involved in haplotype sharing with commercial breeds, and the introgression from commercial chickens into the Haidong chicken is the most serious. Conclusion: The genetic uniqueness of indigenous chickens has been eroded, so it is necessary to consider the protection of their genetic resources. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that the six indigenous chickens have two major matrilineal origins: one from Yunnan or its surrounding areas in China and the other from the Indian subcontinent.

THE SUSCEPTIBILITY OF SCALELESS MUTANT CHICKENS TO VERY VIRULENT MAREK'S DISEASE VIRUS

  • Lin, J.A.;Liu Tai, J.J.;Lu, Y.S.;Liou, P.P.;Tai, C.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.9 no.6
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    • pp.679-684
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    • 1996
  • This study evaluates the susceptibility of scaleless mutant chickens to very virulent Marek's disease virus (vvMDV) inoculation. One day old chickens were inoculated subcutaneously with Taiwanese isolates of LTB-1 and LTS-1 strains, and standard strain of Md/5. Compared with the non-inoculated group the vvMDV-inoculated chickens showed decreased body weights and atrophy of lymphoid organs before 35 days old. These results indicate that scaleless chickens show the same susceptibility as the wild type chickens to vvMDV infection. Furthermore, the protective effect of herpesvirus of turkey (HVT) vaccination at 1 day old against vvMDV challenge was evaluated. Scaleless mutant chickens of treated groups showed 20-30% early death, and 85.7-100% and 12.5-14.2% had lymphomatous lesions in visceral organs and peripheral nerves, respectively. No significant lesions were observed in non-challenged chickens of the control group. The HVT vaccination did not provide an effective protection against vvMDV infection. It is concluded that scaleless mutant chickens are susceptible to vvMDV infection.

Ovarian adenocarcinoma in white leghorn and Ogol chicken (오골계와 백색산란계에서의 난소선암종)

  • Ha, Jeong-Im;Jee, Hyang;Lim, Jung-Mook;Han, Jae-Yong;Kim, Dae-Yong
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.48 no.4
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    • pp.469-472
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    • 2008
  • Necropsy was performed on a total of twenty three either white leghorn or ogol chickens which were more than 150 weeks of age. Among twenty three chickens examined, fifteen chickens were laying and the rest eight chickens were non-laying. On necropsy, neoplastic mass in the five chickens among non-laying chickens was found. These neoplastic masses were present mostly in the ovaries and one case in the liver and characterized by multifocal to coalescing 1 to 5 mm tan firm nodular formation. On histopathology, ovarian adenocarcinoma with widespread abdominal seeding and hepatic metastasis was diagnosed in the three chickens. Oviductal leiomyoma was also found in two chickens that had a focal well-demarcated nodules in the oviduct. Taken together, the number with ovarian adenocarcinoma among non-laying chickens over 150 week old was 37.5%. As most animal species do rarely develop ovarian tumors, the high rate of spontaneous ovarian adenocarcinoma in non-laying hen suggest that the hen is a proper model for human ovarian cancer study.

Clinical blood chemistry analysis in chickens infected with reticuloendotheliosis virus (세망내피증 바이러스 감염 닭에서의 혈액화학치 변화)

  • Sung, Haan-Woo;Kwon, Hyuk-Moo;Kim, Sun-Jung
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.48 no.4
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    • pp.451-455
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    • 2008
  • Body weights and blood biochemical values in chickens infected with reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV)-HI, a Korean isolate, were studied. REV-HI causes severe body weight depression in chickens inoculated but not in chicken contact-infected. Body weights of infected chickens in 3, 4, and 5 weeks after infection were 78%, 76% and 65% of those of control respectively. Blood glucose levels in REVinfected chickens were extremely high compared with those in control (226 $\geq$ 21 vs. 814 $\geq$91.3 mg/dl in week 2) during the experiment period. Triglyceride levels in REV-infected chickens were significantly higher in week 2 and 3, whereas in week 4, REV-infected chickens showed significantly lower levels than the control. Blood lipase, amylase and alkaline phosphatase levels of REV-infected chickens in week 2 were significantly higher, whereas cholesterol, magnesium and calcium values in week 4 were significantly lower than the control. Other blood biochemical values such as alkaline aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and $\gamma$-glutamyltransferase were nonsignificantly different from the control. These above results suggest that weight depression by REV may be related with increase of blood glucose, which indicated that REV-infected chickens could not use blood glucose as energy source.

Effect of Probiotic Inclusion in the Diet of Broiler Chickens on Performance, Feed Efficiency and Carcass Quality

  • Khaksefidi, A.;Rahimi, Sh.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.18 no.8
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    • pp.1153-1156
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    • 2005
  • An experiment was conducted with three hundred and twenty broiler chickens to evaluate the influence of supplementation of probiotic on growth, microbiological status and carcass quality of chickens. The probiotic contained similar proportions of six strains of variable organisms namely Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei, Bifidobacterium bifidum, Aspergillus oryzae, Streptococcus faecium and Torulopsis sps and was fed at 100 mg/kg diet. The body weight and feed conversion of probiotic fed groups were superior (p<0.05) compared to the control group in the 4th, 5th and 6th weeks. The chickens fed the diet with probiotic had lower (p<0.05) numbers of coliforms and Campylobacter than chickens fed the control diet. All chickens' carcasses on the control diet were positive for Salmonella while only 16 of the 40 carcasses were positive from chickens fed diets containing probiotic. The leg and breast meat of probiotic fed chickens were higher (p<0.05) in moisture, protein and ash, and lower in fat as compared to the leg and breast meat of control chickens.