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Investigation on Causal Relationships Between Home Environment, Children's Self-evaluation and Learned Helplessness (가정환경, 아동의 자아 평가와 학습된 무력감간의 인과관계)

  • 최보가
    • Journal of the Korean Home Economics Association
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    • v.36 no.4
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    • pp.121-136
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    • 1998
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the causal resationships between children's learned helplessness, self-evaluation and the home environment which included the family's socio-economic status, parent's achieving pressure and maternal child rearing behavior. The results were as follows; The socio-economic status of home influenced on the parent's achieving pressure, maternal child rearing behavior and children's self-evaluation, but didn't influence children's learned helplessness. Parent's achieving pressure had a negative correlation with the maternal child rearing behavior and influenced children's learned helplessness, but did not influence children's self-evaluation. Maternal child rearing behavior influenced children's self-evaluation, but did not influence children's self-evaluation. Maternal child rearing behavior influenced children's self-evaluation, but did not influence children's learned helplessness directly. Children's self-evaluation had the strongest direct impact on children's learned helplessness. This was found to be a mediating factor between home environmental factor and children's learned helplessness.

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Relationship between Housing Environment and Elementary School Children's Personality (주거환경과 학령기 아동 인성간의 상관성 연구)

  • 황연숙
    • Korean Institute of Interior Design Journal
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.142-149
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    • 2004
  • The purpose of this research is to find out the relationship between housing environment and elementary school children's personality. The samples of this research are 459 children from elementary schools in their fourth or higher year grades. The results were analyzed using frequency, percentage, and t-test, F-test and multi regression. The findings indicated that housing type does not have effect on environmental characteristics of children's room, while housing ownership type, housing size and children's room size have significant effects on them. Housing size and children's room size have significant effects on children's satisfaction. The larger children room provides higher satisfaction with children room environment. The finding showed that environmental characteristics of children's room have relationship with children's personality. The order of environmental characteristics of children's room has the highest relationship with children's personality.

A comparative study on parenting stress between mothers who have young children with and without disabilities (장애유아 어머니와 비장애유아 어머니의 양육스트레스 비교연구)

  • Yang, Yeon-Suk
    • Korean Journal of Human Ecology
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.17-26
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    • 2007
  • The purpose of this study was to compare parenting stress between mothers who have young children with and without disabilities. The subjects of this study were 100 mothers who take care of disabled children and 123 mothers who take care of non-disabled children. The children's ages were from 3 to 6 years. The results of this study were as follows; First, the mothers who have disabled children have more parenting stress than those who have ordinary children. Second, the mothers who have developmentally disabled children had more parenting stress than mothers who had other disabled children. Children's and mothers' ages had an influence on the parenting stress of the ordinary mothers. The mothers who had children with and without disabilities got less parenting stress as the mothers received more higher parenting efficacy, parent role satisfaction, marital satisfaction and family support.

Disruptive/Cooperative Classroom Behavior : A Comparative Study of Children's Home Environment, Self-efficacy and Parents' Child Rearing Attitudes (수업저해아동과 수업촉진아동의 가정환경, 자기효능감 및 부모의 양육태도 비교연구)

  • Shin, Kyeung ja;Kim, Hyun sook
    • Korean Journal of Child Studies
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    • v.29 no.4
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    • pp.115-134
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    • 2008
  • This study analyzed home environment, self-efficacy and parents' child rearing attitudes of disruptive children and of cooperative children in the classroom. Participants were 322 children(11-12 years of age) and 49 teachers. Instruments were four kinds of questionnaires. Data were analyzed by T-test and Fisher's exact test. Results of between group differences in parents' academic backgrounds showed more parents of cooperative children had completed high school. Disruptive children's mothers were more occupied outside the home; cooperative children's mothers engaged in more housework at home. Disruptive children's perceptions of their economic status were lower than cooperative children's perceptions. Results of comparison of general self-efficacy, scholastic self-efficacy, and home environment showed that disruptive children were statistically lower than cooperative children on all sub-variables.

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Studies on the General Fearfulness of Hospitalized School-Age Children and Their Mother공s Emotional Anxiety (학령기 환아의 일반절 공포감과 어머니의 정서적 불안과의 관계에 대한연구)

  • 노승옥
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.69-82
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    • 1984
  • The general fearfulness of hospitalized school-age children and the emotional anxiety of their mothers were investigated and compared to those of normal children and their mothers, in order to provide theoretical basis for establishing comprehensive nursing care of hospitalized children including their mothers. The present study was carried out from Sept. 5th to Oct. 3rd, 1983. A total of 81 hospital I zed children and their mothers were investigated and 95 normal elementary school children and their mothers as control group were surveyed The general fearfulness of children and the emotional anniety of their mothers were measured through questionaire by using Geer's FSS-Ⅱscale and Spielberger's STAI scale, respectively. The results were analyzed by computer using S.P.S.S. program and summarized as follows: 1. The emotional anxiety of the mothers of hospitalized children was greater than that of normal children's mothers. (P=0.000). 2. The general fearfulness of hospitalized children was greater than that of normal children (p=0.000) 3. The general fearfulness of hospitalized children varied with children's age and sex, mother's age and mother's experience of hospitalization. a) The general fearfulness of the hospitalized children at the age of 7∼9 was greater than that of the age 10∼12. (P=0.020) b) Girl's scored greater fearfulness than boys. (p=0.037) c) The younger mother's age resulted in the higher children fearfulness. (P= 0.0059). d) When the mothers did not have experience of hospitalization, the children's fearfulness was high. (P=0.014) 4. The anxiety-state of hospitalized children's mother was proportionally reacted to their anxiety-trait. (r=0.694, p=0.000) 5. The relationship between mother's emotional anxiety and their hospitalized children's general fearfulness failed to show statistical significance. (r= 0.1184, P>0.05). These results indicated that the general fearfulness of hospitalized children was affected by environmental factors beside mother's emotional anxiety. An extensive study on the factors influencing the general fearfulness of hospitalized children is needed.

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The Relationship of Home Environments to Children's Social Development : Analysis of a Causal Model (가정환경변인과 아동의 사회적 능력간의 관계 : 인과 모형 분석)

  • Jang, Young Ae
    • Korean Journal of Child Studies
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.17-44
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    • 1987
  • The study examined the characteristics of the relationship of home environment variables and children's social development. Two studies were conducted ; Study I examined (1) the correlation of home environment variables and children's social ability and (2) the predictability of home environment variables for children's social ability by children's age. Study II investigated the causal relationship among the variables which are supposed to affect children's social ability. The subjects of this study were 240 children at age four, six and eight attending nursery schools, kindergartens and elementary schools and their mothers. Instruments included the Inventory of Home Stimulation (HOME), the Inventory of Sociodemographic Variables, social maturation scale, and the social-emotional developmental rating scale. The results obtained from this study were as follows : 1) Home environment variables had a positive correlation with children's social development at age four and six, but at age eight, only HOME variables had a significant positive correlation with children's social development. 2) The home environmental variables that significantly predicted children's social development differed according to children's age. That is, play materials, economic status of the home, and parent education were predictive of children's social development at age four, while parent's education, fostering maturity and independence, and play materials were predictive at age six. Fostering maturity and independence, aspects of physical environment, and economic status of the home were predictive at age eight. 3) The causal model of home environment effect on children's social development was formulated by exogenous variables (parent education and economic status of the home) and endogenous variables (direct stimulation, indirect stimulation and the emotional climate of the home). 4) The results of the analysis of the causal model showed that the variables that have a direct effect on children's social development differed according to children's age. That is, direct stimulation had more effect on children's social development at earlier ages, and indirect stimulation had more effect on children's social development at later ages. Among socio-demographic variables, parent's education was most closely related to children's social development. The amount of variance that explained children's social development decreased with increase in children's age.

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Stressors of Post Cardiac Surgery Children in the ICU and Their Impaired Psychological Responses (심장수술환아의 ICU에서의 스트레스원과 심리적 손상반응에 관한 탐색적 연구)

  • Shin, Hee-Sun;Kim, Dong-Oak;Hong, Kyung-Ja
    • 모자간호학회지
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    • v.2 no.1
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    • pp.45-54
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    • 1992
  • The purpose of this study was to explore the stressors in pediatric intensive care unit and impaired psychological responses of children after open heart surgery. Sixteen children aged 6 to 11, who were admitted to the hospital for open heart surgery during the period from July, 1991 to February, 1992 were the subjects of the study. Observations, drawings, and interviews were used to collect data for study. Behavioral responses about intensive care unit phenomena were analyzed according to the 4 categories identified to assess children's perceived stressors in ICU. Impaired psychological responses were examined using observational and interview data. Drawings were analyzed by content and color by this researcher and validated by the psychologist. The findings were as follows : 1. The most frequently perceived stressors by children in ICU were the physical stressors causing pain and discomfort(68.5%). It was followed by social stressors which denote disruption of relationship with family and friends(13.0% ), environmental stressors which denote unfamiliar surroundings, noise, staff, and other patients (11.2%), and psychological stressors which denote factors affecting self-esteem such as inability to communicate and inadquate knowledge of the situation (7.3%). 2. 81.3% of the children showed of least one of the impaired psychological responses. Three children (18.8%) experienced time disorientation. An equal number of subject experienced perceptual illusion. Two children(12.5%) experienced hallucination. Vivid dream about ICU phenomena was reported by 2 children. Seven children(43.8%) were identified as having exaggerated fear. They feared about oxygen mask and ICU environment in general. Seven children(43.8%) experienced impairment of memory about treatments, procedures, and environment of ICU. 3. The analysis of children's drawing revealed that 56.3% of children experienced fear in the ICU. 75% of children included nurses in the drawings and 62.5% of children drew other children. 81.3% of children drew and identified himself in the drawing. The colors used most by children were green, purple, and brown. From this result, it is recommended to prepare children before open heart surgery to reduce their stressors and impaired psychological responses in ICU.

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The Causal Relations of Children's Learned Helplessness and Related Variables:Focusing on the Children's Perception of Self-Competence, Stress and Mother's Childrearing Attitudes (아동의 학습된 무력감과 관련 변인간의 인과관계:아동의 자기능력지각, 스트레스, 모의 양육태도를 중심으로)

  • Lee, Kyung-Nim
    • Korean Journal of Human Ecology
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.227-243
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    • 1999
  • The purpose of this study was to analyze a causal relations of children's learned helplessness, stress, perception of self-competence and mother's childrearing attitudes. The subjects were 370 of 4th and 6th grade in elementary school and the second grade in junior high school in Busan and their's mothers. The instruments used for this study were learned helplessness scale, stress scale, self-perception profile for children, and childrearing attitude scale. The data was analyzed with pearson's correlation, multiple regression and path analysis. The major findings of this study were as follows : 1. Children's global self-worth, social self, age and mother's controlling childrearing attitudes predicted children's stress. 21% of the variance of children's stress was explained by these variables. 2. Children's stress, global self-worth, academic and social self predicted children's learned helplessness. 54% of the variance of children's learned helplessness was explained by these variables. 3. 1) Global self-worth was the first contribution and had a indirect effect through stress as well as a direct effect on children's learned helplessness. 2) Children's stress and academic self had direct effect on children's learned helplessness. 3) Children's social self had a indirect effect through stress as well as a direct effect on children's learned helplessness. 4) Mother's affectionate childrearing attitudes had indirect effect through academic, and social self and global self-worth on children's learned helplessness. Mother's controlling childrearing attitudes had indirect effect through stress on children's learned helplessness. Children's age had a indirect effect through global self-worth and stress and children's sex had a indirect effect through social self on children's learned helplessness.

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Comparison of Nutrient Intakes between Disabled Children(Mental Retardation, Autism and Cerebral Palsy) and Non-disabled Children - Comparison According to the Types of Handicap - (정신지체, 자폐 및 뇌성마비 아동과 비장애아동의 영양소 섭취량 비교)

  • 김은경;김은경;김은미
    • Korean Journal of Community Nutrition
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.121-134
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    • 2004
  • Purpose of this study was to compare nutrient intakes of disabled children and non-disabled children. Subjects consisted of 86 disabled children from a special education school and 127 non-disabled children from an elementary school in Seoul. Nutrient intakes were assessed by modified 24-hr recall method, with the help of children's parents and teachers. Almost all nutrient intakes (energy, protein, fat, carbohydrates, vitamin B$_1$ and niacin) of children with cerebral palsy were significantly lower than those of other groups. But nutrient intakes per body weight of children with cerebral palsy were not significantly different with those of other groups. There was no significant difference between disabled and non-disabled children in almost % RDA (rate of actual intake to RDA) except of energy %RDA in children with cerebral palsy. NARs (nutrient adequacy ratio) for energy and vitamin B$_1$ of children with cerebral palsy were significantly lower than those of children with autism and mental retardation, and non-disabled children. The proportions of energy, carbohydrate and protein intakes from lunch were significantly higher than those from breakfast and dinner in children with mental retardation and autism. The nutrient intakes of disabled children were different between other groups according to the type of handicap. For example, children with cerebral palsy had the risk of undernutrition. On the other hand, autistic children had the tendency of overnutrition. These results suggest that nutrition educational programs and educational materials for disabled children, their teachers and their parents should be developed considering the type of handicap.

Resource Transfers between Middle-Aged Parents and Their Married Children (중년기 부모와 기혼 자녀 간 상호 자원이전: 경제적 자원과 도구적 자원을 중심으로)

  • Kim, Young-Soon;Koh, Sun-Kang
    • Korean Family Resource Management Association
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.143-162
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    • 2014
  • The purpose of this study is to analyze the influences on resource transfers between middle-aged parents and their married children. This study used 2009 data from the National Research Foundation of Korea regarding inter-generational resource transfers and preparation for later life (kfr-2009-c00010). A sample of 1208 households of middle-aged parents with married children was used. The study found that parents provided financial resource transfers to their married children in the following circumstances: where parents received financial resource transfers from their married children, where the household income of parents was high, where the children were younger, and where the children were male. Parents provided instrumental resource transfers to their married children in the following circumstances: where parents received instrumental resource transfers from their married children, where the gender of children was female, where the children were employed, where married children had their own children who were either younger than a preschooler, and where household incomes of married children were high. Parents received financial resource transfers from their married children in these circumstances: where their emotional ties with their children was high, where the household income of the parents was low, where the household income of the married children was high, and where married children had preschoolers. The circumstances in which parents received instrumental resource transfers from their married children were where parents provided instrumental resource transfers and the household incomes of married children were high.