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Children′s Peer Acceptance, Reciprocity of Best friendship, and Psychosocial Adjustment (학령기 아동의 또래수용 및 가장 친한 학급 친구의 상호성에 따른 심리사회적 적용)

  • 정윤주
    • Journal of the Korean Home Economics Association
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    • v.42 no.7
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    • pp.19-32
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    • 2004
  • This study examined how school-age children's peer acceptance and friendship experience were related to their psychosocial adjusment. Peer acceptance was examined in terms of sociometric status and social preference, and the friendship experience was examined in terms of the reciprocity of best friendship. The subjects were 275 children in the 4th or 5th grades. It was found that sociometric status and the reciprocity of best friendship were significant predictors of the level of loneliness that children experienced. Interaction between children's social preference score and the reciprocity of best friendship was also a significant predictor of the children's experience of loneliness. That is, the degree to which children are accepted by their peer group predicts the level of loneliness that children experience, but the strength of the prediction depends on whether the children have reciprocal best friends. Is for children's self-esteem in relation with sociometric status and the reciprocity of best friendship, only sociometric status was significant predictor of children's self-esteem. However, interaction between social preference and the reciprocity of best friendship was a significant predictor of children's self-esteem. This finding suggests that the degree to which children are accepted by their peer group predicts the level of children's self-esteem, and the strength of the prediction depends on whether the children have reciprocal best friends.

Knowledge, Attitude and Behavior Related to Obesity in Elementary School Children (초등학생의 비만과 관련된 지식, 태도, 행태에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Myung-Ha;Kim, Hyeon-Ok;Hyoung, Hee-Kyoung;Kim, Hee-Sun
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Community Health Nursing
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.469-479
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    • 2007
  • Purpose: This study was carried out to investigate the knowledge of obesity and exercise , attitude to dietary habits and exercise, and physical activities and exercise in elementary school children to provide basic data for obese programs. Methods: The subjects were 850 elementary school children of grade 3-6 in C City and data were collected with a questionnaire. Results: Higher grade, female and overweight children recorded a higher knowledge score than lower grade, male and normal weight children. As for attitude to dietary habit, lower grade and female children had more positive attitude than higher grade and male children. Overweight children were more aware of the seriousness of exercise than normal weight children. In physical activity, lower grade and male children were higher than higher grade and female children. The more interested the children's family were in exercise, the higher score of physical activity they showed. Conclusion: In planning education for preventing obesity, it should give consideration to lower glade and male children. In addition, education for changing dietary habit attitude must be extended to higher grade and male children as well. It is effective to develop and apply physical activity improvement programs in the cooperation and involvement of their families.

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Children‘s Personal Characteristics, Mothers' Psychological Control, and the Extent of Children's Computer Game Playing (아동의 개인적 특성 및 어머니의 심리통제와 아동의 컴퓨터 게임 몰입)

  • Chyung Yun-Joo
    • Journal of the Korean Home Economics Association
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    • v.43 no.11
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    • pp.197-210
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    • 2005
  • The purposes of this study were to examine: (1) the extent to which school-age children used computer games; (2) whether there were differences between children who played computer games to a greater extent and children who played computer games to a normal extent in their levels of depression, anxiety, self-esteem, and social anxiety; and (3) whether children's social withdrawal, aggression, and mothers' psychological control explained the extent of children's computer game playing. The subject were 270 children in the 6th grade. It was found that $55.6\%$ of the children were normal users, $39.3\%$ of the children were somewhat heavy users, and $5.2\%$ of the children were heavy users of computer games. There was a gender difference in the proportions of heavy computer game playing. That is, there were more heavy users among boys than among girls. It was also found that social withdrawal, aggression, and mothers' psychological control were significant predictors of the extent of children's computer game playing. That is, the levels of children's social withdrawal, aggression, and their perceptions of mothers' psychological control predicted the degree to which children played computer games.

Analysis of Adaptation and Self-Consciousness between Supervised and Unsupervised Children (가족구조에 따른 자기보호아동과 성인보호아동의 학교적응 및 자의식 정서)

  • Lee, Jung-Sook;Kim, Eun-Kyung
    • Journal of the Korean Home Economics Association
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    • v.46 no.2
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    • pp.85-96
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    • 2008
  • Given the evolving nature of the family unit, a large number of children are being left unsupervised after school. The purpose of this study is to understand the adaptation ability and emotional capacity of these children. To achieve this objective, we investigated the different characteristics of 708 middle-school students in Seoul, dividing them into two categories adult-care children, for whom adults provide care after school, and self-care children for whom no adult supervision was present. In particular, we examined children's adaptation to the school environment and possible self-consciousness difference between self-care and adult-care children, in consideration of their family characteristic; divorced, separated, widowed parent, remarried parents, ordinary families. The results showed that self-care children tend to have a higher rate of shame-proneness and guilt-proneness compared to adult-care children. Furthermore, self-care children exhibited lower school adaptation rate than adult-care children. There was no significant difference in schoolmate relationships between the two groups. In relation to specific family structures, children from reorganized families showed no significant differences in school adaptation and self-conscious, while self-care children from ordinary families revealed low school adaptation and high self-conscious characteristics. The results of this study are critical in the effective analysis and understanding of children's adaptive and emotional behaviors arising from changes in their family structure.

A Study on Sleep Habits of Weak Children Groups (허약아의 수면 습관에 대한 연구)

  • Kim, Min Joo;Lee, Sun Haeng;Lee, Jin Yong
    • The Journal of Pediatrics of Korean Medicine
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    • v.29 no.4
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    • pp.1-11
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    • 2015
  • Objectives The purpose of this study is to research on sleep habits of weak children groups using objective evaluation tools. Methods This study surveyed 108 children and adolescents of 4~10 years old who visited the department of Pediatrics of ${\bigcirc}{\bigcirc}$ Korean Medicine Hospital from June 19th, 2015 to August 28th, 2015. Weak Children Questionnaire and CSHQ (The Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire) were used to research on sleep habits of children. We analyzed the data by using PASW Statistics 18.0 with independent t-test. Results CSHQ Score of Weak Children Group was significantly higher than CSHQ Score of Normal Children Group (p<0.05). CSHQ Score ($Mean{\pm}SD$) of Normal Children Group was $52.92{\pm}5.72$ and CSHQ Score ($Mean{\pm}SD$) of Weak Children Group was $56.23{\pm}5.66$. Conclusions Weak Children Group had more sleep habit problems than Normal Children Group.

A survey on awareness of children's woodworking activity among children and adults (유아 목공놀이활동에 대한 성인 및 유아의 인식도 조사)

  • Byun, Young-Man;Kang, Ho-Yang;Han, Gyu-Seong
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.39 no.2
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    • pp.189-194
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    • 2012
  • It is well-known fact that woodworking activity could contribute in enhancing creativity, scientific problem-solving ability, spatial perception ability and prosocial behavior of children. However, there is little chance that children experience woodworking at home or in kindergarten. This study was conducted to know how much children and adults have done woodworking in there daily life and how they perceived children's woodworking activity. Woodworking activities for children (N=207, 5 and 6 year old kids) with adults (N=271, only fathers) were carried out in 10 kindergartens of Cheongju. Actually, the survey result shows that very few children and adults experienced woodworking in their daily life. 62.8% of children and 34.3% of adults surveyed responded that they had never done woodworking. However, the greater part of children and adults evaluated the woodworking activity positively. Over 95% of children surveyed responded that their woodworking activity was fun and they want to play woodworking again. Over 73% of adults surveyed responded that children's woodworking activity was safe, and over 99% of adults surveyed responded that they can recommend children's woodworking activity to others. In conclusion, the development of safe tools and programs for children's woodworking activity helps its spread and activation.

The Correlation Study between Developmental Disability and Weak Symptoms (발달장애 아동의 허약 증상에 관한 연구)

  • Jung, Sun-Kyung;Yu, Sun-Ae;Lee, Seung-Yeon
    • The Journal of Pediatrics of Korean Medicine
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    • v.26 no.2
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    • pp.25-34
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    • 2012
  • Objectives The purpose of this study was to find out the relationship between developmental disabilities and oriental medicine using diagnostic procedure based on the symptoms of weak children. Methods The questionnaire administrated to 42 developmental disability children in ${\bigcirc}{\bigcirc}$ Hospital's physical therapy room, and 90 general children in day care center. Results 1. The mean value of every organ's weak score was higher in developmental disability children group than that of general children group. 2. Regardless of developmental disabilities, the biggest portion among all children was lung weak children. 3. The percentage of the weak children was 38.1% in developmental disability group and 20% in general children group. 4. Heart, spleen, kidney weak children were significantly more in developmental disability group than in general children group. Conclusions Developmental disability children's weak symptom scores were higher than general children. Also, developmental disability children were more prone to weaker heart, spleen, kidney than general children.

The Lived Experience of Mothers about Rearing of School Children With Cerebral palsy (뇌성마비 취학아동 어머니의 양육체험)

  • Baek Kyoung-Seon
    • Child Health Nursing Research
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    • v.7 no.4
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    • pp.434-450
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    • 2001
  • This study is designed to understand the meaning and nature of raising children with cerebral palsy. It researches the experience of mothers of schoolchildren with cerebral palsy by the research method of hermeneutic phenomenology. The study was conducted from November 10, 1999 to December 20, 2000. When children with cerebral palsy usually show symptoms in the early stage of cerebral palsy, mothers do not take children to a doctor for diagnosis. And, most of mothers have a difficult time to accept the reality; they usually respond to the initial diagnosis with shock, reproach, and deny. When mothers start recognizing the reality, they consider that their children have cerebral palsy due to the their mismanagement during pregnancy, delivery, nursing, and initial treatment. They shelter their children from view and feel guilty that they cannot afford to try folk remedies for their children. As time passes, mothers face conflicts between families in diverse ways. Families put the blame on genetic effects. Mothers-in-law give their daughters-in-law a hard time, husbands shift the responsibility of raising children onto their wives, and trouble arises between families-in-law and mothers native families. When children grow up, it is physically difficult for mothers to take care their children. In addition, they suffer from all the troubles in family due to childrens handicap. Mothers try the diverse methods of bringing up children. However, they start getting tired of raising children as they experience failures and financial difficulties. Mothers feel collapsed recalling the ways of raising children. They feel anxiety, miserable, lonely, and worrying when they think how children would attend school, make friends, and live in the future. In this stage, mothers do their best to raise their children with hope. They tend to compare their children with others without handicap and spend money and time in attempting all the treatments. When mothers and children join the society at school, they find that the society does not understand disabled people, teachers show inconsiderate attitude, friends avoid them, and children hardly follow classes. Such experiences make mothers feel angry and frustrated. However, when children adapt to school, mothers see the possibility that children could accomplish schoolwork. They appreciate teachers help and others consideration. Mothers place appropriate expectations on their children and help them to prepare for the future. I would make following suggestions based on the results. 1. As a primary basic course of rehabilitation nursing intervention, solution-centered nursing intervention system should be developed. The intervention needs to be based on the understanding of mothers, who raise children with cerebral palsy, through in-depth interview. 2. Advance researches on the development of individual nursing intervention should be conducted. Individual nursing intervention needs to prevent and release actual pain focusing on mothers raising children with cerebral palsy. 3. Integrated curriculum that help children with cerebral palsy lead a normal school life with ordinary children should be developed. 4. Basic research on using of facilities and effective application of service volunteer to help children with cerebral palsy in school needs to be conducted.

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Not All Children with Cystic Fibrosis Have Abnormal Esophageal Neutralization during Chemical Clearance of Acid Reflux

  • Woodley, Frederick W.;Moore-Clingenpeel, Melissa;Machado, Rodrigo Strehl;Nemastil, Christopher J.;Jadcherla, Sudarshan R.;Hayes, Don Jr;Kopp, Benjamin T.;Kaul, Ajay;Di Lorenzo, Carlo;Mousa, Hayat
    • Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.153-159
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    • 2017
  • Purpose: Acid neutralization during chemical clearance is significantly prolonged in children with cystic fibrosis, compared to symptomatic children without cystic fibrosis. The absence of available reference values impeded identification of abnormal findings within individual patients with and without cystic fibrosis. The present study aimed to test the hypothesis that significantly more children with cystic fibrosis have acid neutralization durations during chemical clearance that fall outside the physiological range. Methods: Published reference value for acid neutralization duration during chemical clearance (determined using combined impedance/pH monitoring) was used to assess esophageal acid neutralization efficiency during chemical clearance in 16 children with cystic fibrosis (3 to < 18 years) and 16 age-matched children without cystic fibrosis. Results: Duration of acid neutralization during chemical clearance exceeded the upper end of the physiological range in 9 of 16 (56.3%) children with and in 3 of 16 (18.8%) children without cystic fibrosis (p=0.0412). The likelihood ratio for duration indicated that children with cystic fibrosis are 2.1-times more likely to have abnormal acid neutralization during chemical clearance, and children with abnormal acid neutralization during chemical clearance are 1.5-times more likely to have cystic fibrosis. Conclusion: Significantly more (but not all) children with cystic fibrosis have abnormally prolonged esophageal clearance of acid. Children with cystic fibrosis are more likely to have abnormal acid neutralization during chemical clearance. Additional studies involving larger sample sizes are needed to address the importance of genotype, esophageal motility, composition and volume of saliva, and gastric acidity on acid neutralization efficiency in cystic fibrosis children.

The Effect of Children's Temperament, Parenting Behavior and Parenting Stress on Preschool Children's Prosocial Behavior (취학 전 아동의 친사회적 행동에 대한 아동의 기질, 부모의 양육행동 및 양육스트레스의 영향)

  • Kim, Su-Kyoung;Jang, Young-Ae
    • The Korean Journal of Community Living Science
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.605-618
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    • 2010
  • This study was to investigate the effects of children's temperament, parenting behavior, and parenting stress on preschool children's prosocial behavior. The subjects were 190 children consisting of five and six years old and their mothers and fathers. They were selected from 6 kindergartens. Data was collected using the children's prosocial behavior index, the children's temperament index, the parenting behavior questionnaire, and the parenting stress questionnaire. The results were statistically analyzed using t-test, correlation analysis and multiple regression analysis. The study showed that there were some significant differences in children's prosocial behavior according to the children's gender, but there were no significant differences according to the children's age. Correlation analysis indicated that the children's prosocial behavior and children's temperament had significant correlation, especially the children's adaptability and activity indicated high positive correlations. In addition, the children's prosocial behavior and mother's warmth acceptance behavior had significant high positive correlation, and father's rejection restriction behavior had significant high negative correlation. Also, correlation analysis indicated that the children's prosocial behavior and the mother's and father's stress of parent-child dysfunctional interaction and educational distress had significant negative correlations. It was also found that children's gender, mother's permissiveness non- intervention behavior, mother's educational distress, mother's stress of parent-child dysfunctional interaction, and father's stress of parent-child dysfunctional interaction were all significant predictors of the preschool children's prosocial behavior.