• Title, Summary, Keyword: chlorine ($Cl_2$

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Analysis of Chlorine Species in Chlorine Dioxide Bleaching Liquor and Generation Process by UV-VIS Spectroscopy

  • Wang, Li-Jun;Lee, Seon-Ho;Yoon, Byung-Ho
    • Proceedings of the Korea Technical Association of the Pulp and Paper Industry Conference
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    • pp.78-83
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    • 1999
  • In this paper the extinction coefficients of molecule chlorine ($Cl_2$), chlorine dioxide (ClO$_2$), hypochlorous acid (HClO), chlorous acid ($HClO_2$$_2$) were determined using a PDA UV-VIS spectrophotometer. Based on these, the concentrations of $Cl_2$, $ClO_2$, and HClO in general chlorine dioxide bleaching liquor can be measured. The concentrations of $Cl_2$, $ClO_2$ and $HClO_2$ produced during the generation of methanol based chlorine dioxide generator can also be determined use the same method. The method was thought to be able to give more information in chlorine dioxide bleaching chemistry if combine its use with titration and ion chromatography.

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Inhibitory Effects of Chlorine Dioxide and a Commercial Chlorine Sanitizer Against Foodborne Pathogens on Lettuce (양상추에 오염된 병원성 미생물에 대한 Chlorine Dioxide 및 상업적 Chlorine 살균소독제의 저해효과 평가)

  • Choi, Mi-Ran;Lee, Sun-Young
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.24 no.4
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    • pp.445-451
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    • 2008
  • This study compared the effects of chlorine dioxide and a commercial chlorine sanitizer for inhibiting foodborne pathogens, including Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, Listeria monocytogenes, and Escherichia coli O157 : H7, on lettuce leaves. The lettuce samples were inoculated with each cocktail of the three strains, and were then treated with chemical sanitizers [distilled water, 100 ppm commercial chlorine and 50 ppm, 100 ppm, 200 ppm chlorine dioxide ($ClO_2$)] for 1 min, 5 min, and 10 min at room temperature($22{\pm}2^{\circ}C$). Following inoculation of the leaves, initial populations of E. coli O157:H7, L. monocytogenes, and S. Typhimurium were approximately 5.54, 4.47, and 5.12 log CFU/g, respectively these levels were not significantly reduced by the treatment with water,whereas the 100 ppm commercial chlorine sanitizer treatment and $ClO_2$ (at all tested concentrations) were effective at reducing levels of all three pathogens. The treatment of 200 ppm $ClO_2$ for 10 min was most effective at inhibiting the three pathogens, and reduction levels of E. coli O157 : H7, L. monocytogenes, and S. Typhimurium were 2.28, 1.95, 1.76 log, respectively. The inhibitory effect of $ClO_2$ increased with increasing treatment concentration of $ClO_2$, but there was no significant difference by the treatment times. When chemically injured cells of E. coli O157 : H7 and L. monocytogenes and S. Typhimurium were examined by SPRAB and selective overlay methods, respectively, it was observed that the commercial chlorine sanitizer generated greater numbers of injured L. monocytogenes than the $ClO_2$ treatment. From the overall results, $ClO_2$ was more effective at inhibiting pathogenic bacteria compared to the commercial chlorine sanitizer therefore, it has potential to be utilized as an alternative sanitizer to increase the microbial safety of fresh produce.

A study on the characteristics of the components of stabilized chlorine dioxide by UV method (UV법에 의한 안정화 이산화염소 원액 성분 특성에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Ho-Sun;An, Chang-Jin;Yoon, Je-Yong;Lee, Sang-Duk
    • Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.105-111
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    • 1997
  • Chlorine dioxide is being used to control THMs formation or taste & odor in water treatment plant. Recently, some operators or academic circles doubted the effectiveness of stabilized chlorine dioxide which is presumed as a liquid form of chlorine dioxide. In this study, we investigated components which consist of stabilized chlorine dioxide in terms of chlorine dioxide and chlorite. Two analytical methods used in this study are UV method and Iodometric method. Iodometric method is recommended by Korean EPA to check the purity of stabilized chlorine dioxide. The samples of stabilized chlorine dioxide from four water treatments were investigated and compared with that produced from chlorine dioxide generator on-site. This study demonstrated that the component of stabilized chlorine dioxide was overwhelmingly chlorite (${ClO_2}^-$) not chlorine dioxide ($ClO_2$) by UV method. It was also proved that Iodometric method (2nd method) recommended by Korean EPA could not differentiate between $ClO_2$ and ${ClO_2}^-$. Iodometric method (2nd method) recommended by Korean EPA should be revised accordingly to measure chlorine dioxide properly.

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Deconvolution of UV Spectrum for Selective Measurement of $ClO_2$ Concentration Quantitatively in Solution Containing Various Chlorine Species (다양한 염소 종이 함유된 수용액에서 자외선 흡수 파장 분해법을 이용한 이산화염소 선별 정량 분석)

  • Byun, Youngchul;Kim, Jaehoon;Jang, Yumi;Lee, Kiman;Lee, Jae Myeong;Shin, Dong Nam
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.34 no.11
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    • pp.743-750
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    • 2012
  • An ultraviolet (UV) absorption method has a difficulty to analyze $ClO_{2(aq)}$ in solutions containing various chlorine species because UV spectrum of $ClO_{2(aq)}$ overlaps with other chlorine-containing species. This study has proposed the deconvolution method of UV spectrum to analyze $ClO_{2(aq)}$ concentration quantitatively in solution containing various chlorine species. We compared results obtained from UV deconvolution method with titration method. Good agreement of $ClO_{2(aq)}$ concentration between them has been shown in about 10%. This result informs us that the deconvolution method of UV spectrum could be a feasible for the analysis of $ClO_{2(aq)}$ in solution containing various chlorine species.

첨가제가 이산화염소 표백에 미치는 영향

  • 윤병호;왕립군;김세종;김용식;최경화
    • Proceedings of the Korea Technical Association of the Pulp and Paper Industry Conference
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    • pp.84-88
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    • 1999
  • In chlorine dioxide delignigication or bleaching, chlorate is mainly formed by the reaction between chlorite and hypochlorous acid, thus scavengers of chlorine or hypochlorous acid can be used to reduce the formation of chlorate which is unfavorable to environment. In this study, additives such as sulfamic acid, DMSO, hydrogen peroxide, or sodium chlorite was added to chlorine solution or pure $ClO_2$ solution to check their reactivity with $Cl_2$ and $ClO_2$. These additives were also added directly into general $ClO_2$ solution which contained certain amount of chlorine, then the additive-treated $ClO_2$ solution were used in bleaching stages. The aim of this procedure was to remove the original amount of chlorine that was thought to be possibly the main reason for the formation of chlorate and AOX. The additives were found to be able to eliminate chlorine very fast and selectively, but $H_2$ $O_2$ should be used under pH4, otherwise it also reacts with $ClO_2$. After the additives reacted With $Cl_2$, DMSO turned into an inactive product $(CH_3)_2SO_2$, While Sulfamic acid turned into $HClSO_3H$ that still remained active in oxidation, and $NaClO_2$ produced $ClO_2$. The addition of $HNaClO_2$ showed significant improvement in delignification but the deeper delignification led to higher formation of chlorate. When the additive-treated chlorine dioxide solutions were used in bleaching, both sulfamic acid, DMSO, and hydrogen peroxide showed no significant changes of DE brightness and Kappa number. The formation of chlorate was reduced by addition of sulfamic acid, DMSO and hydrogen peroxide.

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Effect of an Aqueous Chlorine Dioxide Generator and Effect on Disinfection of Fresh Fruits and Vegetables by Immersion Washing (이산화염소수 생성기의 생성효율 및 과.채류에 대한 침지 세정 살균효과)

  • Park, Kee-Jai;Jeong, Jin-Woong;Lim, Jeong-Ho;Jang, Jae-Hee;Park, Hee-Joo
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.236-242
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    • 2008
  • We investigated the optimum concentration of a $NaClO_2$ solution and the amount of gaseous $Cl_2$ for production of high yield and purity of aqueous $ClO_2$ by use of a gaseous chlorine-chlorite $ClO_2$ generator. This system produced lower concentrations of chlorine dioxide and is applicable for direct-use in food processing as a cleaner and sanitizer. The concentration of $NaClO_2$ solution and the amount of gaseous $Cl_2$ was varied from 0.01-0.1% and 100-1,000 g/hr, respectively. The concentrations of chlorite, chlorate, FAC (free available chlorine), and chlorine dioxide that were produced increased with increasing concentration of $NaClO_2$ solution and with the amount of gaseous $Cl_2$. The optimum concentration of $NaClO_2$ solution and amount of gaseous $Cl_2$ were 0.1% and 900 g/hr respectively. $ClO_2$ and FAC produced at these concentrations were 882.0 ppm and 8.0 ppm, with no detection of chlorite and chlorate. The yield and purity of $ClO_2$ were 97.0% and 96.0% respectively. Immersion-cleaning experiments showed that this protocol decreased the level of CFU/g by $10^3$- to $10^4$-fold, with a similar effect on fruit.

CHARACTERISITCS OF CHLORINE IND DUCTIVELY COUPLED PLASMAS AND THEIR SILICON ETCH PROPERTIES

  • Lee, Young-Jun;Kim, Hyeon-Soo;Yeom, Geun-Young;Oho, Kyung-Hee
    • Journal of the Korean institute of surface engineering
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    • v.29 no.6
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    • pp.816-823
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    • 1996
  • Chlorine containing high density plasmas are widely used to etch various materials in the microelectronic device fabrication. In this study, the characteristics of inductively coupled $Cl_2(O_2/N_2$) plasmas and their effects on the formation of silicon etching have been investigated using a Langmuir probe, quadrupole mass spectrometry(QMS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy(XPS), and Scanning Electron Microscopy(SEM). The addition of oxygen for chlorine plasmas reduced ion current densities and chlorine radical densities compared to the nitrogen addition by the recombination of oxygen with chlorine. Also, when silicon is etched in $Cl_2/O_2$ plasmas, etch products recombined with oxygen such as $SiCl_xO_y$ emerged. However, when nitrogen is added to chlorine, etch products recombined with nitrogen or Si-N bondings on the etched silicon surface were not found. All the silicon etch characteristics were dependent on the plasma conditions such as ion density, radical density, etc. As a result sub micron vertical silicon trench etch profiles could be effectively formed using optimized etch conditions for $Cl_2/O_2\; and \;Cl_2/N_2$ gas combinations.

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Analysis of the Contents in Stabilized Chlorine Dioxide (안정화 이산화염소의 성분분석)

  • Shin, Ho-Sang;Oh-Shin, Yun-Suk
    • Analytical Science and Technology
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    • v.12 no.5
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    • pp.403-407
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    • 1999
  • A method for detecting chlorine dioxide in drinking water was developed by the modified iodometric titration. This method requires prior removal of interfering chemicals such as chlorine and/or other oxidants: the interferents are removed by $N_2$ purging. Chlorite and chlorate were successfully quantified by the ion chromatography-conductivity detection. Stabilized chlorine dioxide that is commercially available contained only traces of chlorine dioxide (0.01-0.09%). In reality, its main component is chlorite.

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Efficacy of Aqueous Chlorine Dioxide and Citric Acid in Reducing Escherichia coli on the Radish Seeds Used for Sprout Production

  • Lim, Jeong-Ho;Jeong, Jin-Woong;Kim, Jee-Hye;Park, Kee-Jai
    • Food Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.878-882
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    • 2008
  • The efficacy of citric acid-aqueous chlorine dioxide ($ClO_2$) treatment of radish seeds artificially contaminated with Escherichia coli was studied. Radish seeds were inoculated with E. coli. Following inoculation, samples were stored at $4^{\circ}C$ and soaked in citric acid or aqueous $ClO_2$ for 10 min. The treatment of radish seeds using 200 ppm aqueous $ClO_2$ solution caused a 1.5 log CFU/g reduction in the population of E. coli. Compared to the aqueous $ClO_2$ treatment, soaking radish seeds in 2.0% citric acid solution for 10 min was more effective in reducing E. coli populations on radish seeds. The efficacy of spray application of chlorine (100 ppm) or 0.5% citric acid to eliminate E. coli during the germination and growth of radish was investigated. Radish seed inoculated with E. coli was treated for the duration of the growth period. Although it resulted in a decrease in the E. coli population, the spray application of 100 ppm chlorine during the growth period was not significantly effective. In contrast, the combined treatment of seeds using 200 ppm aqueous $ClO_2$ and treatment of sprouts with 0.5% citric acid solution during sprout growth was hardly effective in eliminating E. coli.

Preparation of Chlorine Dioxide Aqueous Solution by Un-divided Electrochemical Cell using RuO2 anode (RuO2를 양전극으로 사용한 무격막 전해셀에서의 이산화염소수 제조)

  • Kwon, Tae Ok;Park, Bo Bae;Roh, Hyun Cheul;Moon, Il Shik
    • Applied Chemistry for Engineering
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.296-300
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    • 2009
  • Generation of chlorine dioxide ($ClO_2$) was studied by the un-divided electrochemical cell system using $RuO_2$ anode material. Sodium chlorite ($NaClO_2$) was used as a precursor compound of chlorine dioxide. Effect of various operating parameters such as feed solution flow rate, initial solution pH, $NaClO_2$ and NaCl conc., and applied current density on the produced chlorine dioxide concentration and solution pH were investigated in un-divided electrochemical cell system. Produced chlorine dioxide concentration and solution pH were strongly depends on the initial solution pH and feed solution flow rate. Sodium chloride (NaCl) was not only good electrolyte, it was also used as a raw material of chlorine dioxide with $NaClO_2$. Observed optimum conditions were flow rate of feed solution (90 mL/min), initial pH (2.3), $NaClO_2$ concentration (4.7 mM), NaCl concentration (100 mM), and current density ($5A/dm^2$). Produced chlorine dioxide concentration was around 350 mg/L and solution pH was around 3.