• Title, Summary, Keyword: chlorine treatment

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Inhibitory Effects of Chlorine Dioxide and a Commercial Chlorine Sanitizer Against Foodborne Pathogens on Lettuce (양상추에 오염된 병원성 미생물에 대한 Chlorine Dioxide 및 상업적 Chlorine 살균소독제의 저해효과 평가)

  • Choi, Mi-Ran;Lee, Sun-Young
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.24 no.4
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    • pp.445-451
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    • 2008
  • This study compared the effects of chlorine dioxide and a commercial chlorine sanitizer for inhibiting foodborne pathogens, including Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, Listeria monocytogenes, and Escherichia coli O157 : H7, on lettuce leaves. The lettuce samples were inoculated with each cocktail of the three strains, and were then treated with chemical sanitizers [distilled water, 100 ppm commercial chlorine and 50 ppm, 100 ppm, 200 ppm chlorine dioxide ($ClO_2$)] for 1 min, 5 min, and 10 min at room temperature($22{\pm}2^{\circ}C$). Following inoculation of the leaves, initial populations of E. coli O157:H7, L. monocytogenes, and S. Typhimurium were approximately 5.54, 4.47, and 5.12 log CFU/g, respectively these levels were not significantly reduced by the treatment with water,whereas the 100 ppm commercial chlorine sanitizer treatment and $ClO_2$ (at all tested concentrations) were effective at reducing levels of all three pathogens. The treatment of 200 ppm $ClO_2$ for 10 min was most effective at inhibiting the three pathogens, and reduction levels of E. coli O157 : H7, L. monocytogenes, and S. Typhimurium were 2.28, 1.95, 1.76 log, respectively. The inhibitory effect of $ClO_2$ increased with increasing treatment concentration of $ClO_2$, but there was no significant difference by the treatment times. When chemically injured cells of E. coli O157 : H7 and L. monocytogenes and S. Typhimurium were examined by SPRAB and selective overlay methods, respectively, it was observed that the commercial chlorine sanitizer generated greater numbers of injured L. monocytogenes than the $ClO_2$ treatment. From the overall results, $ClO_2$ was more effective at inhibiting pathogenic bacteria compared to the commercial chlorine sanitizer therefore, it has potential to be utilized as an alternative sanitizer to increase the microbial safety of fresh produce.

Statistical Analysis of Chlorine Residual in Korean Drinking Water (국내정수장의 잔류염소농도에 대한 조사연구)

  • Sohn, Jinsik;Kang, Hyosoon
    • Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.281-287
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    • 2006
  • Maintaining adequate chlorine residual is crucial in water treatment facilities, Treatment technique, newly promulgated regulation, requires sufficient disinfection in order to control more resistant microorganisms such as Viruses and Giardia lamblia. Each water treatment plant should report various water qualities including chlorine residual and disinfection by-products, thus plenty of data has been generated. Even though statistical analysis using these data are forced to investigate the status and effect of water qualities in water facilities very few researches have been performed in korea. This study performed statistical analysis of chlorine residual during three years in Korean drinking water. The average chlorine residual concentrations were 0.701mg/L, 0.738mg/L, 0.763mg/L in 2002, 2003, 2004, respectively. Monthly variations of chlorine residual was not significant. ANOVA result showed that yearly variance of chlorine residual is different in only less than $5000m^3/day$ of water treatment capacity. The statistical analysis can help government to establish new regulation with scientific basis.

Behavior of Organic Matter, Chlorine Residual and Disinfection By-Products (DBPs) Formation during UV Treatment of Wastewater Treatment Plant Effluents (하수처리장 방류수의 UV 처리시 유기물질, 잔류염소 및 소독부산물 생성 거동)

  • Han, Jihee;Sohn, Jinsik
    • Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater
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    • v.28 no.1
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    • pp.61-72
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    • 2014
  • Study on effluent organic matter (EfOM) characteristic and removal efficiency is required, because EfOM is important in regard to the stability of effluents reuse, quality issues of artificial recharge and water conservation of aqueous system. UV technology is widely used in wastewater treatment. Many reports have been conducted on microbial disinfection and micro pollutant reduction with UV treatment. However, the study on EfOM with UV has limited because low/medium pressure UV lamp is not sufficient to affect refractory organics. The high intensity of pulsed UV would mineralize EfOM itself as well as change the characteristics of EfOM. Chlorine demand and DBPs formation is affected on the changed amounts and properties of EfOM. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect on EfOM, chlorine residual, and chlorinated DBPs formation with low pressure and pulsed UV treatment. The removal of organic matter through low pressure UV treatment is insignificant effect. Pulsed UV treatment effectively removes/transforms EfOM. As a result, the chlorine consumption is changed and chlorine DBPs formation is decreased. However, excessive UV treatment caused problems of increasing chlorine consumption and generating unknown by-products.

Effect of Aqueous Chlorine Dioxide Treatment on the Decomposition of Pesticide Residues (이산화염소수 처리에 의한 잔류농약 분해 효과)

  • Kim, Kyu-Ri;Song, Kyung-Bin
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.38 no.5
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    • pp.601-604
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    • 2009
  • This study was conducted to examine the effect of aqueous chlorine dioxide treatment as a washing method on removal of pesticide residues. Three pesticides of chlorpyrifos, diazinon, and metalaxyl, which are commonly used in vegetable crops, were treated with 10, 50, and 100 ppm of aqueous chlorine dioxide and decomposition of the pesticides was determined using gas chromatography. Three pesticides used in this study were decomposed by aqueous chlorine dioxide treatment and removal rate was proportional to treatment time as well as concentration of aqueous chlorine dioxide. In particular, 100 ppm of aqueous chlorine dioxide treatment decreased the pesticides efficiently. In addition, lettuce was treated by dipping in distilled water and 100 ppm aqueous chlorine dioxide, respectively, and was compared regarding removal efficiency of the pesticides. The results revealed that washing with 100 ppm aqueous chlorine dioxide for 10 min was the most effective for removing the pesticides. These results suggest that aqueous chlorine dioxide can be used as a washing method of fresh produce to remove the residual of pesticides.

A Study on the Removal of THM(trihalomethane) (THM(trihalomethane)제거(除去) 대책(對策)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究))

  • Lee, Seok Hun;Hwang, Sun Jin;Park, Chung Hyun
    • Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater
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    • v.7 no.2
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    • pp.34-38
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    • 1993
  • An experimental study was conducted to investigate the effects of chlorine dioxide and ozone on reduction of THM(trihalomethane) formation. Precursor concentration, chlorine concentration, reaction time, pH, and temperature were governing compornents of THM formation. When other conditions are constant, THM formation increased linearly with precursor concentration increased. THM formation increased when pH increased from 5 to 9. In combined treatment with chlorine and chlorine dioxide, chlorine treatment after chlorine dioxide treatment made less THM than any other case does. Ozonation reduced THMFP(THM formation potential) of THM precursor. THMFP decreased exponentially with reaction time increased. Also biodegradability of humic acid was enhanced by ozonation.

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Effect of Aqueous Chlorine Dioxide Treatment on the Microbial Growth and Qualities of Strawberries During Storage

  • Jin, You-Young;Kim, Yun-Jung;Chung, Kyung-Sook;Won, Mi-Sun;Song, Kyung-Bin
    • Food Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.16 no.6
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    • pp.1018-1022
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    • 2007
  • Effect of aqueous chlorine dioxide treatment on the microbial growth and quality changes of strawberries during storage was examined. Strawberries were treated with 5, 10, and 50 ppm of chlorine dioxide solution, and stored at $4{\pm}1^{\circ}C$. Total aerobic bacteria in strawberries treated at 50 ppm of chlorine dioxide were increased from 1.40 to 2.10 log CFU/g after 7 days, while increasing in the control from 2.75 to 4.32 log CFU/g. Yeasts and molds in strawberries treated at 50 ppm of chlorine dioxide were increased from 1.10 to 1.97 log CFU/g after 7 days, while the control was increased from 2.55 to 4.50 log CFU/g. The pH and titratable acidity of strawberries were not significantly different among treatments. Sensory evaluation results showed that chlorine dioxide-treated strawberries had better sensory scores than the control. These results indicate that chlorine dioxide treatment could be useful in improving the microbial safety and qualities of strawberries during storage.

Inhibitory Effect of Aqueous Chlorine Dioxide on Survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella typhimurium, and Listeria monocytogenes in Pure Cell Culture (이산화염소가 E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella typhimurium, Listeria monocytogenes의 생존에 미치는 영향)

  • Youm, Hyoung-Jun;Ko, Jong-Kwan;Kim, Mee-Ree;Song, Kyung-Bin
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.36 no.3
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    • pp.514-517
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    • 2004
  • O157:H7, Salmonella typhimurium, Listeria monocytogenes were treated with aqueous chlorine dioxide to elucidate effect of aqueous chlorine dioxide treatment on major food-borne pathogenic bacteria. Survival plot of E.coli O157:H7 at 5 ppm chlorine dioxide showed typical first-order rate. After 5 min of treatment, cell number decreased by 1.5 log cycle. Survival plot slope gave D value of 3.37 min. S. typhimurium and L. monocytogenes showed biphasic curve. Aqueous chlorine dioxide treatment on S. typhimurium and L. monocytogenes resulted in bactericidal effect for 5 min, and thereafter no effect was observed under experimental conditions of this study. These results suggest concentration of chlorine dioxide is more important than treatment time, and 5 ppm chlorine dioxide treatment is not sufficient for sanitizing fresh vegetables.

Prediction Models of Residual Chlorine in Sediment Basin to Control Pre-chlorination in Water Treatment Plant (정수장 전염소 공정 제어를 위한 침전지 잔류 염소 농도 예측모델 개발)

  • Lee, Kyung-Hyuk;Kim, Ju-Hwan;Lim, Jae-Lim;Chae, Seon Ha
    • Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater
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    • v.21 no.5
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    • pp.601-607
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    • 2007
  • In order to maintain constant residual chlorine in sedimentation basin, It is necessary to develop real time prediction model of residual chlorine considering water treatment plant data such as water qualities, weather, and plant operation conditions. Based on the operation data acquired from K water treatment plant, prediction models of residual chlorine in sediment basin were accomplished. The input parameters applied in the models were water temperature, turbidity, pH, conductivity, flow rate, alkalinity and pre-chlorination dosage. The multiple regression models were established with linear and non-linear model with 5,448 data set. The corelation coefficient (R) for the linear and non-linear model were 0.39 and 0.374, respectively. It shows low correlation coefficient, that is, these multiple regression models can not represent the residual chlorine with the input parameters which varies independently with time changes related to weather condition. Artificial neural network models are applied with three different conditions. Input parameters are consisted of water quality data observed in water treatment process based on the structure of auto-regressive model type, considering a time lag. The artificial neural network models have better ability to predict residual chlorine at sediment basin than conventional linear and nonlinear multi-regression models. The determination coefficients of each model in verification process were shown as 0.742, 0.754, and 0.869, respectively. Consequently, comparing the results of each model, neural network can simulate the residual chlorine in sedimentation basin better than mathematical regression models in terms of prediction performance. This results are expected to contribute into automation control of water treatment processes.

Effect of Electrochemical Treatment on the Chlorine Generation Efficiency of Ballast Water in the Brackish Zone (기수지역 선박평형수의 염소 생성 효율에 미치는 전기화학 처리의 영향)

  • Choi, Yong-Sun;Lee, You-Kee
    • Korean Journal of Materials Research
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    • v.29 no.1
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    • pp.16-22
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    • 2019
  • Indirect oxidation using chlorine species oxidizing agents is often effective in wastewater treatment using an electrochemical oxidation process. When chlorine ions are contained in the wastewater, oxidizing agents of various chlorine species are produced during electrolysis. In a ballast water management system, it is also used to treat ballast water by electrolyzing seawater to produce a chlorine species oxidizer. However, ballast water in the brackish zone and some wastewater has a low chlorine ion concentration. Therefore, it is necessary to study the chlorine generation current efficiency at various chlorine concentration conditions. In this study, the chlorine generating current efficiency of a boron-doped diamond(BDD) electrode and insoluble electrodes are compared with various chloride ion concentrations. The results of this study show that the current efficiency of the BDD electrode is better than that of the insoluble electrodes. The chlorine generation current efficiency is better in the order of BDD, MMO(mixed metal oxide), $Ti/RuO_2$, and $Ti/IrO_2$ electrodes. In particular, when the concentration of sodium chloride is 10 g/L or less, the current efficiency of the BDD electrode is excellent.

Effect of Chlorine Treatment on the Lipid Composition of Wheat Flour (염소처리가 밀가루의 지방질 조성에 미치는 영향)

  • Han, Myung-Kyu;Shin, Hyo-Sun
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.132-136
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    • 1992
  • The effects of chlorine treatment on the lipid composition of wheat flour were studied by treating flour with different amounts (1, 2 and 4 ounces per 100 pounds of flour) of liquidized chlorine gas. The contents of free lipid increased slightly while those of the bound lipid decreased at all levels of chlorine used. The contents of neutral lipid in the free lipid decreased while those in the bound lipid increased as the level of chlorine increased. The contents of triglycerides in the free and bound lipids decreased as the level of chlorine increased. As the level of chlorine increased, digalactosyl diglycerides in the bound lipid decreased, whereas those in the free lipid increased within the range of 1 to 2 oz of chlorine. The phosphatidylcholine content in the free and bound lipids decreased while the lysophosphatidylcholine increased in both free and bound lipids as the level of chlorine increased. The content of saturated fatty acids increased while that of unsaturated ones decreased as the level of chlorine increased.

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