• Title/Summary/Keyword: chlorpyrifos

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Acute Immunotoxic Effects of Chlorpyrifos in CBA Male Mice (유기인계 Chlorpyrifos가 생쥐에 미치는 급성 면역 독성)

  • 김강석
    • Environmental Analysis Health and Toxicology
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    • v.13 no.1_2
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    • pp.33-41
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    • 1998
  • Chlorpyrifos, o,o diethyl-o-(3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridyl) phosphorothioate, is a broad spectrum organophosphate insecticide. The use of chlorpyrifos has been increased more and more as pesticide. But the effects of chlorpyrifos on the immune alterations has not been yet observed. Therefore, we investigated the effects of chlorpyrifos on the immune alterations in CICA male mice. Chlorpyrifos was administered to mice by a single intraperitoneal injection for the purpose of observing acute effects. On the one hand to get the information on immunopathologic alterations we observed hematological values, counted total circulating leukocytes and assessed the ratio of lymphocytes and neutrophils from the peripheral blood, measured the ratio of organ/body weight and counted splenic cellularity in CBA male mice which treated chlorpyrifos intraperitoneally. But we could not find any significant immunopathologic alterations statistically by a single intraperitoneal injection. Also, the exposure of chlorpyrifos caused no significant change in the number of PFC/10$^6$ spleen cells at any three given doses. On the other hand a singte intraperitoneal injection of chlorpyrifos decreased the lymphocyte proliferation response slightly to ConA or LPS stimulation at a dose of 6 mg/kg b.w. Administrations of chlorpyrifos reduced mixed leukocyte response(MLR). MLR was decreased moderately at doses of 3mg/kg b.w. and 6mg/kg b.w. Therefore, all these findings suggest that chlorpyrifos may alter the immune functions acutely. especially by the changes of T lymphocyte activity.

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Contact and Residual Toxicities of 26 Insecticides Against the Cigarette Beetle, Lasioderma serricorne and the Maize Weevil, Sitophilus zeamais (권연벌레와 어리쌀바구미에 대한 26종 살충제의 접촉독성 및 잔효성)

  • Cho, Sun-Ran;Shin, Youn-Ho;Yoon, Chang-Mann;Kim, Gil-Ha
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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    • v.15 no.3
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    • pp.310-316
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    • 2011
  • This study was performed to evaluate the contact toxicity and residual toxicity of the 26 commercially registered insecticides against cigarette beetle, Lasioderma serricorne and maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais adult. Among 26 insecticides, seven insecticides (chlorpyrifos, chlorpyrifos-methyl, fenitrothion, fenthion, phenthoate, cypermethrin, ${\alpha}$-cyhalothrin) against L. serricorne adult and five insecticides (chlorpyrifos, chlorpyrifos-methyl, fenitrothion, fenthion, phenthoate) against S. zeamais adult showed perfect mortality, $LC_{50}$ (ppm) values of those selected insecticides were appeared lowest value on ${\alpha}$-cyhalothrin (1.46) against L. serricorne adult and chlorpyrifos-methyl (0.64) against S, zeamais adult, respectively. However, chlorpyrifos-methyl still remain high toxicity until 90th days after treatment against both L. serricorne and S. zeamais adults. From above results, it will be useful information to select insecticides effective against L. serricorne and S. zeamais adults.

Enhance degradation of insecticide chlorpyrifos by iron salts and potassium persulfate during zerovalent iron treatment in aqueous solution

  • Rahman, M. Mokhlesur;Hwang, Jung-In;Kwak, Se-Yeon;Kim, Jang-Eok
    • Journal of Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.61 no.4
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    • pp.383-389
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    • 2018
  • Degradation of the insecticide O,O-diethyl O-3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridyl phosphorothioate (chlorpyrifos) in aqueous solution was investigated using iron salts and potassium persulfate during ZVI treatment through a series of batch experiments. The degradation rate of chlorpyrifos increased with increases in the concentrations of iron salts and potassium persulfate in the aqueous system. Ferric chloride was found to be the most effective iron salt for the ZVI-mediated degradation of chlorpyrifos in aqueous solution. Further, the iron salts tested could be arranged in the following order in terms of their effectiveness: $FeCl_3$> $Fe_2(SO_4)_3$> $Fe(NO_3)_3$. The persulfate-ZVI system could significantly degrade chlorpyrifos present in the aqueous medium. This revealed that chlorpyrifos degradation by treatment with $Fe^0$ was promoted on adding ferric chloride and potassium persulfate. The kinetics of the degradation of chlorpyrifos by persulfate-amended $Fe^0$ was higher than that for iron-salt-amended $Fe^0$. This suggests that using a sequential $Fe^0$ reduction-ferric chloride or $Fe^0$ reduction-persulfate process may be an effective strategy to enhance the removal of chlorpyrifos in contaminated water.

Human Dermal Risk Assessment on Chlorpyrifos of Korean Farmers (우리나라 농민의 Chlorpyrifos에 대한 피부 위해성 평가)

  • 정경미;이효민;이은희;이선희;김진화;심영용;홍진태;이용욱
    • Environmental Mutagens and Carcinogens
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    • v.22 no.3
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    • pp.187-198
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    • 2002
  • Chlorpyrifos is an organophosphate insecticide and one of the most commonly and widely used insecticide. However, a little known about the dermal risk of chlorpyrifos on human being. Therefore, this study was conducted for the dermal risk assessment after exposure to chlorpyrifos in Korean farmers. First, skin irritation by chlorpyrifos (10 mg/$\textrm{cm}^2$, 50 mg/$\textrm{cm}^2$, 100 mg/$\textrm{cm}^2$, 250 mg/$\textrm{cm}^2$ in acetone) was determined in rabbits for 5 days considering the usage of chlorpyrifos short term highly exposure. The index of skin irritation by chlorpyrifos was increased in each dose and length of exposure dependent manners. Next, using benchmark dose (BMD$_{5}$) approach, the dose-response relationship was assessed to calculate the reference dose (RfD). The value of RfD was 2.84 $\mu\textrm{g}$/kg/day from 142.16 $\mu\textrm{g}$/kg/day BMD5 value divided uncertainty factor 50. Finally, we assessed human dermal risk of chlorpyrifos with exposure level and RfD. Skin absorbed levels were assumed with several exposure scenarios encounting the circumstances of exposure that application method, protection equipment and cloth, exposure time and exposure frequency during chlorpyrifos spraying. By the comparison of skin absorbed dose with the reference dose, it was identified that risk values (risk index) to skin chlorpyrifos exposure were 0.958 from the point of above results and it was recommended that the occurrence of hazard effect (skin irritation toxicity) of chlorpyrifos would not be expected. Risk index was smaller than 1 in the case of spraying vehicle mounted application, 1hour exposure time and wearing protective cloth exposure. Whereas, risk index was above 1 in the case of hand-held application, 2hour exposure time and wearing common cloth. Comparing two kinds of application method, total risk index of the hand held application (1.67) was higher than vehicle mounted (0.27). Therefore, chlorpyrifos skin exposure was mainly affected by application equipment and applied form. The results of risk assessment on the human dermal toxicity of chlorpyrifos should be required to control in keeping safety rules, skin surface area available for contact, spraying time ,and spraying frequency.y.

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Residue Levels of Chlorpyrifos and Chlorothalonil in Apples at Harvest (Chlorpyrifos 및 Chlorothalonil의 사과 생산단계별 잔류특성)

  • Kim, Young-Sook;Park, Ju-Hwang;Park, Jong-Woo;Lee, Young-Deuk;Lee, Kyu-Seung;Kim, Jang-Eok
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.130-136
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    • 2003
  • An organophosphorus insecticide, chlorpyrifos and an arylnitrile fungicide, chlorothalonil commonly used far apple were subjected to a residual investigation under field conditions to ensure safety of terminal residues at harvest. After pesticides were applied at standard rate in apple tree fer 15 days for chlorpyrifos and 30 days far chlorothalonil, persistence of their residues in apple was investigated by several interval. At harvest, residual concentrations of chlorpyrifos and chlorothalonil in apple were 1.3 and 2.4mg/kg, respectively, and the residue levels were higher than MRL 1.0 mg/kg in Korea. As well fitted by the first-oder kinetics, biological half-lives of the pesticide residues in apple were 9.3 days for chlorpyrifos and 32.2 days for chlorothalonil. During the storage, half-lives of chlorpyrifos and chlorothalonil were 35.0 and 56.3days at room temperature, and 120.7 and 182.8 days at 412, respectively. Distribution of chlorpyrifos residue in flesh, fruit skin and stalk cavity of each apple corresponded to 0.1% 22.8% and 77.1%, respectively. In case of chlorothalonil, residue in flesh, fruit skin and stalk cavity was 4.4%, 10.4% and 85.2%, respectively.

Toxicity Evaluation of Agricultural Insecticides on Workers of Pharaoh Ant, Monomorium pharaonis (Hyme-noptera : Formicidae) (애집개미 (Monomorium pharaonis) 일개미에 대한 농업용 살충제의 독성평가)

  • Kang, Shin-Ho;Han, Jong-Been;Park, Shin-Sub;Kim, Gil-Hah
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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    • v.10 no.3
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    • pp.218-224
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    • 2006
  • Toxicities of 34 agricultural insecticides was tested against Monomorium pharaonis workers by diet dipping method. Ten insecticides among them, bifenthrin, chlorpyrifos, chlorpyrifos-methyl, cypermethrin, dichlorvos, fenthion, fenitrothion, methidathion, pirimifos-methyl, and phenthoate showed 100% rapid mortality. $LC_{50}$ (ppm) values of selected insecticides were appeared on the order of pirimifos-methyl (0.33), chlorpyrifos-methyl (0.76), phenthoate (1.70), bifenthrin (1.78), dichlorvos (2.50), cypermethrin (9.92), chlorpyrifos (22.21), fenitrothion (36.58), fenthion (40.96), and methidathion (64.34). $LT_{50}$ (day) values by diet dipping method showed that dichlorvos, benfuracarb and cypermethrin acted more rapid than boric acid and hydramethylnon. The values of the former three were 0.25, 0.38 and 0.27 days, and those of the latter two were 3.4 and 2.6 days, respectively. In persistance effect tests, chlorpyrifos-methyl, fenthion and methidathion showed over 90% insecticidal activity for 13 days.

Development of an ELISA for the Organophosphorus Insecticide Chlorpyrifos

  • Cho, Young Ae;Lee, Hye-Sung;Park, Eun-Yeong;Lee, Yong-Tae;Hammock, Bruce D.;Ahn, Ki-Chang;Lee, Jae-Koo
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.23 no.3
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    • pp.481-487
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    • 2002
  • A selective enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the insecticide chlorpyrifos was developed. Four haptens for chlorpyrifos were synthesized and two of them were used as immunogens after coupling to keyhole limpet hemocyanin by two differe nt approaches. Rabbits were immunized with either of them and the sera were screened against 4 haptens coupled to ovalbumin (OVA). Using the sera of highest specificity, an antigencoated ELISA was developed, which shows an I50 of 160 ppb with a detection limit of 10 ppb. An antibody-coated ELISA was also developed, which shows an $I_{50}$ of 20 ppb with a detection limit of 0.1 ppb. The antibodies showed negligible cross-reactivity with other organophosphorus pesticides except for insecticides chlorpyrifos-methyl and bromophos-ethyl, which makes these assays suitable for the selective detection of chlorpyrifos.

The Change of Residual Chlorpyrifos during Fermentation of Kimchi (배추김치 숙성중 Chlorpyrifos 잔류량 변화)

  • Yun, Shuk-Ja
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.590-594
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    • 1989
  • To determine the change of residual chlorpyrifos during Kimchi fermentation, the Kimchi was prepared and fermented at $4^{\circ}C$ for 4 weeks according to the conventional method. As a model experiment, chinese cabbages which were soaked in the chlorpyrifos solution were used for Kimchi preparation. It was found that the concentration of residual chlorpyrifos which was 0.161 ppm in raw cabbages decreased to 0.0938 ppm by 4 times of washing and further decreased to 0.0099ppm during fermentation of Kimchi for 4 weeks. In the model system, the residual chlorpyrifos decreased by the first order reaction as the fermentation of Kimchi proceeded . It's half life is approximately 1.8 weeks.

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Effects of Sublethal Doses of Chlorpyrifos-methyl on the Following Generation of the Beet Armyworm, Spodoptera exigus (Hubner) (아치사량의 chlorpyrifos-methyl이 파밤나방(Spodoptera exigua(Hubner)) 차세대형성에 미치는 영향)

  • 이준익;김용균
    • Korean journal of applied entomology
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    • v.36 no.3
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    • pp.277-282
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    • 1997
  • Chemosterilant effect of chlorpyrifos-methyl (CPM) on the beet armyworm, Spodoptera e.rigua (Hubner) was investigated, using topical application. Egg fecundity and fertility were analyzed in the adults reared from the fifth instar larvae which were treated with sublethal doses of CPM. Though CPM reduced fecundity a little, it gave significant negative effect on egg fertility in a dose-dependent manner. Genetic analysis was performed by reciprocal crosses between treated (100 Wgllarva) and untreated individuals and showed a dominant lethal effect of CPM on egg fecundity and fertility. This results indicate that chlorpyrifos-methyl may act as a chemosterilant as well as a well-known neurotoxicant, and suggest that it can be used in genetic control program.

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Persistence and Dislodgeable Residues of Chlorpyrifos and Procymidone in Lettuce Leaves under Greenhouse Condition (상추의 생산단계별 Chlorpyrifos 및 Procymidone의 잔류허용기준 설정)

  • Kim, Young-Sook;Park, Ju-Hwang;Park, Jong-Woo;Lee, Young-Deuk;Lee, Kyu-Seung;Kim, Jang-Eok
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.149-155
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    • 2002
  • Two pesticides commonly used for lettuce cultivation including chlorpyrifos and procymidone were subjected to a field residue trial to ensure safety of terminal residues in the harvest. After pesticides were applied at standard and double rates in a foliar spray, leaf persistence of their residues was investigated far 10 days prior to harvest. Even though far exceeded the tolerances, initial leaf residues were rapidly dissipated with time and remained only 0.4$\sim$7.2% of the residues in the harvest. As well fitted by the first-order kinetics, biological half-lives of the pesticide residues in lettuce leaves ranged 1.2$\sim$2.6 days. Slow dissipation of the residues in the harvest was observed during storage at room temperature and 4$^{\circ}C$ for 7 days. Portions of dislodgeable residues which resided in detergent washings decreased as time elapsed. Patterns in dissipation and distribution of dislodgeable residues were not largely affected by the application rate of pesticides. It is concluded that timing of pesticide application, that is, pre-harvest interval would be the first factor to determine the terminal residue level in edible portions of lettuce.