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ON THE AXIOM OF CHOICE IN A WELL-POINTED TOPOS

  • Kim, Ig-Sung
    • The Pure and Applied Mathematics
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    • v.3 no.2
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    • pp.131-139
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    • 1996
  • Topos is a set-like category. For an axiom of choice in a topos, F. W. Lawvere and A. M. Penk introduced another versions of the axiom of choice. Also it is showed that general axiom of choice and Penk's axiom of choice are weaker than Lawvere's axiom of choice. In this paper we study that weak form of axiom of choice, axiom of choice, Penk's axiom of choice and Lawvere's axiom of choice are all equivalent in a well pointed topos.

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New Design of Choice Sets for Choice-based Conjoint Analysis

  • Kim, Bu-Yong
    • The Korean Journal of Applied Statistics
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    • v.25 no.5
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    • pp.847-857
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    • 2012
  • This article is concerned with choice-based conjoint analysis versus rating-based and ranking-based conjoint analysis. Choice-based conjoint analysis has a definite advantage in that the respondent's task of choosing the most preferred profile from several competing profiles adequately mimics consumer marketplace behavior. It is crucial to design the choice sets appropriate for the choice-based conjoint. Thus, this article suggests a new method to design the choice sets that are well-balanced. It augments the balanced incomplete block design and then obtains the dual design of the result to accommodate various numbers of profiles. In consequence, the choice sets designed by the new method have the desirable characteristics that each profile is presented to the same number of respondents, and pairs of any two distinct profiles occur together in the same number of choice sets. The balancing of the design increases the efficiency of the conjoint analysis. In addition, the pair-comparison scheme can improve the quality of data through the identification of contradictory responses.

Modeling of the Route Choice Behavior (노선선택행태의 모형화)

  • 이인원;차재혁
    • Journal of Korean Society of Transportation
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.35-42
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    • 1989
  • The multinomial logit model has been applied for various choice problems. Among others, the joint destination mode choice, the mode choice and the route choice are the three major modeling topics for korean transportation planners. This paper examines with real world data (the Olympic road and its competing two major arterials) the usefulness of a Logit route choice model. Quites surpisingly, it is found that the multinomial route choice behavioral model calibrated for this study based on (0,1) individula data base can not provide a good estimate for O-D trips less than 6㎞. 400data points and 3case studies might not be sufficient for a sound conclusion. It is, however, believed from a series of similar studies conducted by the authors that the route choice behavior is more sensitive (more demand elastic with respect to travel time changes) than the mode choice and the shorter trip, the more sensitive. The travel time parameters for destination choice models are usually smalle than the travel time parameters for mode choice models and these parameters (for mode choice models) turn our smaller than the travel time parameters for route choice models from this study. Table 2 in this paper shows parameter changes for three different markets and Table 3 shows the modeling errors when the estimated individual probabilities are aggregated into a route level.

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Application and Evaluation of An Attitudinal Model for Travel Mode Choice Behavior Analysis (교통수단 선택행태 분석을 위한 태도모형의 적용 및 평가)

  • 신동호
    • Journal of Korean Society of Transportation
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.5-26
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    • 1993
  • In order to analyze travel mode choice behavior, behavioral models including logit model, based on revealed preference theory, have been using easily measurable variables such as individual socioeconomic characteristics and physical attributes of travel modes. But some recent attitudinal models of travel choice behavior have implied that the negligence of individual psychological variables and individual choice constraints in travel mode choice might preclude better prediction of individual travel mode choice behavior. In this context, this study was attempted to reconstruct an attitudinal model(AM), especially focused on the decision rules in travel mode choice decision making process, consistent with the conceptual framework relating individual attitude and choice constraints to choice behavior. And to evaluate the strengths of the AM to other comparative models(logit, linear-additive, conjunctive, lexicographic model) in predicting travel mode choice bebavior, an empirical study of the mode choice in work-trip to CBD in Seoul was performed. According to the results the percent of correct prediction(PCP) derived from the AM was higher than those derived from comparative models by at least 7 to 20% in predicting travel mode choice. But each model produced a different prediction accuracy depending on market segmentation by travel modal users, individual socioeconomic characteristics, transportation system characteristics, and satisfaction levels. The finding that different groups divided by a certain criterion employ different decision rules supports the necessity of developing a choice model such as the AM combining compensatory and noncompensatory decision rules, and suggests that a proposed transportation system management plan or policy may have different effects on each group.

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A Study on College Students' Menu Choice Behavior by Food Choice Factor (음식 선택 요인에 따른 대학생의 메뉴 선택 행동에 관한 연구- 대전.충남 지역 대학생을 중심으로 -)

  • Kim, Keun-Jong;Chun, Myung-Sook
    • Culinary science and hospitality research
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    • v.13 no.4
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    • pp.186-198
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    • 2007
  • Recently, the desire of the students has been changing variously as time passes and its speed is being accelerated. In this respect, this paper aims to demonstrate college students' menu choice behavior. In order to attain the object of this paper, college students in Chung-Nam Province including Daejeon city have been studied. There are many kinds of manu choice factors in food-industry. One of the methods of this study is Khan's food choice factor. The results of this analysis suggest that hypothesis 1-1, the environmental factors for college students were verified as significant effects on menu choice behavior of other people and also hypothesis $1{\sim}2$, self oriented for menu choice behavior showed significant effects. As a result, Khan's food choice behavior should be comparative to each factor focused on diversified environments. And also each factor is not strongly affected in relation to food choice factor. Therefore, students' menu choice behavior will be measured by verifying factors.

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Self-concept molds choice experiences among multiple alternatives: An fMRI study

  • Kim, Hye-Young;Shin, Yeonsoon;Han, Sanghoon
    • Science of Emotion and Sensibility
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.445-456
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    • 2013
  • This study addresses the relationship between individual differences regarding self-concept, measured by Self Concept Clarity (SCC) scale and Relational-Interdependent Self-Construal and relationships (RISC) scale, and diverse affective consequences after choice behavior. We hypothesized that lower self-concept clarity and higher relational interdependence would be related to increased susceptibility to choice context-for example, how a choice set is constructed based on one's initial preference. We examined how variations in a choice set can produce different affective consequences after making choices, and investigated the underlying neural mechanism using fMRI. In this experiment, participants first rated their preferences for art posters, and made a series of choices from a presented set. After the choice task, they completed post-choice measures including preferences for the chosen posters, as well as measures of their self-concept clarity and relational interdependence. Our behavioral results demonstrated that when participants faced more conflicting choice context, self-concept clarity was related to more positive affective consequences after choice, whereas relational interdependence was correlated with a lower second-rated attractiveness of the chosen option. The neuroimaging analysis of choice-making revealed that self-concept clarity and the degree of their relational interdependence served as modulators in shaping how one perceives and experiences the same decision-making process. These results have theoretical and practical importance in that it is one of the first studies investigating the influence of the individual differences regarding self-concept on value-based decision making process among diverse choice set contexts.

ON THE WEAK FORMS OF CHOICE IN TOPOI

  • Kim, Ig-Sung
    • The Pure and Applied Mathematics
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.85-92
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    • 2008
  • In topoi, there are various forms of the axiom of choice such as (ES), (AC) and (WO). And also there are various weak forms of the axiom of choice such as (DES), (IAC) and (ASC). First we investigate the relation between (IAC) and (ASC), and then we study the relation between (AC) and (WO). We get equivalent forms of the axiom of choice in a well-pointed topos.

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Consumer Choice Model in No-frills Airline Industry

  • Ha, Hong Youl
    • Asia-Pacific Journal of Business
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    • v.1 no.2
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    • pp.23-46
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    • 2010
  • Despite the explosive growth of no-frill airline industry, very little is known about how consumers make purchase decision in such settings. Today's airline industry requires choice models consistent with consumers' true preference sets. This study used conjoint analysis to identify these ideal choice models. 38 percent of the subjects were found to use compensatory and 62 percent non-compensatory models. Our findings suggest a need to base choice-making promotions on ideal choice models if the promotion is to lead consumers to decisions consistent with true preferences.

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The Cost Effectiveness Analysis of Health Promotion Policy: WHO-CHOICE Programme (WHO-CHOICE 프로그램: 건강증진정책의 비용효과분석 도구)

  • Oh, In-Hwan;Yoon, Seok-Jun
    • Korean Journal of Health Education and Promotion
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    • v.28 no.2
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    • pp.41-50
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    • 2011
  • Objectives: Objectives: The objective of this study is to describe the WHO-CHOICE(World Health Organization- CHOosing Interventions that are Cost-Effective) programme, and to consider the application of WHO-CHOICE programme in Korea, especially on the health promotion policy. Methods: Literature review was conducted on the contents of WHO-CHOICE programme in the previous studies, guidebook, and software. We also contacted WHO-CHOICE team at WHO to identify the contents not clearly presented in the documents. Results: The WHO-CHOICE programme is a standardized tool for analyzing and comparing the cost effectiveness of health promotion policies. It is composed of PopMod to measure the health effect of intervention and of CostIt to measure the cost. The cost of tobacco control policy in Korea was analyzed with the cooperation of WHO-CHOICE team preliminary, and the results were different with the results of tobacco control policy on western pacific region of WHO. Conclusions: The cost effectiveness study based on WHO-CHOICE programme could help decide a priority of health promotion policy for settings with limited resources. For the improvement of health, the future work on WHO-CHOICE programme need to be considered.