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Analysis of the Effect of Cigarette Price Hike (담배가격인상 효과분석)

  • Kim Do-Hoon;Han Kwang-Hwan
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Tobacco Science
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    • v.27 no.2
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    • pp.235-243
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    • 2005
  • The government continuously increases cigarette price to reduce the smoking rates. Opinions of cigarette makers and Ministry of Health and Welfare on the effect of cigarette price hike are sharply opposed. This dispute is important because there is possibility of additional increase of cigarette price by 500 won. Therefore, as an inquiry into existing studies for the effect of cigarette price hike on tobacco product, namely analysis of the effect of cigarette price hike consumption, we empirically analyzed the effect of cigarette excise tax hike through establishing improved analytic models considering time trend. As a result, it is substantiated that time trend in the effect of cigarette excise tax hike is certainly exist and early impact is heavy. However, the amount of cigarette consumption is recovered to the level of the average in 5 months. Since it is proved that the long term effect of cigarette price hike is immaterial, health authority should reconsider the plan of additional raising cigarette price by 500 won.

Safety Assessment of Mainstream Smoke of Herbal Cigarette

  • Bak, Jong Ho;Lee, Seung Min;Lim, Heung Bin
    • Toxicological Research
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    • v.31 no.1
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    • pp.41-48
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    • 2015
  • Owing to the increase in price of cigarettes in Korea, herbal cigarettes have received increasing attention as a non-smoking aid; however, its safety has hardly been studied. We analyzed some of the toxic components in the mainstream smoke of herbal cigarettes, performed a mutagenicity test on smoke condensates for safety assessment, and compared the results with the corresponding values of a general cigarette with the same tar content. Herbal cigarette "A" was smoked using automatic smoking machine under ISO conditions in a manner similar to general cigarette "T". The tar content measured was higher than that inscribed on the outside of a package. The mainstream smoke of herbal cigarette "A" did not contain detectable levels of tobacco-specific nitrosamines and nicotine. Carbon monoxide and benzo(${\alpha}$)pyrene contents in herbal cigarette "A" were higher than those in the general cigarette "T". The phenolic contents such as hydroquinone, resorcinol, and catechol in herbal cigarette "A" were higher than those in the general cigarette "T", but cresol contents in herbal cigarette "A" were lower than those in the general cigarette "T". The content of aromatic amines such as 4-aminobiphenyl in herbal cigarette "A" was higher than that in the general cigarette "T"; however, this difference was not statistically significant. On the other hand, 1-aminonaphthalene, 2-aminonaphthalene, and 3-aminobiphenyl contents in herbal cigarette "A" were lower than those in the general cigarette "T". The smoke condensates of herbal cigarette "A" exhibited a higher mutagenic potential than the condensates from the general cigarette "T" at the same concentration. We concluded that the mainstream smoke of herbal cigarette contains some toxic components, the smoke condensates of herbal cigarettes are mutagenic similar to general cigarette because of combustion products, and that the evaluation of the chemical and biological safety of all types of herbal cigarettes available on the market.

The comparative analysis of smoke components delivered from cigarette papers manufactured by flax and wood pulp (궐련지의 섬유종류가 담배 연기성분에 미치는 영향)

  • 김종열;김정열;신창호;이근회;이동욱;제병권
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Tobacco Science
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.119-127
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    • 1999
  • This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of cigarette papers, flax and wood, on the delivery of mainstream smoke. The main components of cigarette papers were cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, and pectin. Lignin contents, known as precursor of smoke's phenolic compounds, of the flax and wood cigarette papers were 5.8% and 10.6%, respectively. The pyrolysis products of cigarette papers were similar by the profile of total ion chromatogram. But, the area % of some components, such as 1,3-cyclopentanedione, 3,5- dimethyl cyclopentane-1,2-dione, 2-hydroxy-3-methyl-2-cyclopentenone, dihydro-2(3H)-furanone, 3-methyl-2(5H)-fruanone, and 5-methyl-2-furaldehyde delivered through pyrolysis of the flax cigarette paper were higher than that of wood cigarette paper. Otherwise, the area % of some components, such as 2-methyl-cyclopentene-l-one), 2,3-butanedione, 2-cyclopentene-l-one, and 5-hydroxy-2-methyl-furaldehyde, 2-furaldehyde delivered through pyrolvsis of the wood cigarette paper were higher than that of flax cigarette paper. To identify the difference between two cigarette papers, we used the cigarette column filled with the cut cigarette paper instead of the cut tobacco leaf. The amounts of semi-volatile fraction delivered from flax cigarette paper was more than that of wood cigarette paper. But, by using the cut tobacco, there was no big difference of delivery amount between flax and wood cigarette papers. Also, aroma of TPM by collecting from brening cut tobacco wrapped in flax and wood papers showed a different pattern by the electonic nose system. Although the difference between two cigarette papers by using the cut tobacco was smaller than that of cut cigarette paper, this result indicated that the fax and wood had the different effects on the delivery of smoke components as shown in the sensory test results.

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The Effect of Paper Permeability on Cigarette Properties (종이의 투기도가 담배 물성에 미치는 영향)

  • 김영호;한영림;이문용;이영택;김정열
    • Journal of Korea Technical Association of The Pulp and Paper Industry
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    • v.33 no.1
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    • pp.64-72
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    • 2001
  • The cigarette ventilation affects not only the amount of tar and nicotine delivery by a cigarette, but also the composition of the smoke. Therefore, it is important to stabilize of variability in cigarette ventilation that would be affected by changes in cigarette components. This work was conducted to determine the major factors that influence the cigarette ventilation and also to provide fundamental informations for improving the uniformity of cigarette performances. To evaluate the effect of cigarette ventilation as a dependant variable, the three independent factors were the air permeability of plugwrap, tipping paper and the filter pressure drop. We determined the effect of paper permeability on ventilation variability and the optimum condition in combinations of independent factors. The mean of cigarette ventilation was increased as plugwrap permeability increases, particularly at 26,000 CU. However, it was exhibited that standard deviation and coefficient of variation of the cigarette ventilation were decreased with increasing plugwrap permeability. At the 600 CU and 1,200 CU of tipping paper permeability, process capability index (Cp) of the cigarette ventilation increased as plugwrap permeability increases. Following the optimum condition of cigarette ventilation induced by fitted regression equation, one was to optimize 50% ventilation level is by combination with plugwrap permeability of 16,000 CU, tipping paper permeability of 810 CU, filter pressure drop of 319 mm$H_2O$, respectively.

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Associations between the Frequency of Electronic Cigarette Use and Smoking-related Characteristics among Adolescent Smokers (청소년 흡연자의 전자담배 사용 빈도와 흡연 관련 특성 간의 연관성)

  • Lee, Haein
    • Child Health Nursing Research
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    • v.25 no.4
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    • pp.487-495
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    • 2019
  • Purpose: We aimed to identify associations between the frequency of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use and smoking-related characteristics among adolescent smokers. Methods: We used data from the 14th Korea Youth Risk Behavior Survey. The participants were 3,722 smokers who had smoked cigarettes on at least one day during the past 30 days. The frequency of e-cigarette use was defined as the number of days that participants used e-cigarettes during the past 30 days, and was divided into four categories: 0, 1~2, 3~9, and ${\geq}10$ days. We used the $x^2$ test and multinomial logistic regression to examine the associations between the frequency of e-cigarette use and smoking-related characteristics. Results: Those who attempted to quit smoking, had used a heated tobacco product (HTP) at least once, or initiated e-cigarette use before middle school were more likely to use e-cigarettes for 3~9 days in the past 30 days. More frequent e-cigarette use (${\geq}10$ days) was associated with a higher frequency and greater amount of cigarette use, lifetime HTP use, and earlier initiation of e-cigarette use. Conclusion: Smoking-related characteristics differed by the frequency of e-cigarette use. Therefore, intervention programs targeting adolescent smokers should consider differences in smoking-related characteristics based on the frequency of e-cigarette use.

Study of the Migration Rate of L-menthol into Cigarette Pack and Delivery Rate to Cigarette Smoke (포갑 내에서 L-menthol의 이동과 연중 이행 효과에 관한 연구)

  • 김병구;김시몽;양범호;제병권;이규서
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Tobacco Science
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.46-52
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    • 2002
  • This study was carried out to investigate the transfer rate of I-menthol constituent into cigarette case and delivery rate to cigarette smoke. Test sample was used a light-type standard brand cigarette made in Korea. I-Menthol contents was measured according to A.O.A.C(1990) method by G.C and smoking conditions was a puff volume of 35$m\ell$ and 2.0s duration, taken once per minute to filter tipping paper plus 3mmwith 20 cigarettes. Migration rate of menthol into cigarette case had an interrelation with triacetin contents into filter and 6% triacetin level was most suitable. I-Menthol transferred to filter part from tobacco sheet by 20.2% in one month after cigarette manufacture, and the transfer was continued subsequently. Maximum menthol transfer in five months was 4.1% to foils and other packing materials and the loss outside of cigarette pack was also 3.9% below. The migration balance of menthol into cigarette pack and the delivery to cigarette smoke were the optimum condition when menthol was added at the ration of 30% in filter to 70% in the other parts into cigarette.

Effects of Cigarette Smoking across Three Generations and of Perceptions of the Smoking-Cancer Relationship on the Cigarette Smoking Status of Turkish University Students

  • Ozturk, Candan;Bektas, Murat;Mert, Ozlem
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.11
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    • pp.4527-4533
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    • 2014
  • Background: This descriptive and cross-sectional study aimed to investigate effects of cigarette smoking across three generations and perceptions of the smoking-cancer relationship on the cigarette smoking status of Turkish university students. Materials and Methods: The study sample comprised of 434 university students studying in different departments of a university. Data were collected using a socio-demographic data collection form and the Decisional Balance Scaleqand evaluated using the Mann-Whitney U test, CHAID and multiple regression analyses. Results: The average age of the students participating in the study is 19.6+.5.0, some 11.3% of the students reporting that they smoked cigarettes. No statistically significant relationship was ascertained between the cigarette smoking statuses of the students based on the cigarette smoking status of their grandparents (p=0.144). but there was alink to that of their parents (p=0.002). The difference between the cigarette smoking ratios of the students based on their perceptions of smoking-cancer relationship was statistically significant (p<0.001). Believing that there is a relationship between smoking and cancer decreased likelihood of cigarette smoking 3.7 fold. Cigarette smoking by grandparents, and believing that there is a relationship between smoking and cancer, and cigarette smoking by parents explained 8.3% of the cigarette smoking status of the students. Conclusions: While cigarette smoking by grandparents only indirectly influences cigarette smoking by the students, believing that there is a relationship between smoking and cancer, and cigarette smoking by parents are influential variables in determining cigarette smoking by Turkish students.

Association between Adolescent Smoking and Health Behavior and Status: Comparison between Cigarette and E-cigarette (청소년의 흡연과 건강행위 및 건강수준과의 관련성: 궐련담배와 전자담배 비교)

  • Park, Min Hee;Song, Hye Young
    • Journal of Korean Public Health Nursing
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    • v.34 no.2
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    • pp.153-164
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    • 2020
  • Purpose: This study examined whether there is a relationship between smoking and health behavior and the status of cigarette or e-cigarette smoking adolescents. Methods: This study, as secondary analysis research, used the raw data from the 14th Korea youth risk behavior survey 2018. The data were analyzed by frequency analysis, Rao-Scott ��2-test, and logistic regression analysis. Results: Differences in gender, economic levels, and the educational levels of mothers were observed between cigarette smoking and e-cigarette smoking adolescents. The relationship between smoking and health behavior and status was examined by comparing cigarette and e-cigarette smoking. The results showed that the ratio of e-cigarettes was relatively higher in adolescents who have substance experiences. In contrast, cigarette smoking was related to drinking and perceived lack of sleep. Conclusion: This study suggests that it is necessary to develop healthy behavior that is strongly related to the smoking types of adolescents and health promotion programs.

Effect of Cigarette Filter on Cytotoxicity Potential of Mainstream Smoke (담배주류연의 세포독성에 대한 담배필터의 영향)

  • Shin Han-Jae;Sohn Hyung-Ok;Han Jung-Ho;Park Chul-Hoon;Hur Jae-Yeon;Lee Dong-Wook;Hwang Keon-Joong;Hyun Hak-Chul
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Tobacco Science
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    • v.27 no.1
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    • pp.51-58
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    • 2005
  • The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of cigarette filter on in vitro cytotoxicity of cigarette mainstream smoke from the cigarette. In this work, we used 3 types of cigarettes included non-filtered 2R4F cigarette, cellulose acetate-filtered 2R4F cigarette, and carbon dual-filtered 2R4F cigarette which was made from original 2R4F by replacing with an acetate filter containing carbon. The cytotoxicity of both the cigarette smoke condensate (CSC), which was collected in Cambridge filter pad, and the gas/vapor phase (GVP), which was bubbled through in phosphate-buffered saline in a gas-washing bottle, was determined using a neutral red uptake assay with CHO-K1 cells. With regard to cytotoxicity when calculated on an equal puff basis, the cytotoxicity of CSC from the filtered cigarettes was lower than that of the non filtered cigarette. Also, $EC_{50}$ vlaue of GVP from carbon filter cigarette was 40.9 puff/L, indicating the cytotoxicity to be $20\%$ lower than that of the CA filter cigarette. The cytotoxicity of the GVP was correlated to the several vapor phase components (formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone, acrolein, crotonaldehyde and MEK). In conclusion, carbon filter, which significantly reduced the amount of carbonyl compounds in mainstream cigarette smoke, results in significant reductions in the cytotoxicity potential of the smoke.

Paper Combustibility : Cigarette Combustibility? (귈련지 연소성과 담배 연소성과의 관계는?)

  • Baskevitch Nicolas;Loureau Jean-Marie;Moigne Christophe le
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Tobacco Science Conference
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    • pp.9-12
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    • 1999
  • Up to the 60's cigarette paper commercial grades were simply described as ' non combustible ', ' combustible ' or ' extra-combustible '. It was assumed that combustibility of the paper itself was correlated with cigarette combustibility. Since then, the characteristics of cigarette paper, like natural porosity and burning additives, which influence truly cigarette combustibility, have been described by various authors and it became clear to cigarette designers that paper combustibility was not generally a significant factor governing cigarette combustibility. On the other hand, for Roll Your Own(RYO)wrapping papers, the ECPCI has proposed to the CORESTA RYO Task Force to use paper combustibility, and specially the LCT test, to classify papers between low and high smoke delivery, and a new Task Force on PAPER COMBUSTIBILITY was recently set up to develop a recommended method. The objective of this presentation Is to show results demonstrating that for paper used on cigarettes, there is NO GENERAL CORTRELATION between PAPER and CIGARETTE combustibility. We will also show results confirming that, for the specific group of RYO booklet papers containing no burning additives, there is a correlation between paper combustibility and FCSA's Combustibility/smoke delivery. This apparent discrepancy will be explained by reviewing the role played by the various characteristics of cigarette paper in governing cigarette combustibility.

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