• Title, Summary, Keyword: citrus peel extract

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Effect of Immature Citrus sunki Peel Extract on Neuronal Cell Death (미성숙 진귤 과피 추출물이 신경세포 사멸에 미치는 영향)

  • Ko, Woon Chul;Lee, Sun Ryung
    • Korean Journal of Medicinal Crop Science
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.144-149
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    • 2015
  • The peel of Citrus sunki exhibits multiple biological activities such as anti-oxidant, anti-inflammation and anti-obesity, but little is known about neurodegeneration-related activities. In this study, we investigated the protective effect of ethanolic extract from both immature and mature Citrus sunki peel on neuronal cell death. Treatment of the neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y with $MPP^+$, an inducer of Parkinson disease model, increased cell death in a dose dependent manner. Increased levels of active caspase-3 and cleaved PARP were detected. Treatment with immature Citrus sunki peel extract significantly reduced $MPP^+$-induced neurotoxicity. Cytoprotection with immature Citrus sunki peel extract was associated with a decrease in caspase-3 activation and PARP cleavage. In contrast, mature Citrus sunki peel extract had no significant effects. These data suggest that immature Citrus sunki peel extract may exert anti-apoptotic effect through the inhibition of caspase-3 signaling pathway on $MPP^+$-induced neuronal cell death.

Research on the dyeability and functional property of citrus peel extract as a natural dye (감귤박 추출액을 이용한 천연염료로의 염색성 및 기능성 평가에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Kihoon;Kim, Haegong;Lim, Hyuna
    • The Research Journal of the Costume Culture
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    • v.22 no.3
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    • pp.431-439
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    • 2014
  • This research verified the usefulness and practicality of citrus peel extract as a natural dye. This study dyed cotton, silk, and cotton/mulberry fiber blended fabrics using citrus peel extract, and measured the dyeability and functional property to verify their usefulness and practicality. The dyeing affinity of the citrus peel extract was measured by dyeing under alkaline conditions to determine the temperature and time for optimal dyeing conditions of the solution. The results show that a temperature and time of $60^{\circ}C$ and 30 minutes were optimal for dyeing cotton fabrics with citrus peel extract, $50^{\circ}C$ and 60 minutes for silk fabrics, and $60^{\circ}C$ and 60 minutes for cotton/mulberry fiber blended fabrics, respectively. In addition the results of measuring the color fastness of the cotton, silk, and cotton/mulberry fiber blended fabrics dyed with the citrus peel extract show that the color fastness was superior for washing, friction, sweat, and water. However, the color fastness for sunlight appeared to be slightly weak. In addition, it was found that fabric dyed with the citrus peel extract showed partial antimicrobial properties. The antimicrobial property appeared the greatest in the silk fabric. The cotton/mulberry fiber blended fabrics had 90% or more Staphylococcus aureus present, but the antimicrobial properties were not high in the cotton fabric. Additionally, the heavy metal content, which is harmful to the human body, appeared to be lower than standard figures, so the dye was found to be innocuous to humans. Therefore, when the results of this study are put together, citrus peel extract is sufficiently useful and practical as an ingredient for a natural dye. Moreover, there is ample possibility to develop citrus peel dyed fabrics as environmentally friendly fashion materials.

Bioactivities of Citrus (Citrus unshiu) Peel Extracts Subjected to Different Extraction Conditions, Storage Temperatures, and Irradiation

  • Chawla, S. P.;Jo, C.;Kang, H. J.;Kim, M. J.;Byun, M. W.
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.8 no.4
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    • pp.349-355
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    • 2003
  • Effects of extraction conditions, gamma-irradiation and storage conditions on bioactivities of Citrus (Citrus unshiu) peel extract were investigated. The Hunter color $L^{*}$- and $a^{*}$-values of the extract increased but $b^{*}$-value decreased with an increase in absorbed irradiation dose. DPPH radical scavenging, tyrosinase inhibition and nitrite scavenging activities were not affected by irradiation but reduced by increased storage time. Nitrite scavenging activity of the extract was the highest at pH 1.2 followed by pH 4.2 and 6.0 and not changed by storage. Results indicated that there is potential for using citrus peel byproducts as a bioactive ingredient, and that gamma irradiation brightens the color of the extract without adversely altering its biological activity.ity.

The effect of citrus and onion peel extracts, calcium lactate, and phosvitin on microbial quality of seasoned chicken breast meat

  • Alahakoon, Amali U.;Bae, Young Sik;Kim, Hyun Joo;Jung, Samooel;Jayasena, Dinesh D.;Yong, Hae In;Kim, Sun Hyo;Jo, Cheorun
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.40 no.2
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    • pp.131-137
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    • 2013
  • The inhibitory effect of citrus peel extract, onion peel extract, calcium lactate and phosvitin on microbial growth was investigated in seasoned chicken breast meat during aerobic storage at $4^{\circ}C$, $10^{\circ}C$ and $20^{\circ}C$. Citrus peel and onion peel extract significantly improved (p<0.05) the microbial quality of the sample by reducing the initial counts of the microbial flora compared to control and other two treatments. Data clearly revealed that the counts of the total aerobic bacteria significantly increased with the increase in storage temperature. The shelf life of all samples stored under $20^{\circ}C$ was less than 6 days, while the shelf life of citrus and onion treatment can be extended more than 9 days at $4^{\circ}C$ and more than 6 days at $10^{\circ}C$ in aerobic storage condition. These results indicated that citrus and onion peel extracts are efficient treatment methods to prevent microbial spoilage of seasoned chicken products during storage at $4^{\circ}C$. However, there was an adverse effect of addition of citrus and onion peel extract on several sensory attributes which need to be improved by reformulation of seasoning.

Preparation of Fermented Citrus Peels Extracts for Their Antimicrobial Activity against Campylobacter jejuni (감귤 진피 추출물을 이용한 발효액 제조 및 Campylobacter jejuni 에 대한 항균 활성)

  • Chun, Ji-Min;Bae, Ji-Hyun
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
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    • v.30 no.4
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    • pp.475-480
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    • 2015
  • Jeju citrus, which contains an abundance of calcium and vitamin, was used to develop fermented citrus peel extract. A total of seven probiotic strains were applied to tangerine dermis to select the best growing bacteria in citrus peel extracts. B. longum, B. bifidum, and L. mesenteroides were found to grow best in citrus peel extract culture containing glucose, yeast extracts, peptone, and potassium phosphate. Citrus peel extract culture consisting of 1% yeast extract, 5% peptone, and 0.1% phosphate was the best environment for growth of probiotics. The pH, acidity, and viable cell numbers of these fermented extracts were measured. The initial pH level of fermented extracts with nutrients was 5.25 and dropped rapidly to 3.39 after 72 hours of fermentation. The acidity of fermented extracts increased to 4.08 % after 72 hours of fermentation, and the viable cell number in fermented extracts after refrigeration for 2 weeks was $1.3{\times}10^{10}CFU/mL$. The antimicrobial activity of citrus peel fermented extracts against Campylobacter jejuni was determined, and concentrations more than 25,000 ppm showed antimicrobial activity.

Effects of Citrus sunki Peel Extract on Matrix Metalloproteinase-1 Expression (진귤 과피 추출물의 MMP-1 발현조절 효과)

  • Han, Gu-Seul;Lee, Sun-Ryung
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.23 no.12
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    • pp.1553-1556
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    • 2013
  • Flavonoids are one of the major components found in the peels of citrus fruits. Present evidence has suggested that polymethoxyflavonoids, including nobiletin and tangeretin isolated from Citrus sunki, have many biological properties, such as anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and anti-obesity capabilities. Here, we investigated the effect of Citrus sunki peel extract and its possible mechanisms on oxidative stress-induced MMP-1 expression, a major marker of skin photoaging. $H_2O_2$ induced MMP-1 expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Extract of Citrus sunki peel (1-25 ${\mu}g/ml$) dose-dependently decreased MMP-1 mRNA levels. When $H_2O_2$ was combined with Citrus sunki peel extract, the phosphorylation of ERK was further decreased compared to a single treatment with $H_2O_2$ alone. Moreover, U0216, an MEK inhibitor, markedly prevented the production of MMP-1. These data suggest that Citrus sunki peel extract has demonstrated protective activity against oxidative damage on MMP-1 expression, and ERK MAP kinase may be involved.

Study on the Antimicrobial Effects of Citrus Peel by Different Extract Methods (추출방법에 따른 감귤과피 추출물의 항균효과)

  • Jang Se-Young;Choi Hyun-Kyoung;Ha Na-Young;Kim Ok-Mi;Jeong Yong-Jin
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.11 no.3
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    • pp.319-324
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    • 2004
  • The antimicrobial activity of the extract of citrus peel prepared by the method of hot water, ethanol and sugar was examined. The results showed that the extract of citrus peel prepared by hot water or ethanol did not have antimicrobial activity, but the extract by 10$\%$(w/v) sugar revealed the high antimicrobial activity. Extracted in 10%(w/v) sugar solution for 9 days, showed the highest antimicrobial activity against 8 strains of bacteria. The minimum inhibition concentration was found to be 0.5$\%$(v/v) against S. aureus, 1.5$\%$(v/v) against B. subtilis, M. luteus and E. coli, and 2.0$\%$(v/v) against S. mutans. The antimicrobial activity of the citrus peel extract was stable regardless of the treatment at 40 $\~$ 100 $^{\circ}C$C for 20 min and unstable response to the change of pH. The results suggested the development of citrus peel as heat-stable antimicrobial agents.

Physiological Activities of Peel of Jeju-indigenous Citrus sunki Hort. Tanaka (제주자생 진귤(Citrus sunki Hort. Tanaka) 과피의 생리활성)

  • Kang, Shin-Hae;Lee, Young-Jae;Lee, Chang-Hong;Kim, Se-Jae;Lee, Dae-Ho;Lee, Young-Ki;Park, Deok-Bae
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.37 no.6
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    • pp.983-988
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    • 2005
  • Effects of Citrus sunki peel and its fermented product extracts on physiological and functional activities of cellular systems were investigated. Ethanol extract of Citrus sunki peel showed potent ROS-scavenging activity using 2',7'-Dichlorofluorescin diacetate as a fluorescent ROS probe in HepG2 cells. Fermented product of C. sunki peel extract markedly suppressed nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated RAW264.7 murine macrophage cells. Treatment with fermented product of C. sunki peel extract decreased intracellular protein levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase II stimulated by LPS. High doses of fermented product lend to apoptotic cell death in CHO-IR cells.

Anti-apoptotic effect of fermented Citrus sunki peel extract on chemical hypoxia-induced neuronal injury (화학적 저산소증이 유도하는 뇌신경세포 손상에 있어서 미성숙 진귤 과피 발효 추출물의 보호 효과)

  • Ko, Woon Chul;Lee, Sun Ryung
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.48 no.5
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    • pp.451-456
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    • 2015
  • Purpose: Neuronal apoptotic events induced by aging and hypoxic/ischemic conditions is an important risk factor in neurodegenerative diseases such as ischemia stroke and Alzheimer's disease. The peel of Citrus sunki Hort. ex Tanaka has long been used as a traditional medicine, based on multiple biological activities including anti-oxidant, anti-inflammation, and anti-obesity. In the current study, we examined the actions of fermented C. sunki peel extract against cobalt chloride ($CoCl_2$)-mediated hypoxic death in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. Methods: Cell viability was measured by trypan blue exclusion. Expression of apoptosis related proteins and release of cytochrome c were detected by western blot. Production of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and apoptotic morphology were examined using 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin diacetate (DCF-DA) and 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining. Results: Exposure to $CoCl_2$, a well-known mimetic agent of hypoxic/ischemic condition, resulted in neuronal cell death via caspase-3 dependent pathway. Extract of fermented C. sunki peel significantly rescued the $CoCl_2$-induced neuronal toxicity with the cell viability and appearance of apoptotic morphology. Cytoprotection with fermented C. sunki peel extract was associated with a decrease in activities of caspase-3 and cleavage of poly (ADP ribose) polymerase (PARP). In addition, increase in the intracellular ROS and release of cytochrome c from mitochondria to the cytosol were inhibited by treatment with extract of fermented C. sunki peel. Conclusion: Based on these data, fermented C. sunki peel extract might have a protective effect against $CoCl_2$-induced neuronal injury partly through generation of ROS and effectors involved in mitochondrial mediated apoptosis.

Effects of Citrus unshiu Peel extracts on growth performance and anti-scuticociliates activity of olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus (진피(Citrus unshiu Peel)추출물이 첨가된 사료의 급이가 넙치의 성장률 및 항스쿠티카충 효과에 미치는 영향)

  • Bang, Seok Jin;Choi, Jae Hyeok;Jung, Sang Mok;Kang, In Sung;Lee, Chan Heun;Park, Kwan Ha;Choi, Sang Hoon
    • Journal of fish pathology
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    • v.33 no.2
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    • pp.177-184
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    • 2020
  • In an attempt to find a feed additive showing an anti-scuticociliate effect, extracts from Citrus unshiu Peel were tested against virulent scuticociliate infection. The most effective anti-scuticociliate killing activity in vitro was observed in the extract squeezed from homogenizing water-soaked dried tangerine peel (DTP). In addition, we have investigated the effect of DTP as a feed additive on growth rate and anti-parasitic activity of olivaceus flounder. DTP extract added diets (0.1, 0.5, 1, and 5%/feed weight) were fed to flounder for 7 days for checking a growth rate and 14 days for a challenging test. As a result, the feed conversion rate was significantly improved only in 1% DPT extract group compared to the control and 0.5% DTP extract fed group showed 100% of survival rate in the challenge test, all of which indicating that DTP extract would be a potential feed additive against scuticociliatosis.