• Title, Summary, Keyword: citrus peels

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Maximization of Extracted Condition of Pro-angiogenic Components in Citrus unshiu Peels using Dimethyl Sulfoxide

  • Lee, Jungwhoi;Kim, Myungseung;Kim, Jae Hoon
    • Natural Product Sciences
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.287-292
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    • 2016
  • Aqueous extraction of Citrus unshiu peels (AECUP) is mainly comprised with pro-angiogenichesperidin and narirutin. In this study, we report approaches to increasing the yields of extracted hesperidin and narirutinfrom Citrus unshiu peels using proper solvents. Significantly improved yields of both compounds were obtained using methanol and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) compared to acetonitrile, ethyl acetate, ethanol, and isopropyl alcohol. Especially, effect of DMSO was by far the better of the two solvents in extraction of hesperidin. In addition, the DMSO extracted hesperidin significantly induced the pro-angiogenic effects of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and markedly up-regulated phosphorylation of the ERK1/2 signaling pathway. These results demonstrate that pro-angiogenic inducer; hesperidin and narirutin can be simply, easily, and effectively extracted from Citrus unshiu peels.

In Vitro Studies on Phytochemical Content, Antioxidant, Anticancer, Immunomodulatory, and Antigenotoxic Activities of Lemon, Grapefruit, and Mandarin Citrus Peels

  • Diab, Kawthar AE
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.7
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    • pp.3559-3567
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    • 2016
  • Background: In recent years, there has been considerable research on recycling of agro-industrial waste for production of bioactive compounds. The food processing industry produces large amounts of citrus peels that may be an inexpensive source of useful agents. Objective: The present work aimed to explore the phytochemical content, antioxidant, anticancer, antiproliferation, and antigenotxic activities of lemon, grapefruit, and mandarin peels. Materials and Methods: Peels were extracted using 98% ethanol and the three crude extracts were assessed for their total polyphenol content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), and antioxidant activity using DPPH (1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl). Their cytotoxic and mitogenic proliferation activities were also studied in human leukemia HL-60 cells and mouse splenocytes by CCK-8 assay. In addition, genotoxic/antigenotoxic activity was explored in mouse splenocytes using chromosomal aberrations (CAs) assay. Results: Lemon peels had the highest of TPC followed by grapefruit and mandarin. In contrast, mandarin peels contained the highest of TFC followed by lemon and grapefruit peels. Among the extracts, lemon peel possessed the strongest antioxidant activity as indicated by the highest DPPH radical scavenging, the lowest effective concentration 50% ($EC_{50}=42.97{\mu}g\;extract/mL$), and the highest Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC=0.157). Mandarin peel exhibited moderate cytotoxic activity ($IC_{50}=77.8{\mu}g/mL$) against HL-60 cells, whereas grapefruit and lemon peels were ineffective anti-leukemia. Further, citrus peels possessed immunostimulation activity via augmentation of proliferation of mouse splenocytes (T-lymphocytes). Citrus extracts exerted non-cytotoxic, and antigenotoxic activities through remarkable reduction of CAs induced by cisplatin in mouse splenocytes for 24 h. Conclusions: The phytochemical constituents of the citrus peels may exert biological activities including anticancer, immunostimulation and antigenotoxic potential.

Antioxidative Activities of Dried and Fresh Citrus Peels in Jeju (제주산 감귤류 진피와 과피의 항산화 활성)

  • Hyon, Jae-Seok;Kang, Sung-Myung;Senevirathne, Mahinda;Koh, Won-Joon;Yang, Tai-Suk;Oh, Myung-Cheol;Oh, Chang-Kyung;Jeon, You-Jin;Kim, Soo-Hyun
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.88-94
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    • 2010
  • This study was carried out to investigate the total polyphenol and flavonoid contents and antioxidative activities of the methanol extracts of Citrus sunki, C. unshiu and C. natsudaidai peels before and after drying. Total polyphenolic content was high in the citrus peels before drying compared to the dried peels, and highest in the order of C. sunki, C. natsudaidai and C. unchiu. On the other hand, flavonoid content was high in the dried citrus peels than in the citrus peels before drying, and was highest in the order of C. unshiu, C. natsudaidai, C. sunki, but in dried peels it was highest in the order of C. natsudaidai, C. unshiu, C. sunki. DPPH radical scavenging activity was highest in the order of C. natsudaidai, C. unchiu, C. sunki, and that in the citrus peels before drying was higher than in the dried peels. Inparticular, C. natsudaidai peels before drying showed higher activity than vitamin C in 0.5 or 1.0 mg/100 g. Hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity was highest in the order of C. unshiu, C. natsudaidai, and C. sunki in the citrus peels before drying. The dried peels were highest in the order of C. unshiu, C. natsudaidai, C. sunki at 0.5 mg/100 g, but high in order of C. natsudaidai, C. unshiu and C. sunki at more than 1.0 mg/100 g. Inparticular, all C. natsudaidai peels displayed high activity more than 87% at 2.0 mg/100 g. Clear patterns in alkyl radical scavenging activity could not be confirmed in Citrus species whether before or after drying of peels. Hydroxyl radical scavenging activity was highest in the order of C. natsudaidai, C. unshiu and C. sunki but was relatively low compared to the scavenging activity of other activated oxygen species.

Changes of Some Flavonoids in the Peel of Satsuma Mandarin (Citrus unshiu) Harvested during Maturation

  • Kim, Young-Cheon;Koh, Kyung-Soo;Koh, Jeong-Sam
    • Journal of Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.44 no.3
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    • pp.143-146
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    • 2001
  • Eight flavonoids, including rutin, naringin, hesperidin, quercetin, hesperetin, nobiletin, 3,5,6,7,8,3',4'-methoxylated flavone, and tangeretin, in the peels of satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu) species of Halla, Gungcheon, Hungjin, Namgam-20, Illnam-1, and Chungdo harvested between August and December were analyzed through HPLC. Hesperidin content of Halla harvested during early maturation was 28.70 mg/g, and was the highest among the tested citrus fruits. Rutin content of Hungjin harvested during early maturation was 2.66 mg/g. Naringin in all citrus species and hesperetin in Halla, Gungchun, Namgam-20, and Chungdo were only detected in the peel of fruits harvested during early maturation. Hesperidin and rutin were detected mainly in all citrus species, and other flavonoids in trace. Flavonoid content in the peel of fruits was high during early maturation. Flavonoid contents in the peels of all fruit samples were generally high in the early stage of maturation, which then decreased rapidly.

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Bioconverted Jeju Hallabong tangor (Citrus kiyomi × ponkan) peel extracts by cytolase enhance antioxidant and anti-inflammatory capacity in RAW 264.7 cells

  • Chang, Yun-Hee;Seo, Jieun;Song, Eunju;Choi, Hyuk-Joon;Shim, Eugene;Lee, Okhee;Hwang, Jinah
    • Nutrition Research and Practice
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    • v.10 no.2
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    • pp.131-138
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    • 2016
  • BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Citrus and its peels have been used in Asian folk medicine due to abundant flavonoids and usage of citrus peels, which are byproducts from juice and/or jam processing, may be a good strategy. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of bioconversion of Jeju Hallabong tangor (Citrus kiyomi ${\times}$ ponkan; CKP) peels with cytolase (CKP-C) in RAW 264.7 cells. MATERIALS/METHODS: Glycosides of CKP were converted into aglycosides with cytolase treatment. RAW 264.7 cells were pre-treated with 0, 100, or $200{\mu}g/ml$ of citrus peel extracts for 4 h, followed by stimulation with $1{\mu}g/ml$ lipopolysaccharide (LPS) for 8 h. Cell viability, DPPH radical scavenging activity, nitric oxide (NO), and prostagladin $E_2$ ($PGE_2$) production were examined. Real time-PCR and western immunoblotting assay were performed for detection of mRNA and/or protein expression of pro-inflammatory mediators and cytokines, respectively. RESULTS: HPLC analysis showed that treatment of CKP with cytolase resulted in decreased flavanone rutinoside forms (narirutin and hesperidin) and increased flavanone aglycoside forms (naringenin and hesperetin). DPPH scavenging activities were observed in a dose-dependent manner for all of the citrus peel extracts and CKP-C was more potent than intact CKP. All of the citrus peel extracts decreased NO production by inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) activity and $PGE_2$ production by COX-2. Higher dose of CKP and all CKP-C groups significantly decreased mRNA and protein expression of LPS-stimulated iNOS. Only $200{\mu}g/ml$ of CKP-C markedly decreased mRNA and protein expression of cyclooxygenase-2 in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. Both 100 and $200{\mu}g/ml$ of CKP-C notably inhibited mRNA levels of $interleukin-1{\beta}$ ($IL-1{\beta}$) and IL-6, whereas $200{\mu}g/ml$ CKP-C significantly inhibited mRNA levels of $TNF-{\alpha}$. CONCLUSIONS: This result suggests that bioconversion of citrus peels with cytolase may enrich aglycoside flavanones of citrus peels and provide more potent functional food materials for prevention of chronic diseases attributable to oxidation and inflammation by increasing radical scavenging activity and suppressing pro-inflammatory mediators and cytokines.

Analysis of the Content of Hesperidin and Essential Oils from the Peels of Various Citrus Species (진피류(陳皮類) 한약재의 Hesperidin과 정유성분 비교)

  • Ham, In-Hye;Jung, Eui-Dong;Lee, Kyung-Jin;Lee, Je-Hyun;Bu, Young-Min;Kim, Ho-Cheol;Choi, Ho-Young
    • The Korea Journal of Herbology
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    • v.23 no.4
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    • pp.159-170
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    • 2008
  • Objectives: This study was carried out to evaluate the quality of the peels of various Citrus species. Method: The contents of hesperidin from fruit peels used as Citri Pericarpium such as C. natsudaidai, C. grandis, C. unshiu, and C. sunki, were analyzed by HP-TLC, HPLC, and essential oils of those were analyzed by GC/MS. Results: HPLC analysis showed that the hesperidin from the peel of C. unshiu and C. reticulata was satisfied the standard of Korean Pharmacopoeia. The essential oil was analyzed by GC/MS. As a result, limonene, furfural, 5-methyl-2-furfural, linalool oxide(cis), linalool oxide(trans), terpinen-4-ol, $(-)-{\alpha}$-terpineol, germacrene D, 4-methyl-2,6-di-tert-butylphenol was detected in all 4 kinds of Citrus species. Conclusions: As a result of chemotaxonomical similarity analysis with essential oils, the peels of C. natsudaidai and C. grandis are closely related, while C. unshiu is distantly related to the others.

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Preparation of Fermented Citrus Peels Extracts for Their Antimicrobial Activity against Campylobacter jejuni (감귤 진피 추출물을 이용한 발효액 제조 및 Campylobacter jejuni 에 대한 항균 활성)

  • Chun, Ji-Min;Bae, Ji-Hyun
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
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    • v.30 no.4
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    • pp.475-480
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    • 2015
  • Jeju citrus, which contains an abundance of calcium and vitamin, was used to develop fermented citrus peel extract. A total of seven probiotic strains were applied to tangerine dermis to select the best growing bacteria in citrus peel extracts. B. longum, B. bifidum, and L. mesenteroides were found to grow best in citrus peel extract culture containing glucose, yeast extracts, peptone, and potassium phosphate. Citrus peel extract culture consisting of 1% yeast extract, 5% peptone, and 0.1% phosphate was the best environment for growth of probiotics. The pH, acidity, and viable cell numbers of these fermented extracts were measured. The initial pH level of fermented extracts with nutrients was 5.25 and dropped rapidly to 3.39 after 72 hours of fermentation. The acidity of fermented extracts increased to 4.08 % after 72 hours of fermentation, and the viable cell number in fermented extracts after refrigeration for 2 weeks was $1.3{\times}10^{10}CFU/mL$. The antimicrobial activity of citrus peel fermented extracts against Campylobacter jejuni was determined, and concentrations more than 25,000 ppm showed antimicrobial activity.

Taxonomical and Phytochemical Studies of Citrus Plants Native to Je Ju Island (I) -Flavour Patterns of the Citrus Peel Oils and One of the Citrus Flavonoids- (제주도(濟州島) 재래감귤(在來柑橘)의 식물학적(植物學的) 연구(硏究)(I) -재래감귤(在來柑橘)의 정유성분상(精油成分相)과 flavonoid성분(成分)-)

  • Kim, Chang-Min;Kim, Kyung-Sik;Kim, Moon-Hong;Huh, In-Ok
    • Korean Journal of Pharmacognosy
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.13-16
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    • 1979
  • The essential oil composition by means of gas liquid chromatography, and the occurrence and distribution of flavonoid glycosides in leaves, peels and barks of citrus plants native to Je Ju island were investigated. Results indicate that the occurrence of p-cymene, d,l-limonene, linalool, geraniol and linalyl acetate in the essential oils, and of hesperidin in leaves, peels and barks are fairly common to these species.

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A Study on the Cleaning Efficiency using the d-Limonene Oil Extracted in Wasted Mandarin Peels (폐감률피에서 추출한 limonene 오일의 세정성에 관한 연구)

  • Song, Min-Kyung;Oh, Eun-Ha;Im, Ho-Sub;Kim, Yoon-Shin
    • Journal of the Korean Applied Science and Technology
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    • v.27 no.2
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    • pp.107-113
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    • 2010
  • The object of this research is to conform of practicable possibility and recycling of producing junk after citrus fruits is processed. With extracting d-limonene oil that have 70~90% a component of oil out of junk citrus peel, making certain the about 12000ppm concentration of it. Limonene derived from citrus in jeju using conventional synthetic detergents can be replaced with the development of environmentally friendly natural detergent investigated the possibility. Mostly due to ocean dumping, disposal and cause environmental problems by recycling natural citrus cleaner alternative to the research conducted on the possibility. Cleaning efficiency with temperature did not affect the largest concentrations were able to identify the difference between cleaning efficiency. At least 10% of the d-limonene oil could be from the cleaning performance, increasing the concentration of the cleaning efficiency was increased in size. Ultrasonic is very high removal efficiency under the conditions shown in the cause of pure self-generated ultrasonic cleaning power as co-effects of d-limonene oil appears to chemical cleaning effect of ultrasonic cavitation occurs in the physical cleaning effect due to a combination of synergistic stability is maximized by low concentrations of d-limonene oil in a short time showed an excellent cleaning ability. Having the ability of cleaning at the same time, considering the side recycling in the junk citrus peels reflects possibility of basic materials utility eco-friendly in the skin soap, bath soap, cosmetics etc, through ability of exclusion a contaminant in based cleaning effect(EC) it can prospect substitution effect environmentally in the pre existence synthetic detergents.

Antioxidative Activities of Extracts from Dried Citrus sunki and C. unshiu Peels (진귤 및 온주밀감 진피의 항산화 활성)

  • Hyon, Jae-Seok;Kang, Sung-Myung;Senevirathne, Mahinda;Koh, Won-Joon;Yang, Tai-Suk;Oh, Myung-Cheol;Oh, Chang-Kyung;Jeon, You-Jin;Kim, Soo-Hyun
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.39 no.1
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    • pp.1-7
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    • 2010
  • This study was carried out to investigate total polyphenol contents, total flavonoid contents and antioxidative activities of the methanol extracts from dried Citrus sunki and C. unshiu peels. The dried C. sunki peels displayed higher total polyphenol and flavonoid contents for older dried peels. In contrast, the dried C. unshiu peels displayed higher total polyphenol contents for more recently dried and displayed high total flavonoid contents by order of 2007, 2008 and 2006. DPPH radical scavenging activities of dried C. sunki peels were high by order of 2007 (0.25 mg/mL exception), 2006 and 2008, but C. unshiu peels could not confirm clear regularity. In particular, the dried C. sunki (2008, exception) and C. unshiu peels displayed very high activities of more than 86% in 1.0 mg/mL. Alkyl radical scavenging activities of dried C. sunki peels were higher for older dried peels (2007, 1.0 mg/mL exception), and that of dried C. unshiu peels were higher for more recently dried in below 0.5 mg/mL but were higher for older peels in 1.0 mg/mL. Hydrogen peroxide scavenging activities of dried C. sunki peels were higher for older peels (2007, 2.5 mg/mL exception), on the other hand, dried C. unshiu were higher for more recently dried. In particular, dried C. unshiu peels displayed high activities of more than 85% in 2.5 mg/mL. Hydroxyl radical scavenging activities of dried C. sunki and C. unshiu peels displayed low activities compared to other reactive oxygen species as the range of $49.9\pm2.2\sim63.5\pm0.9$% in 1.0 mg/mL.