• Title, Summary, Keyword: cladode

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A Study on the Change of Photosynthetic Patterns by the Cladode Orientation of Opuntia lanceolata Haw. (부채仙人掌( Opuntia lanceolata Haw. )의 葉牀莖方位에 따른 光合成樣式의 變化에 관한 硏究)

  • Chang, Nam-Kee;Chang-Duck Jin;Young-Soo Kim
    • The Korean Journal of Ecology
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    • v.7 no.3
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    • pp.99-108
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    • 1983
  • Diurnal acid fluctuation, stomatal resistance, and solar radiation with regard to the cladode orientation were investigated in Opuntia lanceolata Haw. growing at WPeolryeong-ri, Hallim-eup, Chejudo, Korea. Diurnal changes of titratable acidity showed the typical CAM pattern in all investigated cladodes. Water tissue in the cladode had the same pattern of acid fluctuation as mesophyll tissue. Stomatal resistance was low during the night, increased rapidly to be a peak right after sunrise and decreased again thereafter. The southern side of the cladode showed higher stomatal resistance than the northern side during the day time. It suggests that the stomata of the northern side opens under diffuse radiation. The amount of solar radiation varied depending upon the cladode orientation. It is thought that C4 acids move inter and intra mesophyll tissues in the cladode through the unknown pathways. RuBP carboxyulase activity in the cladode was very high at 14:00, but was not significant at 01:00. PEP-carboxylase had high activities both at 14:00 and at 01:00. The results of this study showed the possibility that O. lanceolata Haw. had the C3, C4 and CAM photosynthetic patterns under the environmental conditions at Weolryeong-ri.

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The seasonal appearance and chemical composition characteristics of cladode of Opuntia humifusa (천년초 줄기의 수확 시기 별 외관 및 성분 품질 특성)

  • Kim, Hee Jung;Kim, Mi-Hyun;Jang, Mi;Lim, Tae-Gyu;Hong, Hee-Do;Rhee, Young Kyoung;Kim, Kyung-Tack;Cho, Chang-Won
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.23 no.4
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    • pp.502-509
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    • 2016
  • The seasonal appearance and the chemical composition characteristics of cladode of Opuntia humifusa were investigated in this study. The minor (horizontal) and major (vertical) axes, the width, and weight of O. humifusa cladode were compared for its appearance features. Moisture, crude protein, ash, fat, color, dietary fiber, mineral, and amino acids contents were measured for the comparison of their chemical composition characteristics. The cladode of O. humifusa harvested in summer showed higher values of minor and major axis, width, and weight than those harvested in winter. According to the results of Hunter color index, cladode of O. humifusa harvested in summer showed the highest lightness level (Hunter L value). In the meanwhile, cladode of O. humifusa harvested in spring showed the highest Hunter a (redness) and b (yellowness) values. Cladode of O. humifusa harvested in summer had the lowest crude protein and crude fat contents, while it showed the highest crude ash content. The total contents of moisture and dietary fiber were significantly greater than summer-harvested cladode of O. humifusa followed by spring- and winter-harvested cladode of O. humifusa. The major mineral content of all seasonal cladode of O. humifusa was $Ca^{2+}$. Glutamic acid and aspartic acid were the major amino acids in all seasonal samples. Contrary, the contents of total amino acids and free amino acids were the lowest in summer-harvested cladode of O. humifusa. Taken together, it was concluded that the appearance and chemical quality of cladode of O. humifusa was versatile depending on the harvesting season.

A Study on the Environmental Factors and Matter Production in Opuntia lanceolata Communities in Hanrim-Eup, Jeju-Do (濟州道 韓林邑의 부채 仙人掌群落에 있어서 環境要因과 物質生産에 관한 硏究)

  • Chang, Nam-Kee;Heui-Baik Kim;In-Ja Kim
    • The Korean Journal of Ecology
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    • v.7 no.2
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    • pp.67-73
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    • 1983
  • Jeju-Do is a volcanic island of which climate is very warm and humid, but Opuntia lanceolata Haw, showing CAM metabolism is growing at Wolyung-Ri, Hanrim-Eup, Jeju-Do. Annual productivity of Opuntia was 696.47g/m2/yr and 533.47g/m2/yr at two populations on the seashore respectively and 414.92g/m2/yr on the basalt wall of a village. Stem area index was 13.74, 6.93, and 9.30 at each population which are higher values than average range of leaf area index. The standing crop was the highest at the second cladode from the cladode showed little difference at most chemical properties of P, K, Ca and Na. Total nitrogen contents were the most at the youngest cladode and the lest at the oldest one. Soils were infertile of which organic contents were 1.5% and 5.0% on the seaside and the basalt wall respectively. The soil on the basalt wall contained little water whose water contents were 0.9% and at seashore population 15.12% of water contents were. Furthermore high exchangeable Na contents in soil added waer deficiency.

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Mathematical and Simulation Models for the Orientation of the Terminal Cladodes of Platyopuntia (부채仙人掌類의 頂端葉牀莖의 方位에 관한 數學 및 數植模寫 Model)

  • Chang, Nam-Kee;Heui-Baik Kim
    • The Korean Journal of Ecology
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    • v.7 no.4
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    • pp.194-202
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    • 1984
  • The mathematical and simulation models to estimate the monthly average daily solar irradiance onthe terminal cladodes of platyopuntia were established. An east-west facing cladode showed maximum irradiance from March to October, while south-north facing one did from November to February from themodel. The orientations and the tilt angles were practically measured on Hallim-eup, Cheju-do. They tended to face east-west, but the overall distribution was deviagted at about 10。 was owing to the southern east wind blowing strongly at that time. The most cladodes inclined to the north or the west rather than erected vertically to the ground. It is thought that the tilt angles were also affected by the southern east wind.

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A Study on Biological Activities of Opuntia humifusa Cladode Extracts (손바닥 선인장 (Opuntia humifusa) 줄기 추출물의 생리활성)

  • Yoon, Min-Sun;Yoo, Jae-Soo;Lee, Keun-Kwang;Kim, Myung-Kon
    • Journal of Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.55 no.2
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    • pp.117-121
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    • 2012
  • Biological activities of the hot water and ethanol extracts from Opuntia humifusa cladodes were investigated. 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hadrazyl (DPPH) electron donating ability of hot water and ethanol extracts was 79.07 and 82.54%, respectively. Hot water extract generally showed better cytotoxic activity than ethanol extract against each cell line. HeLa and AGS cell lines treated with hot water extract had more than 50% cytotoxic activities. Based on the antimicrobial activities against four microbial strains, both extracts inhibited growth of Staphylococcus aureus KCCM 11593, whereas affected cell growth of three other microorganisms, Escherichia coli (KCCM 11234), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853), and Salmonella typhimurium (ATCC 11862), in proportion to the concentration of extracts. The inflammatory activities against hot water extract (34.31%) showed higher than that of ethanol extract (25.59%). The effect of extracts on 3T3-L1 preadipocytes differentiation showed that differentiation of treated group with 80 and 100 ${\mu}g/mL$ of hot and ethanol extracts were increased more than treated group with isobutyl methyl xanthine (IBMX) + dexamethasone. These results indicate that the O. humifusa cladodes extracts can be used as a functional material due to their effective biological activities.