• Title, Summary, Keyword: clinoptilolite

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Feasibility Study on Reactive Material in Permeable Reactive Barriers Against Contaminated Groundwater with Ammonium from Unsanitary Landfill (암모늄으로 오염된 비위생 매립지 주변지반의 지하수 정화를 위한 반응벽체내 물질 연구)

  • 이승학;박준범
    • Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.29-36
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    • 2004
  • Batch and column tests were performed to develop the design factors for permeable reactive barriers(PRBs) against the contaminated groundwater with ammonium from unsanitary landfill. Clinoptilolite, one of natural zeolites having excellent cation exchange capacity(CEC), was chosen as the reactive material. In batch test, the reactivity of clinoptilolite to ammonium was examined by varying the initial concentration of ammonium and the particle size of clinoptilolites. One gram of clinoptilolite showed removal efficiency about 80% against the ammonium except in very high initial concentration of 80 ppm, but the effect of particle size of clinoptilolite was not noticeable. Permeability test was performed for the specimens made of clinoptilolite and Jumunjin sand with 20 : 80 weight ratio. Flexible wall permeameter was employed far permeability test. The specimen containing the washed 0.42-0.85mm clinoptilolite showed the highest permeability of about $10^{-3}$/s. In column test, the reactivity of mixed materials against ammonium in flowing condition was examined with the landfill leachate. With the test results, clinoptilolite was found to be a suitable material for PRBs against the contaminated groundwater with ammonium.

양이온 물질로 오염된 지하수 정화를 위한 반응벽체 개발 : 제올라이트의 적용성 평가

  • 이승학;이재원;김시현;박준범;박상권
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Soil and Groundwater Environment Conference
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    • pp.23-26
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    • 2001
  • Batch test and column test were performed to develop the design factors for PRBs against the contaminated groundwater by ammonium and lead. Clinoptilolite, one of the natural zeolites having excellent cation exchange capacity(CEC), was chosen as the reactive material through the ion-exchange mechanism. In the batch test, the reactivity of Clinoptilolite to ammonium and lead was examined with varying the particle size of Clinoptilolite. The nit weight of Clinoptilolite showed removal efficiencies of 65 % against the ammonium and 98% against lead. The effect of particle size of Clinoptilolite was not noticeable. In the column test, the permeability was examined using flexible-wall permeameters with varying the particle size of Clinoptilolite. When the washed Clinoptilolite having the diameter of 0.42-0.85 nm was mixed with Jumunjin sands in 20:80 ratio (w/w), the highest permeability of 2$\times$10$^{-3}$ -7 x 10$^{-4}$ cm/s was achieved. The reactivity and the strength property of the mixed material were investigated using fixed wall column having 8 sampling ports on the wall and the direct shear test, respectively. Clinoptilolite was found to be a suitable material for PRBs against the contaminated groundwater with ammonium and/or heavy metals.

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Adsorption Properties of Ca-exchanged Clinoptilolite under Low-temperature (Ca 이온교환 Clinoptilolite의 저온 흡착 특성)

  • Song Taek-Yong;Lee Young-Chul;Baek Young-Soon;Kim Jong-Nam
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Gas
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    • v.8 no.4
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    • pp.36-41
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    • 2004
  • The breakthrough curve was obtained to evaluate separation efficiency of clinoptilolite as an methane/nitrogen separation adsorbent. The Ca-exchanged clinoptilolite showed improved separation efficiency. The nitrogen adsorption capacity of Ca-clinoptilolite was increased with decreasing temperature. The temperature was decreased from 293K to 253K(feed gas flow rate : 670ml/min, pressure : 333kPa). The adsorption capacity is increased with increasing pressure. The pressure was increased from 333kPa to 700kPa(feed gas flow rate : 670ml/min, temperature : 253K, 293K).

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A Study on the Adsorption Effect of Korean zeolite "Clinoptilolite" as Cigarette Cavity Filter Additive. (한국산 Zeolite의 필터첨가제로서의 흡착효과에 관하여)

  • Yang, Gwang-Gyu;Song, Chi-Hyeon;Kim, Chan-Ho
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Tobacco Science
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    • v.2 no.1
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    • pp.8-16
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    • 1980
  • The cavity of triple filter was filled with the mixture of clinoptilolite and charcoal(1:1, V/V). The particle size of clinoptilolite was 30$\pm$5 A.S.T.M mesh. The reduction effects of the important gaseous components by this mixture were obtained as follows: 1) In comparison with the normal cellulose acetate niter, the contents of nicotine and T.P.M. were reduced about 35% and 22% respectively. 2) Many aliphatic and cyclic compounds were also substantially reduced in an average of 60%. 3) In contrast with the charcoal, the removal efficiency of clinoptilolite was revealed as higher (15-20%) in case of aliphatic compounds than the one (10-15%) of cyclic compounds. The above results showed us that the removal function of gaseous components was quite complementary each other (charcoal and clinoptilolite).

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Characterization of $NH_4\;^+$ and $Zn^{2+}$ Adsorption by Korean Natural Zeolites (한국산(韓國産) 천연(天然) 제오라이트의 암모늄과 아연이온의 흡착(吸着)특성)

  • Kang, Shin-Jyung
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.32 no.4
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    • pp.386-392
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    • 1989
  • The adsorption of $NH_4\;^+$ and $Zn^{2+}$ by four Korean zeolites, the major species of which are clinoptilolite, clinoptilolite with mordenite, mordenite with clinoptilolite, and mordenite was measured in different concentrations of solutions of $NH_4\;^+$ and $Zn^{2+}$, and their mixtures. The adsorption of $NH_4\;^+$ was greater than that $Zn^{2+}$ far all samples at the concentrations of the added solutions from $1\;to\;7{\times}10^{-3}N$ and this difference was greater at the higher concentrations. Also, $Zn^{2+}$ adsorption by samples was decreased by the presence of $NH_4\;^+$, but that of $NH_4\;^+$ by the presence of $Zn^{2+}$ was not. The extent of $NH_4\;^+$ selectivity among samples was increased in order of clinoptilolite with mordenite$NH_4\;^+$ adsorbed by six successive equilibrations with the solution containing both $NH_4\;^+$ and $Zn^{2+}$ each at a concentration of $3{\times}10^{-3}N$ were in range from 43.7 to 50.4 me/100g, whereas those amounts of $Zn^{2+}$ were in the range from 6.6 to 17.0 me/100g. It was suggested from these results that mordenite and clinoptilolite, particularly the former, can be used for removal of $NH_4\;^+$ from municipal wastewater and those zeolites treated with wastewater can be applied to agricultural land.

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Recovery of nitrogen from high strength waste stream by using natural zeolite (Clinoptilolite) (천연 제올라이트를 이용한 고농도 질소 회수)

  • Choi, Oh Kyung;Lee, Kwanhyoung;Dong, Dandan;Lee, Jaewoo
    • Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.105-111
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    • 2016
  • This paper presents the applicability of natural zeolite (Clinoptilolite) for recovery of ammonium nitrogen from high-strength wastewater stream. Isotherm experiments showed the ammonium exchange Clinoptilolite followed Freundlich isotherm and its maximum exchange capacity was $18.13mg\;NH_4{^+}-N/g$ zeolite. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis indicated that a significant amount of nitrogen was adsorbed to the Clinoptilolite. Optimal flowrate for recovery of high concentration ammonium nitrogen was determined at 16 BV/d (=19.2 L/min) throughout the lab-scale column studies operated under various flowrate conditions. This study also provided a method to determine the recovery rate of final product of nitrogen fertilizer based on the model application to the lab-scale continuous data.

Development of Nutrients and Heavy Metals Removal Technology in Saturated Zone Using Zeolite (포화 지층내 영양염류 및 중금속의 제거를 위한 제올라이트의 적용인자 도출)

  • 이승학;이재원;박준범;전연호;이채영
    • Proceedings of the Korean Geotechical Society Conference
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    • pp.435-442
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    • 2000
  • Batch test and column test were performed to develop the design factors for permeable reactive barriers(PRBs) against ammonium and heavy metals, Clinoptilolite, a kind of natural zeolites having excellent cation exchange capacity(CEC), was choosen for the reacting materials through the ion-exchange mechanism. In the batch test, the reactivity of clinoptilolite for ammonium, lead, and copper was examined varying the initial concentration of contaminants(ammonium: 20, 40, 80 ppm, heavy metals: 10, 20, 40 ppm) and the particle size of clinoptilolites(0-0.15, 0.42-0.85, 1-1.25 mm). The reactivity is increasing as the initial concentration decrease and particle size decrease. In the column test, the permeability and the reactivity of the specimens were examined using flexible-wall permeameter. Specimens were made of clinoptilolite and Jumunjin-sand with 20 : 80 weight ratio varying particle size of clinoptilolite. The maximum permeability(1${\times}$10$\^$-4/-5${\times}$10$\^$-5/cm/s) was achieved in the specimen made of 0.42-0.85 mm clinoptilolite and sand.

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The Effect of Na+-Ca2+ Ion-exchange for Heulandite on the Thermal Stability (Na+-Ca2+ 양이온 교환이 Heulandite의 열적 안정성에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Wha-Jung;Lee, Jae-Ik
    • Applied Chemistry for Engineering
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    • v.4 no.3
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    • pp.488-496
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    • 1993
  • Natural zeolites have recently been the subject of intensive research due to their versatilities in possible industrial applications. Among several different types of domestic natural zeolites, clinoptilolite, is one of the highly prospective domestic natural zeolites. However, it is always possible for heulandite, the isostructure of clinoptilolite, to coexist with clinoptilolite. Unfortunately, heulandite is thermally very unstable restricting its application to industrial process. In this paper, the effects of ion exchanges and heat-treatments on the thermal stability for domestic natural zeolite, heulandite are described. Two different ion-exchanging experiments were carried out followed by heat-treatments at different temperatures. X-ray, IR and AA spectroscopic analyses showed the enhancements in thermal stabilities of heulandite by $Na^+$ cation exchanges.

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Adsorption and Catalytic Characteristics of Acid-Treated Clinoptilolite Zeolite (산처리한 Clinoptilolite Zeolite 의 흡착 및 촉매특성)

  • Chon Hakze;Seo Gon
    • Journal of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.20 no.6
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    • pp.469-478
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    • 1976
  • Clinoptilolite zeolite samples were treated with hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid and phosphoric acid of different strength and the adsorption characteristics and crystal structures of the original and acid-treated clinoptilolites were studied. By treating with hydrochloric acid, the adsorbed amount increased to 5-fold for nitrogen, to 3-fold for benzene, but for methanol no significant change was observed. As acid strength increased further, there were declines both in adsorption capacity and crystallinity. The results showed that the increase of adsorbed amount was caused by the rearrangement of the pore entrance and cation exchange. A method for determination of clinoptilolite content in natural mineral based on benzene adsorption on acid-treated sample is proposed. By this method, the original sample used in this study was found to contain approximately 40% of clinoptilolite. Using pulse technique in micro-catalytic reactor system, the catalytic activities of hydrochloric acid-treated clinoptilolites in cumene cracking and toluene disproportionation reactions were measured. For cumene cracking reaction, the maximum conversion was observed for the 0.5 N hydrochloric acid-treated sample. It is instructive to note that the maximum benzene adsorption was also observed for the sample treated with 0.5 N HCl. This suggest that the conversion rate was determined mainly by the rate of transport of reactants and the products through the pore structure. In the toluene disproportionation reaction, the same trend was observed. But the rate of deactivation was high for samples with strong acid sites. Since catalyst having higher activity was deactivated more easily, the conversion maximum was shifted to the sample treated with higher concentration of acid, -1N. The catalytic activity of $Ca^{2+} and La^{3+} ion exchanged samples for the toluene disproportion was much lower than that of acid-treated samples. Introduction of Ca^{2+} and La^{3+}$ into the pore structure apparently decreases the effective pore diameter of acid-treated clinoptilolite thus limiting the diffusion of reactants and products.

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In-field evaluation of clinoptilolite feeding efficacy on the reduction of milk aflatoxin M1 concentration in dairy cattle

  • Katsoulos, Panagiotis D.;Karatzia, Maria A.;Boscos, Constantinos;Wolf, Petra;Karatzias, Harilaos
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.58 no.7
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    • pp.24.1-24.7
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    • 2016
  • Background: Clinoptilolite is a natural zeolite with high adsorption capacity for polar mycotoxins such as aflatoxins. The efficacy of clinoptilolite in ameliorating the toxic effects of aflatoxicosis has been proven in monogastric animals, but there is no such evidence for ruminants. The aim of this study was to evaluate, under field conditions, whether the dietary administration of clinoptilolite in dairy cows could reduce the concentration of aflatoxin M1 ($AFM_1$) in bulk-tank milk, in farms with higher than or close to $0.05{\mu}g/kg$ of milk (European maximum allowed residual level). An objective of the present study was also to investigate the effect of particle size of clinoptilolite on aflatoxin binding. Methods: Fifteen commercial Greek dairy herds with AFM1 concentrations in bulk tank milk ${\geq}0.05{\mu}g/kg$ were selected. Bulk tank milk AFM1 was determined prior to the onset and on day 7 of the experiment. Clinoptilolite was added in the total mixed rations of all farms at the rate of 200 g per animal per day, throughout this period. Two different particle sizes of clinoptilolite were used; less than 0.15 mm in 9 farms (LC group) and less than 0.8 mm in 6 farms (HC group). Results: Clinoptilolite administration significantly reduced $AFM_1$ concentrations in milk in all farms tested at an average rate of 56.2 % (SD: 15.11). The mean milk $AFM_1$ concentration recorded on Day 7 was significantly (P < 0.001) lower compared to that of Day 0 ($0.036{\pm}0.0061$ vs. $0.078{\pm}0.0074{\mu}g/kg$). In LC group farms the reduction of milk $AFM_1$ concentration was significantly higher than HC group farms ($0.046{\pm}0.0074$ vs. $0.036{\pm}0.0061{\mu}g/kg$, P = 0.002). As indicated by the Pearson correlation, there was a significant and strong linear correlation among the milk $AFM_1$ concentrations on Days 0 and 7 (R = 0.95, P < 0.001). Conclusions: Dietary administration of clinoptilolite, especially of smallest particle size, at the rate of 200 g per cow per day can effectively reduce milk $AFM_1$ concentration in dairy cattle and can be used as a preventive measure for the amelioration of the risks associated with the presence of aflatoxins in the milk of dairy cows.