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Effects of Spring Seeding on Growth and Carbon Uptake of Clover Species in Upland Soil

  • Cho, Hyeoun-Suk;Seo, Myung-Chul;Kim, Jun-Hwan;Sang, Wan-gyu;Shin, Pyeong;Lee, Geon Hwi
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.50 no.6
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    • pp.644-652
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    • 2017
  • Clover, a legume crop, is a landscape crop and green manure crop that can be sowing in spring. Clover serves various roles such as landscape composition, weeds suppressing, prevention of soil loss and nutrients on sloping, atmosphere purification, and supplying nitrogen in soil. Thus, in order to utilize this crop in agricultural land, we observed its effect on growth and carbon uptake in upland soil. The plant height of clover species increased with late harvesting time and was 46.0~55.0 cm at 90 days after seeding (DAS) and the longest in red clover. The dry matter increased at 85 DAS, after that, decreased slightly. The dry matter of white clover and red clover was $3.0Mg\;ha^{-1}$ and $3.1Mg\;ha^{-1}$, respectively, and crimson clover was $2.5Mg\;ha^{-1}$, significantly lower than other clover. Crops bloomed at 90 DAS were white clover and crimson clover, the period from sowing to flowering was 78 days for crimson clover and 85 days for white clover. The nitrogen content of the clover species was $12.0{\sim}29.3g\;kg^{-1}$, with the highest of $29.3g\;kg^{-1}$ for white clover. The carbon content of clover species was similar in all clover species, but carbon uptake was high in white clover and red clover, and lowest in crimson clover. The carbon uptake of the plant increased to 85 DAS and then decreased. Based on the clover growth and carbon uptake, white clover and red clover were promising when sown in spring.

Comparison of Growth Characteristics and Yields of Autumn-Sowing Annual Legumes in Paddy Field of Central Provinces (중부지역 논에서 월년생 두과 사료작물의 생육특성 및 수량 비교)

  • Shin, Jae-Soon;Kim, Won-Ho;Yoon, Sei-Hyung;Lim, Young-Cheol;Lim, Keun-Bal;Seo, Sung
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.28 no.1
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    • pp.13-18
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    • 2008
  • This experiment was conducted to compare the agronomic characteristics, flowering condition and productivity of introduced annual legumes at paddy field of Seonghwan(Cheonan, Chungnam, Korea) from September 2006 to May 2007. Annual legumes used in this study were hairy vetch(Vicia villsa, Rosa), crimson clover(Trifolium incarnatum, Contea), berseem clover(Trifolium alexandrinum, Alexandria), persian clover(Trifolium resupinatum, Prolific), balansa clover(Trifolium michelianum, Paradona), sweet clover(Melilotus officinalis, Yellow) and forage pea(Pisum sativum, Austrian). Emergency rate after seeding were 90% or more in crimson clover, hairy vetch, forage pea and berseem clover. Wintering of hairy vetch and crimson clover were excellent as 98% and 95%, respectively. Flowering rate of harvesting date(May 10) was 100% in crimson clover, 98% in balansa clover, 5% in persian clover and others were not flowering. Fresh and dry matter yield of crimson clover were highest as 72,556 kg/ha and 16,062 kg/ha, respectively. Crude protein yield of hairy vetch was highest as 2,929 kg/ha but not significant with crimson clover(2,169 kg/ha). TDN yield of crimson clover was highest as 9,007 kg/ha but not significant with hairy vetch(7,366 kg/ha). According to the results from this study, it is suggested that crimson clover would be recommendable for autumn-sowing annual legume at paddy field of Central Provinces.

Study on the Use of Orchargrass-Red Clover mixture II. Effect of seed rate of orchargrass-red clover on herbage yield and quality (Orchargrass-Red Clover 혼파이용에 관한 연구 II. Orchargrass-Red Clover 파종비율이 목초의 수량과 품질에 미치는 영향)

  • 이인덕;이형석
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.12 no.4
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    • pp.211-217
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    • 1992
  • This experiment was conducted over a 3-year period (1990-1992) to evaluate the production and quality of orchardgrass (Potomac)-red clover (Kenland) mixture when orchardgrass + red clover mixture was sown at seed rates of 20+0. 18+2, 16+4, 14+6 and 12+8 kg/ha. Total herbage dry matter, crude protein and digestible organic matter production and organic matter intake were markedly affected by increasing rcd clover seed rate, those increased with increasing red clovcr seed rate due to the cnhancernent of red clover percentage of total herbagc in all 3-year. but significant differences occured between the orchardgrass alone and orchardgrass-red clover mixture with a seed rate of 4,6 and 8 kg/ha red clover (P<0.01). But on the other hand increasing red clover seed rate increased red clover percentage in total herbage, the mean red clover percentage of total herbage at the last cutting ranged from 54 to 65% in first year. 58 to 60% in second year, and 62 to 69% in third year, particularly it was observed that red clover was sown at seed rates of 6 and 8 kg/ha for red clover sown dominated strongly as the cutting times were progressed. Considering the maintenance of good botanical composition balance and the enhancement of production and quality of herbage, the optimized seed rate for orchardgrass-red clover mixtures, 16 kg/ha orchardgrass and 4 kg/ha red clover seems to be considered adequate.

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Study on the Renovation of White Clover Dominated Pasture (White Clover 우점초지의 갱신에 관한 연구)

  • 이인덕;이형석;박연진
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.207-214
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    • 2000
  • This study was conducted to investigate the effect of renovation of white clover dominated pasture. It was arranged in a randomized block design with two mixture types: 5-species mixtures(5-SM); orchardgrass 40% + tall fescue 20% + perennial ryegrass 10% + Kentucky bluegrass 10% + red clover 20% and 8-species mixtures(8-SM); orchardgrass 40% + tall fescue 20% + perennial ryegrass 10% + Kentucky bluegrass 5% + redtop 5% + red fescue 5% + alfalfa 5% + red clover 10%. This study was carried out from 1997 to 1999 at Chungnam National University. In the white clover dominated pasture, the DM yield was higher obtained in the 8-SM than that of in 5-SM, but there was no significant difference between 8-SM and 5-SM in both chemical composition and DM digestibility except content of CP. The yields of CPDM and DDM were higher in 8-SM than those in 5-SM as well(P

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Comparison of Forage Production of Annual Legume in the Central Region of Korea (중부지방에서 일년생 콩과목초의 사초 생산성 비교)

  • Kim, J.D.;Kwon, C.H.;Kim, S.G.;Park, H.S.;Ko, H.J.;Kim, D.A.
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.44 no.5
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    • pp.617-624
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    • 2002
  • Annual legume is being used as an important source of protein for farm animals and an ingredient for nitrogen fertilizers. There are, however, difficulties in selecting appropriate cultivar and forage management technique. The objective of this study is to select the best performing cultivars and evaluate a forage value on annual legume at two locations (Suwon and Sunghwan) for 1 year (1999${\sim}$2000). All cultivars shown a seedling vigor and lodging resistance of 8 rating or higher. Crimson and rose clover showed that they are appropriate for overwintering, but ;Laser; (35.9%) and 'Nitro'(9.1%) of persian clover variety did not overwinter well from 1999 to 2000. Flower stage was observed 4th of May for 'Tibbee', 6th of May for 'Contea' crimson clover, and 29th of April for 'Bolta balansa' rose clover. DM yield of a crimson clover 'Contea' (4,218kg/ha) was the highest among the legume forage. A crimson clover 'Tibbee' and rose clover 'Bolta balansa' also had a high production yield (3,874 and 3,828kg/ha). Calculations of relative feed value (RFV) based on the acid and neutral detergent fiber (ADF and NDF) of annual legume were over 125, which means that quality was high. According to the results of this study, crimson and rose clovers are recommended due to their high winter survival rate and high DM yield. Persian clover is not recommended because of a low overwintering rate at the Central region in Korea.

Effects of Sward Composition and N.P Fertilization on Forage Yields and Intercompetition of Subterranean clover-Italian Ryegrass and Berseem clover-Italian Ryehrass Mixtures (식생비율과 질소.인산시용이 Subterranean Clover-Italian Ryegrass 및 Berseem Clover-Italian Ryegrass 혼파 초지의 생산성과 종간경합에 미치는 영향)

  • 강진호
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.37 no.3
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    • pp.274-282
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    • 1992
  • Annual forage crops have been increasingly important for conpensating insufficient forage production of perennial pastures took place for short interval. This experiment was conducted to determine the effect of sward composition and NㆍP fertilization on forage production and intercompetition of subterranean clover-Italian ryegrass and berseem clover-Italian ryegrass. The two clovers were grown in the field at the clover/ryegrass ratios of 0/100, 25/75, 50/50, 75/25 and 100/0 where no, N (200 kg /ha), P (50 kg /ha) or NㆍP fertilization was done. Each crop was separated after harvest and drying. Relative Crowding Coefficient (RCC), aggressivity and Relative Yield Total (RYT) were analyzed on the basis of the harvested dry matter of each crop. Berseem clover-ryegrass mixtures produced greater yield than subclover-ryegrass mixtures as a result of higher yields of the two component species. In the former forage yield was increased with increased rate of clover up to 75%, while in the latter the highest yields were obtained at more than 50% of the clover. In the mixtures N stimulated the growth of ryegrass, whereas P did only that of subclover. The two clovers produced more forage than the companion grass under no and only P fertilization although the reverse result was true under N or NㆍP fertilization, but the annual forage yield was decreased in the order of N and P, N, P, and no fertilization. The mixture yields were overyielded compared to the Expected Yield. Although generally RCCs and RYTs of subclover were higher than those of berseem clover in the mixtures differing the composition rate or under no and only P fertilization, those of the former clover were lower under N or NㆍP fertilization. In the clover-ryegrass mixtures, ryegrass acted as an aggressor and became more aggressive under P fertilization.

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Studies on White Clover Yield Increase by Antagonistic Bacteria (길항미상물에 의한 White Clover ( Trifolium repens L. ) 생산성 향상에 관한 연구)

  • Choi, Ki-Chun;Youn, chang;Song, Chae-Eun
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.187-194
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    • 1998
  • This study was conducted to investigate the effect of antagonistic bacteria and pathogenic fungi on growth and yields of white clover(Trifo1iurn repens L.) in continuous cropping soil(CCS) and non-continuous cropping soil(NCCS). The gowth experiment of white clover was conducted at pots in a vinyl house. White clover was established by seeding into pots of 12 cm in diameter and 9 cm in depth containing 1:l mixture of soil and vermiculite with antagonistic bacteria and pathogenic fungi. In dark culture experiment, white clover lived longer in treatment of antagonistic bacteria than in treatment of control, but lived shorter in CCS than in NCCS. Dry weight of white clover was increased by the inoculation of the antagonistic bacteria(p< 0.05), but decreased by the inoculation of the pathogenic fungi(p< 0.05) both CCS and NCCS. In conclusion, bacterization of white clover with antagonistic bacteria enhances the growth and yield of white clover.

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Effects of Nitrogen Application Levels and Ryegrasses as a Member of Mixture on Improvement of Oversown Pasture I. Establishment, botanical composition and productivity (질소시비수준 및 Ryegrass류혼파가 겉뿌림 초지개량에 미치는 효과 I. 정착률, 식생구성률 및 건물수량에 관한 효과)

  • 강호준;김문철
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.11 no.4
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    • pp.222-229
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    • 1991
  • This experiment was carried out to determine the effect of improvement of oversown pastures, treated with four nitrogen(N) application levels(0, 100, 200, 300 kg/ha) and three species mixtures (A: orchardgrass+ladino clover; B: orchardgrass+ladino clover+perennial ryegrass; C: orchardgrass+ladino clover+perennial ryegrass+Italian ryegrass). The establishment of perennial ryegrass, Italian ryegrass, and ladino clover were increased with increased N applications, but the ryegrass mixed with orchardgrass and ladino clover decreased the establishment of ladino clover. With the increase of N application levels, orchardgrass, perennial ryegrass and Italian ryegrass in comparison on botanical composition were getting better, while the native plants established already were decreased. The botanical composition of newly sown pasture plants was increased as cutting times progressed. The dry matter(DM) yield of pasture species increased significantly with N application up to 300 kg/ha. There was no significance among mixture treatments, although the DM yield of basic treatment(orchardgrass+ladino clover) was higher than other treatments. However, when compared DM yields on each cutting times, newly oversown pastures in A treatment was shown to be significantly higher only on 2nd cutting time than other treatments(P<0.05). The DM yield of native plants survived in basic species mixture was significantly less than those of other mixtures(P<0.05). Results of this study indicate that for improving oversown pastures, at least 300 kg/ha N application should be applied, and basic mixture (orchardgrass+ladino clover) has more advantage than treatments mixed with ryegrass.

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Effects of Boron Application on the Forage Traits in the Pure and Mixed Swards of Orchardgrass and White Clover. II. Changes in the yields and concurrence index of forages (Orchardgrass 및 White clover의 단 파 및 혼파 재배에서 붕소의 시용이 목초의 여러 특성에 미치는 영향. II. 초종별 건물수량 및 식생 경합지수의 변화)

  • Jung, Yeun-Kyu
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.23 no.3
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    • pp.159-168
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    • 2003
  • This pot experiment was conducted in order to find out the effects of boron application($B_{0}$ /; control, $B_1$; 0.2, $B_2$; 2.0,$ B_3$; 6.0, $B_4$; 15.0 B me/pot) on the forage performance of pure and mixed cultures of orchardgrass and white clover. The 2nd part was concerned with the changes in the forage yields and concurrence index. The results obtained are summarized as follows: 1. The optimum boron application($B_2$) generally resulted in the increase of both forage yields, but the effects of boron application on them were different according to the forage species, whether it was a pure or mixed cultures, additional fertilization, and cutting order. The effects of boron application on the forage productivity were more obvious in white clover than in orchardgrass. 2. Owing to the decline of white clover as affected by the application of additional fertilizers, especially N, in the grass-clover mixed cultures, the effects of boron application on the white clover yields showed a numerical inferiority compared with the pure culture. It was recognized that the yield increase and botanical composition of white clover in grass-clover mixed cultures could be regulated by the application of additional fertilizers and boron. 3. The toxic boron application($B_3$ and $B_4$) resulted in a decreased yield of both forages. The yield change of orchardgrass tended to be similar between pure and mixed cultures, whereas it of white clover tended to be more negative in mixed than in pure cultures. 4. With the application of additional fertilizers, especially N, the botanical composition and concurrence index in grass-clover mixed cultures were relatively increased in orchardgrass, and decreased in white clover. The botanical composition of orchardgrass increased from 55% to 75%, whereas it of white clover decreased from 45% in the first half cutting to 25% in the second half cutting, respectively.

Effct of Species and Tedding Frequency on the Quality of Annual Legume Hay in Spring (초종 및 반전횟수가 봄철 일년생 콩과목초 건초의 품질에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, J.D.;Kwon, C.H.;Kim, H.J.;Kim, M.G.
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.46 no.3
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    • pp.451-458
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    • 2004
  • No comprebensive forage quality of annual legumes harvested and cured in spring has been conducted in Korea. Therefore, this experiment was carried out to gain information on the quality of crimson clover (Trifolium incarnatum L.), bolta baIansa clover(Trifolium ba/anansae L.), and persian c1over(Trifolium resupinatum L.) during field curing in spring. The dry matter content of crimson clover at harvest was 24.7%, while bolta balansa and persian clovers had 20.4 and 18.8%, respectively. The moisture content of persian clover was low at the final curing day. But All species took 4 days to reach moisture content under 20%Tedding frequency did not affect moisture content, but consisten trends were also observed during the field curing. Persian clover tended to show a higher leaf-stem ratio than crimson and bolta balansa clovers on dry matter basis. Crude protein of persian clover(19.5%) was higher than other legumes. The percentage of erode protein was decreased from 17.8 to 16.5% as tedding frequency often did. Neutral detergent fiber(NDF) and acid detergent fiber(ADF) contents of persian clover were lower than those of other legumes. From the comparison among tedding frequency, NDF and ADF contents of three times were higher than those of one and two times. Relative feed value(RFV) of persian clover hay was the highest(178) and classified as Grade Prime in forage quality standard. Crimson and bolta balansa clovers in the RFV were also high quality as Grade 1 in forage quality standard. The RFV of legume hay was decreased from 150 to 140 as tedding frequency often did Results of the experiment indicate that hay quality of persian clover was higher than other clovers. And this is due to high leaf and stem content, hollow stem and late maturity stage. Then tedding frequency in annual legume can be teded by two times for quality.