• Title, Summary, Keyword: coat color

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Expression of Coat Color Associated Genes in Korean Brindle Cattle by Microarray Analysis

  • Lee, Hae-Lee;Park, Jae-Hee;Kim, Jong Gug
    • Journal of Embryo Transfer
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    • v.30 no.2
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    • pp.99-107
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    • 2015
  • The aim of the present study was to identify coat color associated genes that are differentially expressed in mature Korean brindle cattle (KBC) with different coat colors and in Hanwoo cows. KBC calves, before and after coat color appearance, were included. Total cellular RNA was isolated from the tail hair cells and used for microarray. The number of expressed coat color associated genes/probes was 5813 in mature KBC and Hanwoo cows. Among the expressed coat color associated genes/probes, 167 genes were the coat color associated genes listed in the Gene card database and 125 genes were the pigment and melanocyte genes listed in the Gene ontology_bovine database. There were 23 genes/probes commonly listed in both databases and their expressions were further studied. Out of the 23 genes/probes, MLPH, PMEL, TYR and TYRP1 genes were expressed at least two fold higher (p<0.01) levels in KBC with brindle color than either Hanwoo or KBC with brown color. TYRP1 expression was 22.96 or 19.89 fold higher (p<0.01) in KBC with brindle color than either Hanwoo or KBC with brown color, respectively, which was the biggest fold difference. The hierarchical clustering analysis indicated that MLPH, PMEL, TYR and TYRP1 were the highly expressed genes in mature cattle. There were only a few genes differentially expressed after coat color appearance in KBC calves. Studies on the regulation and mechanism of gene expression of highly expressed genes would be next steps to better understand coat color determination and to improve brindle coat color appearance in KBC.

Analysis of Coat Color Changes and Hormone Levels in Korean Brindle Cattle (칡소의 모색 발현과 호르몬 변화와의 상관관계 분석 연구)

  • Lee, Hae-Lee;Park, Jae-Hee;Kim, Yong-Su;Kim, Jong Gug
    • Journal of Embryo Transfer
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.65-71
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    • 2015
  • The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the coat color appearance of Korean brindle cattle and the changes of relevant hormone levels that may affect the hair pigmentation during different stages of growth and maturation. In mature cattle, levels of both ACTH and DHEA in Korean brindle cattle with brown color were significantly higher than those with black color (p<0.05). Levels of ${\alpha}$-MSH in Korean brindle cattle with whole brindle ($${\geq_-}50%$$) color were significantly higher than those with brown color (p<0.05). In calves of Korean brindle cattle at 2 to 6 months, the concentration of estradiol was significantly higher in calves with whole brindle color than those with part brindle color (p<0.05), when the coat color was confirmed. After 6 month of coat color confirmation, levels of testosterone and ACTH increased in calves with part brindle color and were significantly higher than those with whole brindle color (p<0.05). In calves of Korean brindle cattle at 1 or 2 months, there were no significant differences in hormone levels of estradiol, ACTH, DHEA and ${\alpha}$-MSH between the calves with brindle color and brown color, except estradiol before brindle color appearance. Changes of relevant hormone levels at different stage of growth and maturation may affect the pigmentation of coat during the development of cattle. In addition to the current study correlating the different coat colors with relevant hormone levels, investigation of the coat color associated genes expressed in Korean brindle cattle may further clarify the mechanisms of coat color changes during their development.

The coat color of Jindo dogs (진도개의 모색(毛色))

  • Lee, Chung-gil;Kim, Gyeong-tae
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.33 no.4
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    • pp.763-772
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    • 1993
  • In the present communication literatures pertaining to the coat color of Jindo dogs, the natural monument of Korea, have been reviewed. It was reported that there were seven different coat colors in Jindo dogs. They are yellow, white, red, black, tiger-like, grey, and spotted. The yellow and red dogs have typical color markings called "Yibaik", and black dogs have yellow or white color markings called "Nenoonbagi". All Jindo dogs, which have 7 different coat colors with typical color markings, could be found nowadays. The pictures of those Jindo dogs were taken and presented in this communication. It was felt that the coat colors of Jindo dogs should not be limited to yellow and white. And Jindo dogs should be judged not by their coat color but by their noble characteristics.

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Effects of Genotype Mutation and Coat Color Phenotype on the Offspring from Mating System of MC1R Genotype Patterns in Korean Brindle Cattle (칡소의 MC1R의 유전자형에 따른 교배 조합이 자손의 모색과 유전자형 변이에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Sang-Hwan;Jung, Kyoung-Sub;Lee, Ho-Jun;Baek, Jun-Seok;Jung, Duk-Won;Kim, Dae-Eun;Yoon, Jong-Taek
    • Journal of Embryo Transfer
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    • v.28 no.3
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    • pp.215-222
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    • 2013
  • Bovine coat color is decided by the melanocortin receptor 1 (MC1R) genotype mutation and melanogenesis. Specially, in the various cattle breeds, dominant black coat color is expressed by dominant genotype of $E^D$, red or brown is expressed in the frame shift mutation of recessive homozygous e by base pair deletion and wild type of $E^+$ is expressed in various coat colors. However, not very well known about the effected of MC1R genotype mutation on the coat color through family lines in KBC. Therefore, this study were to investigate effect of MC1R genotype mutation on the coat color, and to suggest mating breed system in accordance with of MC1R genotype for increased on brindle coat color appearance. Parents (sire 2 heads and dam 3 heads) and offspring (total : 54 heads) from crossbreeding in KBC family line with the MC1R genotype and phenotype records were selected as experimental animals. The relationship between melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) genotypes expression verified by PCR-RFLP, and brindle coat color appearance to the family line of the cross mating breed from MC1R genotype pattern was determined. As a result, 4MC1R genetic variations, $E^+/E^+$ (sire 1), $E^+/e$ (sire 2 and dam 3), $E^+/e$ with 4 bands of 174, 207 and 328 bp (dam 1) and $E^+/e$ with 3 bands of 174, 207, 328 and 535 bp (dam 2) from parents (sire and dam) of KBC. However, 3 genetic variations, e/e (24%), $E^+/E^+$ (22%) and $E^+/e$ (56%) were identified in offspring. Also, brindle coat color expressrated was the e/e with the 0%, $E^+/E^+$ with 67% and $E^+/e$ with 77% from MC1R genotype in offspring on the cross mating of KBC. Furthermore, when the sire had $E^+/e$ genotype and the dam had $E^+/E^+$ with the 3 bands or $E^+/e$ genotype, and both had whole body-brindle coat color, 62% of the offspring had whole body-brindle coat color. Therefore, the seresults, the mating system from MC1R genotype patterns of the sires ($E^+/e$) and dams ($E^+/E^+$ with the 3 bands or $E^+/e$) with brindle coat color may have the highest whole body-brindle coat color expression in their offspring.

Ear Type and Coat Color on Growth Performances of Crossbred Pigs

  • Choy, Y.H.;Jeon, G.J.;Kim, T.H.;Choi, B.H.;Chung, H.W.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.15 no.8
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    • pp.1178-1181
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    • 2002
  • Records from a total of 202 crossbred pigs were classified by their ear type and coat color to examine the presence of interrelationships with growth performances. Crossbred pigs were F2 generations of full sib family out of ten Landrace sows bred by 5 Korean domestic boars. Heavily drooped ear type was predominant, 195 out of 202 pigs over the other two types (1 straight and 6 slightly drooped). Coat colors were classified as four categories, all white, all black, dominant white or dominant black. Ratio among coat color categories did not fall within Mendelian principle of independence regarding two loci involved. There was dependency between ear type and coat color. However, due to rarity of ear types other than heavy drooped, dependency comes from distribution of those rare ear types. Three least squares models to test the effect of ear type and coat colors on growth performances were analyzed. First model analyzed effects on birth weight, body weight at 3 and 6 weeks and ADG' before weaning and between 3 and 5 weeks of age. This model included sex in addition to ear type and coat color. Second model analyzed postweaning growth traits (initial weight, final weight and ADG between these periods) upon initiation of performance testing. This model included effects of sex, test group and start age (as a covariate) in addition. Third model was fit for fasted weight before slaughter and included the effects of sex, test group and age at slaughter (as a covariate). The effects of sex and ear type were not significant source of variation for all traits. Test group was a significant source of variation for all the postweaning traits. Effect of coat color was not significant until the initiation of performance testing and became significant then after. Least squares means of dominantly black pigs were significantly lower than the other three coat colored pigs in final weight around 195 days of age and in ADG from the start of performance test and final weight measure.

Sequence characterization and polymorphism of melanocortin 1 receptor gene in some goat breeds with different coat color of Mongolia

  • Ganbold, Onolragchaa;Manjula, Prabuddha;Lee, Seung-Hwan;Paek, Woon Kee;Seo, Dongwon;Munkhbayar, Munkhbaatar;Lee, Jun Heon
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.32 no.7
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    • pp.939-948
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    • 2019
  • Objective: Extension and Agouti loci play a key role for proportions of eumelanin and pheomelanin in determining coat color in several species, including goat. Mongolian goats exhibit diverse types of coat color phenotypes. In this study, investigation of the melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) coding region in different coat colors in Mongolian goats was performed to ascertain the presence of the extension allele. Methods: A total of 105 goat samples representing three goat breeds were collected for this study from middle Mongolia. A 938 base pair (bp) long coding region of the MC1R gene was sequenced for three different breeds with different coat colors (Gobi Gurwan Saikhan: complete black, Zalaa Jinstiin Tsagaan: complete white, Mongolian native goat: admixture of different of coat colors). The genotypes of these goats were obtained from analyzing and comparing the sequencing results. Results: A total of seven haplotypes defined by five substitution were identified. The five single nucleotide polymorphisms included two synonymous mutations (c.183C>T and c.489G>A) and three missense (non-synonymous) mutations (c.676A>G, c.748T>G, and c.770T>A). Comparison of genotypes frequencies of two common missense mutions using chi-sqaure ($x^2$) test revealed significant differences between coat color groups (p<0.001). A logistic regression analysis additionally suggested highly significant association between genotypes and variation of black versus white uniform combination. Alternatively, most investigated goats (60.4%) belonged to H2 (TGAGT) haplotype. Conclusion: According to the findings obtained in this study on the investigated coat colors, mutations in MC1R gene may have the crucial role for determining eumelanin and pheomelanin phenotypes. Due to the complication of coat color phenotype, more detailed investigation needed.

Investigation of Coat Color Candidate Genes in Korean Cattle(Hanwoo) (한우에서 모색관련 유전자 변이에 관한 연구)

  • Do, K.T.;Shin, H.Y.;Lee, J.H.;Kim, N.S.;Park, E.W.;Yoon, D.H.;Kim, K.S.
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.49 no.6
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    • pp.711-718
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    • 2007
  • Most cattle breeds have a coat color pattern that is characteristic for the breed. Korean cattle(Hanwoo) has a coat color ranging from yellowish brown to dark brown including a red coat color. Variation in the Hanwoo coat color is likely to be the effects of modified genes segregating within the Hanwoo breed. MC1R encoded by the Extension(E) locus was almost fixed with recessive red e allele in the Hanwoo, but other gene(s) might be affecting the variation of the Hanwoo coat color into yellowish to red brown. We have analyzed a segregation of coat color in the F2 families generated from two Hanwoo bulls(yellowish brown) mated to six F1 dams(black) derived from Hanwoo and Holstein crosses. Segregation of coat color in the offspring found a ratio of 1(yellowish brown) : 1(black) and this ratio indicates that a single gene may play a major role for the Hanwoo coat color. We further investigated SNPs in MC1R, ASIP and TYRP1 loci to determine genetic cause of the Hanwoo coat color. Several polymorphisms within ASIP intron 2 and TYRP1 exons were found but not conserved within the Hanwoo population. However, the segregation of the MC1R e allele was completely associated with the Hanwoo coat color. Based on this information, it is clear that the MC1R e allele is mainly responsible for the yellowish red Hanwoo coat color. Further study is warrant to identify possible genetic interaction between MC1R e allele and other coat color related gene(s) for the variation of Hanwoo coat color from yellowish brown to dark brown. (Key words : Hanwoo, Coat color, SNP, MC1R, ASIP, TYRP1)

The impact of hair coat color on longevity of Holstein cows in the tropics

  • Lee, C.N.;Baek, K.S.;Parkhurst, A.
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.58 no.12
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    • pp.41.1-41.7
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    • 2016
  • Background: Over two decades of observations in the field in South East Asia and Hawai'i suggest that majority of the commercial dairy herds are of black hair coat. Hence a simple study to determine the accuracy of the observation was conducted with two large dairy herds in Hawaii in the mid-1990s. Methods: A retrospective study on longevity of Holstein cattle in the tropics was conducted using DairyComp-305 lactation information coupled with phenotypic evaluation of hair coat color in two large dairy farms. Cows were classified into 3 groups: a) black (B, >90%); b) black/white (BW, 50:50) and c) white (W, >90%). Cows with other hair coat distribution were excluded from the study. In farm A, 211 out of 970 cows were identified having 4 or more lactations. In farm B, 690 out of 1,350 cows were identified with 2 or more lactations for the study. Results: The regression analyses and the Wilcoxon-Log-rank test for survival probability showed that Holstein cattle with 90% black hair coat had greater longevity compared to Holstein cattle with 90% white hair coat. Conclusions: This study suggests that longevity of Holstein cattle in tropical regions was influenced by hair coat color and characteristics.

Characteristics of Coat Color Distribution of Offsprings Produced by Embryo Transfer in Korean Native Brindle Cattle (수정란 이식에 의해 생산된 칡소의 모색 발현)

  • Lee, Ho-Jun;Kim, Sang-Hwan;Lee, Kyong-Tae;Yoon, Jong-Taek
    • Development and Reproduction
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    • v.15 no.4
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    • pp.325-329
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    • 2011
  • The main objective of this study is to investigate the distribution of coat color among Ulleung Korean Native Brindle Cattle, and to identify basic genetic elements required for the fixation of coat color traits. 1. The distribution of coat color among Ulleung Korean Native Brindle Cattle was 24.3% yellow (67/276),13.0% black (36/276), 62.7% brindle (173/276). The frequency of Brindle coat color was slightly higher (66%, 105/159) among embryo transfer from outside than that of cows produced by embryo transfer from jurisdiction. 2. Investigation of coat color distribution in each sex group showed that the frequency of yellow coat color was lower in males (18.1%, 25/138) than in females (31.4%, 43/137). On the other hand, the frequency of brindle coat color was slightly higher among males (68.1%, 94/138) than in females (56.9%, 78/137). 3. Examination of Brindle coat color expression based on the intensity of black dots on the nose indicated that the expression of black coat color increase in proportion to the intensity of black dots.

Comparison of Live Performance and Meat Quality Parameter of Cross Bred (Korean Native Black Pig and Landrace) Pigs with Different Coat Colors

  • Hur, S.J.;Jeong, T.C.;Kim, G.D.;Jeong, J.Y.;Cho, I.C.;Lim, H.T.;Kim, B.W.;Joo, S.T.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.26 no.7
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    • pp.1047-1053
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    • 2013
  • Five hundred and forty crossbred (Korean native black pig${\times}$Landrace) F2 were selected at a commercial pig farm and then divided into six different coat color groups: (A: Black, B: White, C: Red, D: White spot in black, E: Black spot in white, F: Black spot in red). Birth weight, 21st d weight, 140th d weight and carcass weight varied among the different coat color groups. D group (white spot in black coat) showed a significantly higher body weight at each weigh (birth weight, 140th d weight and carcass weight) than did the other groups, whereas the C group (red coat color) showed a significantly lower body weight at finishing stage (140th d weight and carcass weight) compared to other groups. Meat quality characteristics, shear force, cooking loss and meat color were not significantly different among the different coat color groups, whereas drip loss was significantly higher in F than in other groups. Most blood characteristics were not significantly different among the different groups, except for the red blood cells.