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Determination of the shelf life of cricket powder and effects of storage on its quality characteristics (식품원료용 귀뚜라미 분말의 저장 중 품질특성 및 유통기한 설정)

  • Kim, Dae-Hyun;Kim, Eun-Mi;Chang, Yoon-Je;Ahn, Mi-Young;Lee, Yong-Hwan;Park, Jin Ju;Lim, Jeong-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.211-217
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    • 2016
  • This study was carried out to determine the shelf-life of cricket powder and investigate the changes in its quality during storage. To determine the shelf-life, cricket powder was stored at temperatures of 25, 35, and $40^{\circ}C$ for 6 months. The changes in quality parameters of the cricket powder, such as moisture content, color, acid value, volatile base nitrogen (VBN), fatty acid, growth of microorganisms, and sensory appeal were investigated. The moisture content of the cricket powder increased during storage but did not show any significant difference at 6 months of storage. L value was increased at $25^{\circ}C$ storage but decreased at 35 and $40^{\circ}C$. However, there were no significant different in a and b values. The acid value decreased more rapidly at higher temperatures, while the VBN content was not changed. The major composition of fatty acids of cricket powder were palmitic acid, oleic acid, and linoleic acid. Their content was not changed at various the storage temperatures. No aerobic and coliform bacteria grew in the powder during the whole storage period. Cricket powder stored at $25^{\circ}C$ and $35^{\circ}C$ showed similar scores in sensory evaluation, but it storaged at $40^{\circ}C$ showed the significant difference (p<0.05). Moisture content, acid value, oleic acid, and flavor were selected as the criteria for shelf-life establishment of cricket powder. Based on these parameters, especially the moisture content, the shelf life of cricket powder was likely to be 18 months when stored at $25^{\circ}C$.

Physicochemical characteristics and antioxidant activity of pear vinegars using 'Wonhwang', 'Niitaka' and 'Chuhwangbae' fruits (원황, 신고 및 추황배를 이용한 배 식초의 이화학적 특성 및 항산화활성)

  • Yim, Sun-Hee;Cho, Kwang-Sik;Choi, Jin-Ho;Lee, Ju-Hyun;Lee, ByulHaNa;Kim, Myung-Su;Jiang, Gui-Hun;Eun, Jong-Bang
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.174-179
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    • 2016
  • This study was to prepared vinegars using three kinds of pear cultivar with different maturities, 'Wonhwang', 'Niitaka', and 'Chuhwangbae', and investigate their physicochemical characteristics and antioxidant activities. Result showed that the firmness of 'Wonhwang' was much lower than other pear cultivars. No significant difference in soluble solid content was found among three pear cultivars. The total acidity of 'Chuhwangbae' pear vinegar was 4.89~7.98%, which was higher than that those of 'Wonhwang' and 'Niitaka' vinegars. The color of 'Niitaka' vinegar had a lower lightness and redness values, but a higher yellowness value, compared with the other two vinegars. The free sugar contents were mainly composed of fructose, glucose, and sorbitol, with the greatest content of sorbitol in all three peer vinegars. The total phenolics and flavonoids contents were 35.2~55.3 and 8.4~14.4 mg/100 mL, respectively. Antioxidant activity had a positive correlation with total phenolic contents. The DPPH free radical scavenging and $ABTS^+$ radical scavenging activity were 45.0~62.1% and 73.8~78.2%, respectively. From these results, we confirmed that immature pear cultivars such as 'Wonhwang', 'Niitaka' and 'Chuhwangbae' could be used as a raw materials to prepare vinegar regardless of maturity.

Evaluation of Agronomic Characteristics and Fatty Acid Composition of Flax Germplasms (아마 유전자원의 농업적 특성 및 지방산 조성 평가)

  • Lee, Yong-Hwa;Bae, Sang-Mok;Park, Won;Kim, Kwang-Soo;Jang, Young-Seok;Lee, Kyeong-Bo
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.61 no.2
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    • pp.124-130
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    • 2016
  • In this study, agronomic characteristics and fatty acid composition of 121 flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) germplasms were analyzed. The flax germplasms had a fairly short growth period of 75-95 days. The plant height at maturity varied from 52 to 124 cm. The flower color varied from white to lilac and even purple. Early flowering flax germplasms had white flowers and were resistant to lodging. In early flowering flax germplasms, all agronomic characteristics, including growth period, plant height, branch number per plant, stem diameter, number of capsules per raceme, seed number per capsule, 1000-seed weight, and seed yield, were decreased. The average fatty acid composition of 121 flax germplasms comprised palmitic acid (5.3%), stearic acid (4.3%), oleic acid (29.7%), linoleic acid (13.1%) and linolenic acid (46.4%). The total content of unsaturated fatty acids ranged from 84~94% with an average of 88%. Among the fatty acids, linolenic acid (omega-3) content was the highest with a range of 36~54%. In five selected flax germplasms (Hollandia 1803, Red son, C & F Res Br 1767, Wiera, and Ireland 1657) with high linolenic acid (${\geq}51%$), total lipid and protein contents were 30~36% and 5.4~6.9%, respectively. Overall, flax can practically be adoptable into cropping systems in South Korea and utilized as a scenery crop, since flax has a short cultivation period with diverse flower colors.

Physicochemical Characteristics and Sensory Properties of Commercial Mukeunji Products (국내 시판 묵은지의 이화학적 및 관능적 특성)

  • Hur, Sung-Won;Ko, Myeung-Sin;Kim, Mi-Ran;Lee, Hye-Ran;Chung, Seo-Jin;Cho, Mi-Sook
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.44 no.5
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    • pp.702-708
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    • 2015
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the physicochemical characteristics of commercial Mukeunji product along with its sensory properties. Six different types of commercial Mukeunji products were purchased through an on-line market, and each product had a different fermentation period. General commercial Baechu Kimchi was compared with commercial Mukeunji products in order to standardize quality properties of Mukeunji. As a result, commercial Mukeunji showed a lower pH value (pH 3.96, mean value) than commercial Baechu Kimchi (pH 5.92), whereas commercial Mukeunji samples showed higher acidity and salinity. Color values (L, a, and b) of commercial Mukeunji decreased as the storage period increased. Hardness and thickness of commercial Mukeunji showed a lower range compared to Baechu Kimchi. The reducing sugar content decreased as the storage period of commercial Mukeunji increased. Acetic, lactic, and succinic acids were detected in commercial Mukeunji samples, whereas citric acid and malic acid were additionally detected in Baechu Kimchi. Commercial Mukeunji samples showed lower contents of acetic and succinic acid and higher content of lactic acid than Baechu Kimchi. Commercial Mukeunji samples showed a significant difference in all descriptive sensory attributes except for bitterness. Overall intensity, sourness, moldy odor, redness, sour smell, saltiness, and carbonated taste increased as the storage period increased, whereas cabbage flavor, crispiness, sweetness, firmness, and savory taste decreased as the storage period increased.

Immunological mechanism of Aging : T & B cell changes (면역학적 노화 기전에 관한 연구: T 및 B 세포의 변화)

  • Kim, Jay Sik;Lee, Won Kil;Suh, Jang Soo;Song, Kyung Eun;Lee, Joong Won;Lee, Nan Young;Weksler, Marc E.
    • IMMUNE NETWORK
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    • v.1 no.3
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    • pp.236-243
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    • 2001
  • Background: An immunological approach for aging mechanism appears to be important. Lymphocyte subsets analysis in peripheral blood is widely performed to assess the immune status and to diagnose and monitor various diseases. Some lymphocyte subsets are known to change with age, but only few data about age-related reference ragnes for these subsets in healthy individuals have been reported. So we attempted to report reference ranges for these subsets in each age group and review changes of the results with age for the secondary studies about immune cell function as lymphocyte blast transformation and immunoglobulin gene rearrangement (VDJ) including recombination activating genes (RAG-1 and RAG-2). Methods: Lymphocyte subset analysis was performed on 302 subjects, 189 males and 113 females with age group of all decades of life. Two color direct immunofluorescene flow cytometry (FCM) was done using $Simultest^{TM}$ IMK-Lymphocyte kit (Becton Dickinson, USA), $FACScan^{TM}$ (Becton Dickinson, USA) and $FACSCalibur^{TM}$ (Becton Dickinson, USA). Lymphocyte subsets analysed were T ($CD3^+$) and B cells ($CD19^+$), helper/inducer T ($CD4^+$) and suppressor/cytotoxic T cells ($CD8^+$), helper/suppressor ($CD4^+/CD8^+$) ratio and natural killer (NK) cells ($CD3^-CD16^+/CD56^+$). The absolute numbers of each subset were calculated from total lymphocyte counts. Data collected was analysed using SAS 6.12. A P-value of < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: We reported the counts and percentages of lymphocyte and these subsets in each age group. There were no statistically significant differences between male and female subjects. The percentage of $CD4^+$ T cells, and the count of NK cells did not show the significant difference among the various age groups. The age-related changes observed in our study were as following: 1) a decrease in the percentages of T cells, B cells and $CD8^+$ T cells ; 2) a decrease in the counts of B cells and $CD8^+$ T cells ; 3) an increase in the percentage and count of NK cells ; and 4) an increase in the $CD4^+/CD8^+$ ratio. Conclusion: The characteristics of aging process appeared to be showing a marked decrease of lympocyte subsets T and B cells as well as T8 ($CD8^+$). The age-related increase of the percentage of cells bearing NK marker can be interpreted as a compensatory consequence to cope with the decrease of T cells related to the thymic involution. These changes with age appeared to be for the secondary study about immune cell function as lymphocyte blast transformation and immunoglobulin gene rearrangement.

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Breeding and characterization of 'Creamy', a new interspecific hybrid between Pleurotus ferulae and P. tuoliensis (아위느타리와 백령느타리의 종간교잡 품종 '크리미'의 육성 및 특성)

  • Oh, Min-Ji;Shin, Pyung-Gyun;Lim, Ji-Hoon;Oh, Youn-Lee;Jang, Kab-Yeul;Kong, Won-Sik
    • Journal of Mushroom
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.224-229
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    • 2019
  • The two most common mushroom species grown in Korea are pearl oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) and king oyster mushroom (P. eryngii). In recent years, the production of king oyster mushroom greatly increased due to the automation of the cultivation facilities, and it became a major export mushroom owing to its excellent shelf life. However, the increase in the production of king oyster mushroom led to a decline in its market price; thus, necessitating the development of new mushroom species that could replace king oyster mushroom, to diversify the mushroom market for the benefit of both, the producers and the consumers. The Mushroom division at the National Institute of Horticultural & Herbal Science (NIHHS) reported the development of a new interspecific hybrid between P. ferulae and P. tuoliensis, referred to as 'Creamy.' Two parental strains KMCC00430 (Bisan2ho, P. ferulae) and KMCC00461 (P. tuoliensis) were selected based on the results of genetic resource analysis, and their monokaryons were collected. About 1,000 Mon-Mon crosses were performed and 73 of them were selected. Following repeated cultivation tests and strain analyses, we selected strain 7773, which had a bright creamy pileus and a thick straight stipe, and named it 'Creamy.' Optimum temperature for mycelial growth of Creamy was 25-30℃, and that for fruiting body growth was 16℃. The pileus, which had a brighter creamy color, was small in size with a diameter of 61.2 mm. Although it was cultivated in suboptimal conditions, such as low temperature and high CO2 concentration, Creamy was characterized by its straight and smooth stipe. Field production tests and further analyses indicated that the yield of Creamy was 5% higher than that of Baekhwang. It is expected that Creamy, the new interspecific hybrid with a bright creamy pileus and a pleasant flavor, will help create new opportunities for mushroom farmers and diversify the mushroom market.

Feeding Effect of Whole Crop Rice based TMR on Meat Quality of Hanwoo Steers (사료용 벼 위주 TMR 급여가 거세 한우의 육질 특성에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Jong Geun;Jo, Cheroun;Zhao, Guo Qiang;Liu, Chang;Nan, Wei Sheng;Kim, Hak Jin;Ahn, Eok Geun;Min, Hyung-Gyu
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.39 no.4
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    • pp.264-271
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    • 2019
  • This study was conducted to investigate the effect of whole crop rice based TMR on the meat quality of Korean Native Cattle (Hanwoo). Sixteen Hanwoo steers (average 8 months old) were divided into the control group (commercially marketed TMR) and the WCR-TMR group (whole crop rice based TMR). Feeding trials were carried out up to 30 months of age, and after slaughter, the strip loin were collected and analyzed for meat quality. There were no significant differences in proximate compositions of Hanwoo (P>0.05), and crude protein, crude fat and crude ash were 19.51~20.23 %, 11.53~11.35 % and 1.10~1.12 %, respectively. There was no significant difference in water holding capacity and cooking loss between treatments (P>0.05), but it was slightly lower in the control group. Among the various functional components in meat, β-carotene was not detected, but α-tocopherol was significantly higher in WCR-TMR group and vitamin A content in control (P<0.05). The a⁎-value in the meat color index decreased significantly with longer storage period in the control group, whereas the WCR-TMR fed group showed no significant difference (P>0.05) according to the storage period. There were no difference between the treatments in the TBARS (2-Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) value used as an indicator of lipid oxidation and in fatty acid content. But the control group had high myristic acid content, whereas the WCR-TMR supplemented group showed higher oleic acid and linoleic acid content. In conclusion, feeding of WCR based-TMR increased the α-tocopherol content, which is a functional ingredient in meat, and the other components were not significantly different from the control. Therefore, it was judged that there was no significant difference between WCR based and conventional TMR in meat quality characteristics.

Effect of Mountain Grazing on Growth Performance and Carcass Characteristics of Hanwoo Steers (산간지 방목이 거세한우의 성장특성 및 도체형질에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Eun Mee;Chung, Ki Yong;Kim, Ui-Hyung;Ahn, Jun Sang;Park, Bo Hye;Kang, Dong Hun;Jang, Sun Sik
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.39 no.4
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    • pp.250-257
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    • 2019
  • This study was carried out to investigate the effect of mountain grazing on growth performance and carcass characteristics of Hanwoo steers. Thirty two Hanwoo steers were randomly assigned. Control were fed concentrate + forage until 30 month of age. Treatment1 were fed concentrate + forage after mountain grazing from 8 to 13 months. Treatment2 and 3 were fed concentrate + forage after mountain grazing from 8 to 17 months. Hanwoo steers on Treatment 1 and 2 were slaughtered at the same age (30 months) as the control, and Hanwoo steers on Treatment 3 were slaughtered at 31 months. The average daily gain (ADG) were higher in the control than in the other treatments during the growing period (p<0.05). Carcass back fat thickness was thicker in the TRT 3 and marbling score was higher in the TRT 1 than in the other treatments; however, the differences were not statistically significant. There was no difference in the meat composition and shear force of the longissimus muscle according to the mountain grazing. However, the yellowness (b) of fat colors were significantly lower in the control than in the TRT 1 and TRT 2 (p<0.05). The effect of grazing on fatty acid composition was not constant. In conclusion, mountain grazing could reduce meat color without affecting the growth and meat quality of Hanwoo steers, and further research on the quality, yield and intake of grassland would be needed.

Comparison of Production Performances between Early- and Late-feathering Chickens in Parent Stocks of Korean Native Chicken (토종종계에 있어 조우성 개체와 만우성 개체간 생산능력 비교 고찰)

  • Kim, Ki Gon;Cho, Eun Jung;Choi, Eun Sik;Kwon, Jae Hyun;Jung, Hyun Chul;Sohn, Sea Hwan
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.46 no.4
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    • pp.279-286
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    • 2019
  • Currently, feather-sexing, which is based on differences in feather development at hatching, is a widely used chick sexing method in the poultry industry. For effective chicken feather-sexing, paternal early-feathering (EF) chickens and maternal late-feathering (LF) chickens must be bred. Therefore, it is critical to identify the effect of EF and LF patterns on production traits in chickens. Thus, the purpose of this study is to analyze and compare the production performances between 522 EF and 232 LF chickens in order to establish the Korean native chicken feather-sexing lines. The results showed that the survival rate of the LF group was significantly higher than that of the EF group from hatching to 52 weeks of age (P<0.05). Body weight, however, was not significantly different between the two groups at all ages. LF and EF groups did not significantly differ in age at first egg laying. However, the hen-day and hen-housed egg production of the LF group were significantly higher than those of EF group (P<0.01). No significant differences were found between the EF and LF groups in all egg quality indicators such as egg weight, eggshell color, albumin height and Haugh unit. Because the breeding target of Korean native commercial chicken is meat-type chicken, feather-sexing strains of Korean native chicken should be established using weighing-based paternal EF lines and laying-based maternal LF lines. Therefore, these results are critical for establishing desirable and effective feather-sexing strains.

A Study on the Copy of Tripitaka Koreana at Otani University in Kyoto, Japan (일본 오타니대학(大谷大學) 소장 고려대장경 인경본 연구)

  • Jeong, Eunwoo;Shin, Eunjae
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.52 no.4
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    • pp.38-55
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    • 2019
  • At Otani University in Kyoto, Japan, there is a rubbed copy of Tripitaka Koreana, presumably printed in 1381. According to the postscript of the copy, written by Saek Lee himself, the rubbed copy was made at Haeinsa temple in 1381 and was kept at Sinluksa temple in Yeuju. The copy was delivered as a gift to Japan in 1414 and now is kept at the Library of Otani University. Although an approximate summary of the content of the copy was reported in the early 2000s after a basic survey, details of the copy, including the concrete format and packaging paper, are not known yet. In this paper a detailed survey of the copy is conducted on the 109 pages. The copy is divided into two parts: the wrapping and the inner pages. The wrapping paper is divided into yellow and brown colors depending on the material of the paper. The yellow colorwrapping paper was possibly made in 1381 at the time of the rubbed printing, and the brown wrapping paper was repaired after being moved to Japan. Using funds collected in February 1380, the copy of Gyeong(經), Yul(律), and Ron(論) chapters was printed in April 1381. Binding of the copy was completed in September, and the wrapping paper with the title in gold was made in October 1380. The box for keeping Buddhist scriptures was manufactured in November 1380. The copy was moved to Sinluksa temple in April 1382 and delivered to Japan in 1414. At Otani University, the copy is stored in separate rectangular boxes 32.1×25.3cm in size with a height of 23.6cm. The rectangular plate on the four sides is red in external color but black colorinside. The box for keeping Buddhist scriptures was probably made in 1381, but a partial repair was made later. Because of the difficulty of executing a detailed survey of the box for Buddhist scriptures, it is hard to find out its nation and period of production. We look forward to studying the copy as well as the box for Buddhist scriptures in future.