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Quality characteristics and sensory evaluation of Fuji apple based on commodity price (상품 가격에 따른 사과의 품질 특성 및 관능 평가)

  • Ku, Kyung Hyung;Choi, Eun Jeong;Kim, Sang-Seop;Jeong, Moon Cheol
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.23 no.7
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    • pp.1065-1073
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    • 2016
  • This study investigated the sensory attributes and quality characteristics of Fuji apples based on market commodity price to provide data for quality index of Fuji apples. Samples were purchased from the Garak market (Seoul Agro-Fisheries & Food Corporation) and divided into four groups depending on the price such as group A, B, C, D. There were no significant differences in their volume and weight among groups. In the soluble solid content and total free sugar, A and B group (high price) showed higher content than those of C and D (low price) group. And also, the A group and B, C, D group showed 386.29 mg% and 320.09~359.28 mg% in the total organic acid content, respectively. As an sensory evaluation results, A group and B group were evaluated higher score than those of C and D group in the uniformity of red color and glossiness of skin and unique apple sensory attributes using quantitative descriptive analysis. Consumer test showed similar to quantitative descriptive analysis results in the various sensory attributes. In the analysis results between quality characteristics and sensory attributes of Fuji apples, total acceptability was correlated positively with titratable acidity (r=0.58), soluble solid (r=0.89), soluble solid content/titratable acidity ratio (r=0.42), total free sugar (r=0.36) and total organic acid (r=0.38). Based on principal component analysis of apple's quality characteristics, apples were primary separated along the first principal component (pH, acidity, soluble solid content, total free sugar, organic acid), which accounted for 66.01% of total variance. In addition, principal component analysis of sensory evaluation revealed a total variance for the quantitative descriptive of 55. 65% and a total variance for the consumer test of 55.84%.

Effect of Stocking Density and Dietary Protein Level on Performance, Meat Quality and Serum Corticosterone of Slow-Growing Korean Meat-Type Chicken (Hanhyop 3) (사육밀도와 사료 단백질 수준이 저속 성장 육계(한협 3호)의 성장, 육질, 혈청 Corticosterone에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Jun Yeob;Lee, Jeong Heon;Lee, Myung Ho;Song, Yong Han;Lee, Jong In;Ohh, Sang Jip
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.43 no.4
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    • pp.219-228
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    • 2016
  • A total of 720 slow-growing Korean meat-type (Hanhyop 3) chicken were used to evaluate the effect of stocking densities and dietary protein levels on growth performance, meat quality, bone mineral composition, and serum corticosterone. Three (6.3, 9.5, and $12.6birds/m^2$) stocking densities and two dietary protein levels (19% and 18%) were factorially ($3{\times}2$) arranged for six treatments. Overall body weight gain (BWG) was highest (p<0.001) at the lowest stocking density ($6.3birds/m^2$). The feed intake (FI) of birds at the highest density ($12.6birds/m^2$) was lower than that of birds at the other densities, but resulted in better feed/gain (F/G). Among 18% protein groups, the overall FI of birds at $9.5birds/m^2$ was higher than that at the lowest density; therefore, birds at $9.5birds/m^2$ had poorer F/G than birds at the lowest density during days 61~75. Difference in F/G among densities was only significant (p<0.05) during days 61~75 but not significant (p>0.05) during days 41~60. Although there were no significant differences (p>0.05) in BWG and F/G between 19% and 18% dietary protein levels, FI of the 18% protein diet was less (p<0.05) than that of the 19% diet. Although there was no difference (p>0.05) in meat TBARS values, meat color differed (p<0.05) with stocking density and dietary protein levels. There was no effect (p>0.05) of stocking density and dietary protein levels on bone mineral composition. Serum corticosterone concentration increased (p<0.05) with increasing stock density but was not affected (p>0.05) by dietary protein levels. This study indicated that a density of $12.6birds/m^2$ is not recommended for slow-growing chickens. Between 19% and 18% dietary protein levels, 18% would be recommended for the Korean Hanhyop 3 chicken in the finishing stage.

The Research on the Life-safety Implementation using the Natural Light LED Lamp in the Disaster Prevention and Safety Management (방재안전 자연광 LED 조명을 이용한 생활안전 개선에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Taeshik;Seok, Gumcheul;So, Yooseb;Choi, Byungshik;Kim, Jaekwon;Cho, Woncheol
    • Journal of Korean Society of Disaster and Security
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.53-62
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    • 2016
  • This paper is shown the new method using LED Light, which the light environment is upgraded the natural LED light in the area of Disaster Prevention and Safety Management (PDSD), which the events of deaths is reduced on the Suicide, the Infectious diseases, the safety accidents, the Traffic Accident, the crime, the fire, the Nature Disaster, and which the health and the environment and the safety is implemented using the value of the color LED Light. Research findings include,during 3 weeks in the November 2016, in the ten residents (average living 28.7 years, age 67.5 years) with depressive symptoms in the northern part of Seoul, according to the request of the user, the PDSD natural light LED lighting was installed in the home bedroom or the living room, expectations for the ability to restore physical and mental stability were high (88%), in the same way, after 1 week and 3 weeks, the physical and mental changes were compared and the results,84% in the first week and 90% in the third week and thereafter, the effect of relieving depression was high. We conclude that patients with depression have a good sleep, an uneasy feeling, a sense of security, a good night's sleep, and a good feeling. The PDSD LED Light is expected to contribute in the various areas, which reduced the suicides, which give increased immunity from infectious diseases, which give a crash to reduce accidents caused by negligence, which improve the safe operation of heavy vehicles in which a traffics accident incidence installed on the highest point, which improve the safety function on the 'safety way home' for the safety of the community, which due to fire gives alleviate the emotional anxiety of firefighters, which improve the environment for long-term control room working during decision making caused by natural disasters.

Breeding of 'Joyskin' Pear as fruit for Eating with the Skin (껍질째 먹는 배 '조이스킨' 육성)

  • Kim, Yoon-Kyeong;Kang, Sam-Seok;Cho, Kwang-Sik;Won, Kyung-Ho;Shin, Il-Sheob;Kim, Myung-Su;Ma, Kyeong-Bok;Lee, In Bog
    • Horticultural Science & Technology
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    • v.34 no.6
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    • pp.959-965
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    • 2016
  • In 1994, a new cultivar 'Joyskin' was created from a cross between the cultivars 'Whangkeumbae' and 'Waseaka' at the Pear Research Institute of the National Institute of Horticultural and Herbal Science, Rural Development Administration. In 2006, the 'Joyskin' was selected from among the 317 seedlings resulting from the cross for its skin and taste qualities. Regional adaptation tests were conducted in nine regions and in ten experimental plots from 2006 to 2011. The cultivar was named in 2011. 'Joyskin' showed a vigorous growth habit and semi-spread characteristics similar to 'Whangkeumbae'. The average full bloom date for 'Joyskin' was April 21st, which was also similar to 'Whangkeumbae'. The optimum fruit ripening time was September 6-8th, which was six or eight days earlier than 'Whangkeumbae'. The fruit was round in shape and the skin was a golden yellow color at maturity. The average fruit weight was 320 g and the flesh firmness was $2.5kg/8mm{\varphi}$. The firmness of the fruit skin determined by a blade-type plunger of texture analyzer was 22.9 N, which was significantly different from that of 'Whangkeumbae' 29.9N. Stone cell analysis of 'Joyskin' by phloroglucinol-HCl, showed that 'Joyskin' stone cells were small in size and few in numbers cpmpared to those of cultivars of was 'Manpungbae', 'Niitaka', and 'Whangkeumbae'. The patent application for 'Joyskin' was submitted in April, 2012 (Grant No. 2012-337). In 2016, 'Joyskin' (Grant No. 5895) was registered as a separate record, with uniformity and stability per Korean Seed Industry Law.

Study on Physicochemical Properties of Emulsion-Type Sausage Added with Pork Skin Gelatin (돈피 젤라틴을 첨가한 유화형 소시지의 이화학적 특성 연구)

  • Park, Sin-Young;Kim, Gye-Woong;Kim, Hack-Youn
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.45 no.2
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    • pp.209-214
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    • 2016
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of pork skin gelatin on the physicochemical properties (pH, CIE color value, water holding capacity, cooking yield, viscosity, proximate composition, and texture profile analysis) of emulsion-type sausage. Emulsion-type sausages were manufactured with 0% (control), 1%, 3%, and 5% pork skin gelatin. Moisture contents of samples containing 3% and 5% pork skin gelatin were significantly higher than those of the control and samples containing 1% pork skin gelatin (P<0.05). Protein contents were the highest in samples containing 5% pork skin gelatin (P<0.05). The pH values of uncooked and cooked samples increased with increasing pork skin gelatin level (P<0.05). The lightness and yellowness values of cooked samples containing pork skin gelatin were higher than those of the control (P<0.05). In addition, redness values of cooked samples containing 3% and 5% pork skin gelatin were significantly lower than those of the control and samples containing 1% pork skin gelatin (P<0.05). Water holding capacity (WHC) was the lowest in control, and samples containing 3% and 5% pork skin gelatin had significantly higher WHC compared to the other samples (P<0.05). Cooking yield of samples increased with increasing concentration of pork skin gelatin (P<0.05). Samples containing 3% and 5% pork skin gelatin showed higher viscosity than the control and sample containing 1% pork skin gelatin (P<0.05). Springiness, cohesiveness, and chewiness of samples were not significantly different among the samples. Hardness values of the control and sample containing 1% pork skin gelatin were lower than those of other samples (P<0.05), and samples containing 5% pork skin gelatin had the highest hardness (P<0.05). Gumminess of sample containing 5% pork skin gelatin was significantly higher than that of the control (P<0.05). The results show that pork skin gelatin could improve the potential of emulsion-type sausage physicochemical properties.

Quality characteristics of white (Baktae) and black (Seoritae) soybean curds coagulated by Omija extract (오미자 추출액을 응고제로 이용한 백태 및 서리태 두부의 품질특성)

  • Cheigh, Chan-Ick;Moon, Hey-Kyung;Lee, Su-Won;Kim, Jong-Kuk
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.42-48
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    • 2016
  • In order to investigate the utilization of the Omija (Schizandra chinensis Baillon) extract as a natural coagulant for manufacturing soybean curd, the quality characteristics of white (Baktae) and black (Seoritae) soybean curds, coagulated by the Omija extract or $MgCl_2$, were evaluated. Crude protein ($6.14{\pm}0.30$ and $6.25{\pm}0.18%$, respectively) and crude lipid ($10.86{\pm}1.74$ and $11.29{\pm}1.69%$, respectively) contents of white and black soybean curds coagulated using the Omija extract were higher than those coagulated using $MgCl_2$. Black soybean curds coagulated using the Omija extract showed higher L, a, and b values than those using $MgCl_2$. The most abundant amino acid in white and black soybean curds coagulated using the Omija extract was arginine (3.74 and 3.71 mg/100 g, dry basis, respectively). The amounts of Ca, K, Mg, and Na were the highest in both soybean curds prepared with the Omija extract. The sensory evaluation (color, flavor, taste, texture, and overall preference) showed that white and black soybean curds coagulated using the Omija extract were more preferred than those produced using $MgCl_2$. The results suggested that using the Omija extract as a natural coagulant agent could improve the quality and sensory characteristics of soybean curds.

Effects of Combined Chlorine Dioxide Gas Treatment Using Low-Concentration Generating Sticks on the Microbiological Safety and Quality of Paprika during Storage (저농도 서방형 이산화염소 가스 병합처리가 파프리카의 저장 중 미생물 성장과 품질에 미치는 영향)

  • Kang, Ji Hoon;Park, Shin Min;Kim, Hyun Gyu;Son, Hyun Jung;Song, Kyoung Ju;Cho, Miae;Kim, Jong Rak;Lee, Jeong Yong;Song, Kyung Bin
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.45 no.4
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    • pp.619-624
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    • 2016
  • Chlorine dioxide ($ClO_2$) gas treatment (75 ppmv, 30 min) has been suggested to improve the microbial safety of postharvest paprika in a previous study. Based on these results, in this study, an additional combined treatment using low-concentration $ClO_2$ gas-generating sticks (3 ppmv) in paprika samples during storage was carried out at $8^{\circ}C$ and 90% relative humidity to further enhance the quality and reduce the decay rate of paprika for the purpose of lengthy storage. After the combined treatment, the initial populations of total aerobic bacteria as well as yeast and molds in the paprika samples decreased by 3.04 and 2.70 log CFU/g, respectively, compared with those of the control samples, and this microbial inactivation was maintained by the low-concentration $ClO_2$ gas-generating sticks during storage. In particular, the decay rate of samples with combined treatment was significantly lower than that of the control. Vitamin C content, hardness, and color quality parameters of paprika samples were not altered by treatment, while weight loss of the samples treated with the combined $ClO_2$ gas was lower than that of the control during storage. These results indicate that the combination of two different $ClO_2$ gas treatments is effective for retaining the quality of paprika during prolonged storage.

Comparative Analysis on the Perceptions for Food Additives Between Elementary School Teachers and Nutrition Teachers (식품첨가물에 대한 초등교사와 영양교사의 인식 비교)

  • Kim, Jeong-Weon;Lee, Eun-Ju
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.31 no.2
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    • pp.74-84
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    • 2016
  • Literacy on food additives of elementary school teachers (ET) and nutrition teachers (NT) could be influential factor on safe dietary education for school children. Therefore, the perceptions and information needs on food additives were surveyed from 351 elementary school teachers and nutrition teachers in metropolitan area of Korea, and the basic data for the promotion of risk communication on food additives among them were obtained. Compared to ET who consider 'taste' (39.1%) as the most important factor while purchasing food, NT considered 'safety' (68.1%) first (p < 0.001). Among the food labelling items, the level of understanding on food additives was the lowest both in ET (3.53) and NT (4.17), and NT showed better levels of understanding overall on food labels. Both ET and NT regarded hazardous factors of food as environmental pollutants, foodborne pathogens, and food additives in order, and tended to select 'no additives' or 'no artificial color' products while purchasing processed food. Although NT answered that they know all food additives had been passed the evaluation of safety and effectiveness tests (100%) and have standards of use (81.9%), majority of them (87.5%) believed the consumption of food additives are harmful on human health. ET (75.2%) also regarded food additives as dangerous materials. Above results suggested the necessity of proper and enough risk communication for both ET and NT. Both ET and NT wanted to have information on the safety or hazard of food additives. Most preferred media to get the information on food additives was TV (3.80) among ET and lecture (3.65) among NT. ET and NT trusted hospital, research institution/universities or the personnels working in these institutions as the provider of information on food additives. The result that the trust levels of ET and NT on government were relative low suggested the weakness of risk communication in Korean government. Although ET and NT answered that they do not trust mass media, their behaviors were affected by them such as reading food labels in ET (39.4%) and reducing the consumption of food additives in NT (50%). They also indicated mass media's problem of sensitive approach on food additives and asked the urgent reaction of government by providing sound information through experts on food additives. Above results revealed that ET and NT have different perceptions and information needs on food additives, therefore, proper risk communication should be provided for them to serve as dietary educators for elementary school children.

Physicochemical Quality Characteristics of Traditional Kamju Using Extruded Rice Collet Powder (압출 쌀 콜렛 분말을 사용한 전통 감주의 제조 및 이화학적 품질 특성)

  • Je, Hae-Soo;Kang, Kyung-Hun;Park, Si-Young;Choi, Byeong-Dae;Kang, Young-Mi;Kim, Jeong-Gyun
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.48 no.2
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    • pp.147-152
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    • 2016
  • This study was conducted to investigate the physicochemical quality properties and provide basic data for the activation of traditional Kamju of juice type product prepared by mixing malt and extruded rice collet powder. Malt extracts were prepared by extracting the mixture of malt and water at a weight ratio of 25:75 after soaking for 2 h at $45^{\circ}C$. Rice collet powder was prepared by adjusting the barrel temperature to $95^{\circ}C$, screw speed to $3.07{\times}g$, discharge port diameter to 7 mm and a raw material input to 50 kg/h, the powder was then ground to a particle size of 80 mesh. The physicochemical characteristics (pH, color, viscosity, reducing sugars, number of viable cells, free amino acids) and sensory evaluations were conducted at various time points during the saccharification and at different mixing ratios of the extruded rice collet powder to malt extract (5:95, 15:85, 25:75, 35:65, each at $55^{\circ}C$ for 9 h). As a result, with an increase in the proportion of the extruded rice collet powder and saccharification time, the physicochemical properties of traditional Kamju significantly improved (p<0.05). A mixing ratio of 35:65 rice collet powder to malt extract and a saccharification time of 9 h were found to be the most desirable conditions. However, based on the sensory evaluation, a mixing ratio of rice collet powder and malt extract of 25:75 and a saccharification time of 5 h resulted in the most preferable palatability of traditional Kamju (p<0.05). Therefore, the mixing ratio and saccharification time should be determined to provide a better choice with respect to the taste and economic aspects of traditional Kamju.

Quality Characteristics of Pettitoes(Jokbal) added with Coffee Meal (커피박 첨가 돈족(豚足)의 품질특성)

  • Choi, Seok-Bong;An, Sang-Ran;Lee, Myung-Ho
    • Culinary science and hospitality research
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.115-124
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    • 2016
  • The purpose of this paper is to verify improvement of the basic quality of food resources and make the pork legs as the more advanced food products after taking special processing steps with the mixture of traditional medical herbs and hot water extracted coffee meal. The pH level of the pettitoes(Jokbal) showed the highest rate among the control group but it showed no statistical differences in the moisture content between the control and the pettitoes(Jokbal) processed with coffee waste extract as an additional component. In addition, the levels of crude fat and crude ash showed slight increases as the addition of the amount increase. In case of the proteins, however, tendency of slight was decreased but it was not significantly difference as the amount increases. The sodium rate in the pettitoes(Jokbal) was higher in the additional group than in the control group. Texture analysis showed a tendency of wide decrease in the hardness and chewiness depending on amount of the added coffee waste extract. On the other hand, as for the cohesiveness and springiness, there was no significant difference with the control group. In case of the lightness value, as the amount of added coffee waste extract is increased from 10% to 20% and 30%, the 'L' value was reduced significantly compared to that of the control. And the 'a' value was not significantly different compared to the coffee waste extract foil impregnated furniture control. But the 'b' values were significantly increased in accordance with the result of increasing the amount of control is at the lowest level. The result may come from the influence of coffee waste extract, which affects the color of the pettitoes(Jokbal). According to the sensory evaluation, the pork part with 10% of coffee waste extract showed the highest score in looking, chewiness, smell and preference, resulting in the improvement in quality of the pettitoes(Jokbal).