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Current status and prospects of molecular marker development for systematic breeding program in citrus (감귤 분자육종을 위한 분자표지 개발 현황 및 전망)

  • Kim, Ho Bang;Kim, Jae Joon;Oh, Chang Jae;Yun, Su-Hyun;Song, Kwan Jeong
    • Journal of Plant Biotechnology
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    • v.43 no.3
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    • pp.261-271
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    • 2016
  • Citrus is an economically important fruit crop widely growing worldwide. However, citrus production largely depends on natural hybrid selection and bud sport mutation. Unique botanical features including long juvenility, polyembryony, and QTL that controls major agronomic traits can hinder the development of superior variety by conventional breeding. Diverse factors including drastic changes of citrus production environment due to global warming and changes in market trends require systematic molecular breeding program for early selection of elite candidates with target traits, sustainable production of high quality fruits, cultivar diversification, and cost-effective breeding. Since the construction of the first genetic linkage map using isozymes, citrus scientists have constructed linkage maps using various DNA-based markers and developed molecular markers related to biotic and abiotic stresses, polyembryony, fruit coloration, seedlessness, male sterility, acidless, morphology, fruit quality, seed number, yield, early fruit setting traits, and QTL mapping on genetic maps. Genes closely related to CTV resistance and flesh color have been cloned. SSR markers for identifying zygotic and nucellar individuals will contribute to cost-effective breeding. The two high quality citrus reference genomes recently released are being efficiently used for genomics-based molecular breeding such as construction of reference linkage/physical maps and comparative genome mapping. In the near future, the development of DNA molecular markers tightly linked to various agronomic traits and the cloning of useful and/or variant genes will be accelerated through comparative genome analysis using citrus core collection and genome-wide approaches such as genotyping-by-sequencing and genome wide association study.

Reduction in bitter taste and quality characteristics in pickled bitter melon (Momordica charantia L.) by different pretreatment conditions (전처리 조건에 따른 여주(Momordica charantia L.) 초절임의 쓴맛 감소와 품질평가)

  • Park, HyoSun;Moon, BoKyung;Kim, Suna
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.48 no.5
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    • pp.466-473
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    • 2016
  • This study was performed to investigate the reduction in bitter taste and quality characteristics by pretreatments (brining; 1, 5% and blanching; 1, 3 min) in pickled bitter melon, respectively. We prepared picked bitter melon samples at 1%-1 min, 1%-3 min, 5%-1 min, 5%-3 min. Total polyphenol and total flavonoid contents were found to be the highest in 5%-1 min at $14.23{\pm}0.40mg\;CE/g$ (dry) and $4.46{\pm}0.10mg\;RE/g$ (dry), respectively. L-ascorbic acid level was the highest in control samples. Arginine and glutamic acid were increased by brining and blanching. ABTS and DPPH radical scavenging activity were found to be the highest at $43.60{\pm}0.40$ and $44.88{\pm}0.20%$ at 5%-1 min, respectively. ${\alpha}-glucosidase$ inhibitory activity was the highest at 5%-1 min. The a value was statistically different, whereas L and b values were similar among different pretreatments. Hardness in pretreated samples was decreased as compared to that in the control. Among sensory evaluations, 'color' did not indicate any statistical difference, while 'texture', 'bitterness preference' and 'overall preference' increased with pretreatments, and 'bitter intensity' decreased.

Microbiological and Physicochemical Quality Characteristics of Raw Noodle with Natural Food Preservatives (복합항균제제를 첨가한 생면의 미생물학적 및 이화학적 품질 특성)

  • Hyun, Jeong-Eun;Hwang, Jin-Ha;Choi, Yun-Sun;Han, Areum;Yoon, Jae-Hyun;Bae, Young-Min;Lee, Ho;Kim, Chul;Lee, Myunggu;Shim, Myeungkuk;Im, Kyung-Hyun;Lee, Sun-Young
    • Journal of the East Asian Society of Dietary Life
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    • v.26 no.5
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    • pp.435-444
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    • 2016
  • This study was conducted to investigate the effects of natural preservatives (G3, G3-1, F3, and F3-1) using Cordyceps militaris on improvement of food quality and safety of noodle during storage. Wheat flour noodle were prepared using three different concentrations of natural preservatives (0.100, 0.200, and 0.400%). Changes in microbial populations, pH value, titratable acidity, and sensory evaluation were measured during storage at $12{\pm}2^{\circ}C$ for 3 days. Overall, use of natural preservatives resulted in lower levels of total mesophilic bacteria, coliform, yeast and mold in noodle compared to the control. In particular, natural preservatives using $2{\times}$ MIC concentrations (0.400%) of F3 and F3-1 were effective at maintaining levels of total mesophilic bacteria for noodle during storage. The pH values of noodle made with F3 and F3-1 were higher than the others. The titratable acidity of noodle with natural preservatives did not significantly change during storage. In sensory evaluation, appearance, color, and overall acceptability of noodle with F3 and F3-1 were preferred than the control. These results could provide useful information for developing an alternative preservation method to improve food quality and shelf-life of noodle using natural preservatives.

Quality and shelf life of sliced root of Platycodon grandiflorum treated by ozon-microbubble-heat shock (오존-마이크로버블-열수 처리한 세절 도라지의 품질 및 저장성)

  • Park, Kyung Min;Lee, Ji Young;Min, So-Ra;Jeong, Moon-Cheol;Koo, Minseon
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.23 no.5
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    • pp.605-613
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    • 2016
  • The quality and shelf life of sliced root of Platycodon grandiflorum (Doraji) treated by ozon-microbubble-heat shock (OMH) were investigated by combining modified-atmosphere packaging [MAP, ($50%O_2+15%CO_2+35%N_2$)]. The study was based on microbiological (total viable bacteria, fungi, Enterobacteriaceae and coliforms numbers), physicochemical and sensory changes. OMH treatment was effective in reducing microbial populations of the sliced Doraji, especially Enterobacteriaceae and coliforms reduced by 2 log CFU/g. However OMH-MAP treatment remained the aerobe and fungi numbers. Regarding the color, OMH-MAP delayed the change of Hunter $b^*$ and the sliced Doraji by OMH-MAP treatment exhibited lower decrease of flavor and overall acceptability compared to those by polypropylene packaging after tap water treatment (Control). The OMH and $50%O_2+15%CO_2$ MAP treatment gave better sensory quality and extended shelf-life for sliced Doraji (~3 days longer shelf-life than Control). Flavor was significantly related to overall acceptability at both Control and OMH-MAP, whereas total coliforms prevalence was associated with overall acceptability at only OMH-MAP. Therefore microbubble-heat shock treatment may improve microbial safety and sliced Doraji by OMH treatment can stored under $50%O_2+15%CO_2$ treatment for up to 7 days. Thus, OMH and MAP treatment may be used in maintaining the storage quality and marketability of sliced Doraji.

Effects of Addition of Gelatinized Wheat Flour Dough on Pan Bread (호화밀가루반죽의 첨가가 식빵 특성에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Won-Mo;Kim, Kee-Hyuk;Lee, Gyu-Hee
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.45 no.10
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    • pp.1467-1475
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    • 2016
  • To make soft and less stale bread, various amounts of gelatinized wheat flour dough were added for making pan bread. In the dough process, higher gelatinized wheat flour dough showed higher consistency and dough development time but a lower dough stability time. Expansion during fermentation represented the highest value upon addition of 10% gelatinized wheat flour dough (GWFD), and this value decreased with increasing amount of gelatinized wheat flour dough. Volume of bread was the highest in the control and lowest in 30% GWFD, and there was no difference between 10% GWFD and 20% GWFD. Moisture contents of bread made with various amounts of gelatinized wheat flour dough increased with increasing gelatinized wheat flour dough amount. Color values of bread made with various gelatinized wheat flour dough were not significantly different. Chewiness, brittleness, and hardness of bread made with control and 10% GWFD showed low values, whereas bread made with 20% GWFD and 30% GWFD showed high values. During storage, chewiness, brittleness, and hardness increased with increasing storage period in whole breads, whereas breads made with 10% GWFD showed the lowest increasing rate. In the sensory strength test, chewy texture increased upon addition of gelatinized wheat flour dough. In the consumer acceptance test, 10% GWFD showed the most overall acceptance. In conclusion, bread made with 10% gelatinized wheat flour dough is desirable for increasing softness and decreasing bread staling.

Quality Evaluation of Spent Hen and Broiler with Pulsed Electric Field and Super Heated Steam Treatment (펄스자기장 및 과열증기 처리를 통한 노계육과 육계의 품질 평가)

  • Jeon, Ki-Hong;Hwang, Yoon-Seon;Kim, Young-Boong;Choi, Yun-Sang;Kim, Eun-Mi;Lee, Dong-Un;Choi, Jinyoung
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.29 no.5
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    • pp.753-759
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    • 2016
  • The processing properties of spent hen and broiler chicken were investigated before and after treatment to improve texture characteristics. Each treatment consisted steaming (S) with $85^{\circ}C$ for 20 min, Pulsed Electric Field (PEF) with 1.5 KV/cm for 4 sec, and Super Heated Steam (SH) with an oven temp. of $300^{\circ}C$, a steam temp. of $350^{\circ}C$ for 8 min. The yield of spent hen and broiler were 66.85% and 63.80% respectively in the control, but decreased in every treatment was lowest at 61.05% in the PEF treatment (p<0.05). In the color test, L value decreased, but the a and b values increased regardless of the species of spent hen or broiler. In the test of heating loss, the S treatment of spent hen had the highest result of 45.25% but lowest of 30.66% in the SH treatment of the broiler. When it was compared with various treatments, SH after PEF treatment showed the better result in terms of heating loss than the PEF or SH treatment respectively. In the test of texture, the broiler showed the lowest hardness of 5.57 kg in the SH (p<0.05). Otherwise, the spent hen resulted in 14.08 kg of hardness in steaming after PEF, but it improved significantly to 10.73 kg in SH after PEF. In the test of 9 scored sensory evaluation of overall palatability, 7.8 point was the best score with SH treatment in the broiler. The best score in spent hen was 6.3 point which was SH after PEF treatment. With this experiment, SH after PEF was the condition in the treatments to have the better texture of spent hen.

Comparison of the Hydration, Gelatinization and Saccharification Properties of Processing Type Rice for Beverage Development (음료 개발을 위한 가공용 쌀의 수화, 호화 및 당화특성 비교)

  • Shin, Dong-Sun;Choi, Ye-Ji;Sim, Eun-Yeong;Oh, Sea-Kwan;Kim, Si-Ju;Lee, Seuk Ki;Woo, Koan Sik;Kim, Hyun-Joo;Park, Hye-Young
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.29 no.5
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    • pp.618-627
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    • 2016
  • This study evaluated the hydration, gelatinization, and saccharification properties of rice processing for beverage development. The properties of rice were studied on 10 rice cultivars (Samkwang, Ilpum, Seolgaeng, Anda, Dasan-1, Goami-4, Danmi, American rice, Chinese rice, and Thai rice) and employing four kinds of pre-treatment methods (dry grain, wet grain, dry flour, and wet flour). The results showed that moisture content of rice was between 11.88~15.26%. Increase in soaking time along with highest water absorption was noted in American rice cultivar (46.81%). The water binding capacity of Thai rice was higher when compared to that of other rice flours. In addition, solubility and swelling power of rice were 4.52~26.65% and 0.19~2.05%, respectively. The amylose content of Goami-4 was higher in rice processing. Using a rapid visco analyzer (RVA), the initial pasting temperature of Danmi cultivar was found to be the highest; the peak viscosities of Anda cultivar and Dasan-1 cultivar, and Chinese rice were higher than of those of other rice flours. After saccharification, the pH, soluble solids content, and reducing sugar content of rice processed through different pre-treatment methods were in the range of 6.22~7.08, $4.67{\sim}16.07^{\circ}Brix$, and 0.35~11.67% (w/w), respectively. In terms of color values, the L-value of dry grain, a-value of wet (grain, flour), and b-value of dry sample (grain, flour) were found to be the highest. Assessment of various factors and cultivars characteristics of the raw grains are of importance in the development of rice beverage.

Characteristics and breeding of a new cultivar of Pleurotus ostreatus that is tolerant to envirochanges (느타리 신품종 불량환경내성 '고솔'의 육성 및 자실체 특성)

  • Shin, Pyung-Gyun;Oh, Min-Ji;Kim, Eun-Sun;Oh, Youn-Lee;Jang, Kab-Yeul;Kong, Won-Sik;Yoo, Young-Bok
    • Journal of Mushroom
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.59-63
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    • 2016
  • A new commercial strain of oyster mushroom (was developed by hyphal anastomosis, and was improved byhybridization between a monokaryotic strain derived from Pleurotus ostreatus ASI 0635 (Gonji 7ho) and a dikaryotic strain derived from P. ostreatus ASI 0666 (Mongdol). The optimum temperatures for mycelial growth and fruiting body development were $25{\sim}30^{\circ}C$ and $12{\sim}18^{\circ}C$, respectively. When PDA (potato dextrose agar medium) and MCM (mushroom complete medium) were compared, mycelial growth was faster in MCM. Similar results were observed with the control strain P. ostreatus ASI 2504 (Suhan 1ho). Analysis of the genetic characteristics of the new cultivar ('Gosol') showed a different DNA profile from that of the control ASI 2504 strain, when RAPD (raurpDNA) primers URP1, 2, 3, and 7 were used. Fruiting body production per bottle was approximately116 g based on a production performance test. In addition, yields from a farm field trial were stably achieved in an inadequate production enviro. The color of the pileus was blackish gray, and the stipe was long and thick. Therefore, we expect that this new strain will satisfy consumer demand for high quality mushrooms.

A Study on Subcontract Animation in Korea during the Industrialization Era - Centered around Animations in 1970-80s - (산업화시대 한국 하청애니메이션에 대한 연구 - 1970-80년대 애니메이션을 중심으로 -)

  • Kim, Jong-Ok
    • Cartoon and Animation Studies
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    • pp.47-75
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    • 2016
  • This study has analyzed the history of the subcontract animation in Korea that began with Golden Bat of TBC Animation Division in 1966 to 1980s and shed the light on the history of subcontract animation that has been processed over 30 years in Korean animation. For this purpose, through the outlined status of subcontract animation, such as, production company, production status, scale of industry and so forth, the status of the OEM industry then has been checked and it links the solidified background of animation into subcontract production industry with the situation in time for analysis. In addition, on the basis of the foregoing, it is intended to broaden the horizon of the history of animation through the analysis on new search for facilitating the creative animation by overcoming the issues and limits generated by the subcontract animation industry. 1970s was the time that the national objective is to advance heavy-chemical industry and export-led economic growth. From the late 1970s, the animation has been spot lighted as the main-stream export industry through the overseas subcontract orders for animation. Expansion of the subcontract animation production has been influenced from the national policies on public culture, dispersion of color TV, facilitation of video production market and other media changes of the time that led the decline of animation audiences in theaters, and another cause would be in lack of platform of broadcasting companies that avoided the independent animation production for its economic theory. The subcontract animation industry may have the positive evaluation in the aspect of expanding the animation environment, such as, structuring of animation infra, development of new human resources and etc. However, the technology-incentive 'production'-oriented advancement has created distorted structure in advancing the professional human resources due to the absence of 'pre-production' of planning and others as well as the insufficient perception on 'post production (post work)', and it was unable to formulate domestic market by re-investing the capital accumulated for OEM industry into the production of creative animation and it has been assessed as negative aspect. Animation is a cultural and spiritual product of a country. Therefore, the systematic support policy for the facilitation of the creative animation, such as, development of professional human resources, creation of outstanding work, formation of market to make the pre-circulation structure and so forth has to be sought. However, animation is an industry, but there is no perception that it is a cultural industry based on the creativeness, not hardware-oriented manufacturing business. Such a lack of recognition, there was no policies to make the market and facilitate the creative animation by the animation of Korea for this period through the long-term plan and investment for independent work production. Such an attempt is newly begun through diverse searches for protection and advancement of creative animation in Korea after 1990s.

Effect of Cooking Methods with Various Heating Apparatus on the Quality Characteristics of Chicken (가열기구에 따른 조리방법이 닭고기의 품질특성에 미치는 영향)

  • Jeon, Ki-Hong;Kwon, Ki-Hyun;Kim, Eun-Mi;Kim, Young-Boong;Sohn, Dong-In;Choi, Jin-Young
    • Culinary science and hospitality research
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.201-213
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    • 2014
  • This study showed the quality characteristics of chicken breast meat(CB) and leg meat(CL) with various kinds of existing cooking methods and double layer pan filled with Phase Change Materials(PCM) heating. Steaming resulted the highest moisture contents of 63.9% and 62.1% each in CB and CL. Also, steaming showed the lowest with 1.3% and 8.6% of crude fat in CB and CL(p<0.05) respectively. Crude protein content of CB in charcoal heating and grilling of CL had the highest values of 37.9% and 30.5% each. In the test of crude ash, grilling showed the highest with 2.4% in CB(p<0.05) and oven heating and charcoal heating was the highest with 1.3% in CL(p<0.05). In the test of cooking loss, charcoal heating showed much higher with 33.52% and 41.16% in CB and CL each than the other cooking treatments. And in case of shear force test, $5.93kg/cm^2$ in CB and $6.80kg/cm^2$ in CL were the highest scores in grilling. In the test of color, L value of CB prepared by steaming showed the highest scores of 78.31(p<0.05) while CL by oven heating was the highest of 10.00 in a value. In the overall acceptability test of 9 point-scale sensory evaluation, CB prepared by charcoal heating showed the highest score of 7.25 points in boiling, but the lowest score of 6.00 points in steaming(p<0.05). CL by charcoal heating resulted the highest score of 7.71 points but had no significant difference.