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Physicochemical properties of powdered, soft and hard type rice flour by different milling methods (제분방법에 따른 분질, 연질 및 경질미 가루의 이화학적 특성)

  • Choi, Ok Ja;Jung, Hee Nam;Shim, Ki Hoon
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.174-181
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    • 2015
  • This study investigated the physicochemical properties of three different types of rice flour prepared via dry and wet milling. The powder, soft, and hard-types of rice flour were Suwon No. 542, Suwon No. 541, and Unbong No. 30, respectively. The analysis of the proximate compositions of the different types of rice flour showed that their moisture content was 7.03~7.99%, their crude protein was 7.94~8.35%, their crude lipid was 0.71~1.49% and their crude ash was 0.25~0.82%. For the Hunter's color values, the L value was highest in the wet-milled rice flour, the a value was highest in the dry-milled rice flour, and the b value was highest in the dry-milled rice flour. All the samples showed distinctive rice starch particles in the particle analysis using scanning electron microscope. The dry-milled rice flour showed the greatest amount of irregular particles and the coarsest texture. The water absorption and water solubility indices were higher in the wet-milled soft- and hard-type rice flour. The crystallinities of the samples by X-ray diffractography were all A-type, but the crystallinity of the dry-milled hard-type rice flour was higher in diffraction degree. For the amylogram properties, the wet-milled soft-type rice flour showed the highest maximum viscosity, breakdown and setback. In the meanwhile, the dry-milled soft-type rice flour showed the highest initial pasting temperature, onset, peak, and end temperatures despite of the reverse enthalpy.

Physicochemical properties and microencapsulation process of rice fermented with Bacillus subtilis CBD2 (Bacillus Subtilis CBD2로 배양된 백미 발효물의 미세캡슐 제조 및 물리화학적 특성)

  • Lee, Dae-Hoon;Park, Hye-Mi;Hong, Joo-Heon
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.225-231
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    • 2015
  • This study was conducted to examine the physicochemical properties and micro-encapsulation process of rice fermented with Bacillus subtilis CBD2. The viable bacterial cell, pH, and amylase activity of the rice liquid culture were 7.61 log CFU/mL, pH 5.08 and 159.43 units/mL, respectively. The micro-encapsulated rice liquid culture was manufactured via spray drying with different forming agents: i.e., alginic acid 1.0% and chitosan 0.3%, 0.5%, and 1.0%. The moisture contents of the spray-dried powders were approximately 2.90~3.68%. The color of the L and a value decreased whereas that of the b and ${\Delta}E$ value increased. The particle size and outer topology of the spray-dried rice liquid culture were $48.13{\sim}68.48{\mu}m$ and globular, respectively. The water absorption index of the spray-dried powder (2.40~2.65) was lower than that of the freeze-dried powder (2.66). The water solubility index of the spray-dried powder (9.17~10.89%) was higher than that of the freeze-dried powder (7.12%). The in vitro dissolution was measured for five hours in pH 1.2 simulated gastric fluid, and pH 6.8 and pH 7.4 simulated intestinal fluids, using a dissolution tester at $37^{\circ}C$ with 50 rpm agitation. The amylase survival in the fermented rice was 85.93% through the spray-drying and it was very effectively controlled.

Quality Characteristics of Coffee Brewed from Green Beans Soaked in Mulberry (Morus bombycis) Extract (오디(Morus bombycis) 추출물 침지 커피의 품질 특성)

  • Lim, Hyun Hwa;Ji, Seokgeun;Kwak, Han Sub;Eom, Taekil;Kim, Misook;Lee, Youngseung;Do, Jae Wook;Yu, Sungryul;Choi, Geun Pyo;Jeong, Jin Il;Jeong, Yoonhwa
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.44 no.4
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    • pp.579-585
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    • 2015
  • The objective of this study was to investigate the quality characteristics of coffee soaked in Morus bombycis extract. Green coffee beans were soaked in M. bombycis extract for 2, 4, and 6 hours (sample codes: 2H, 4H, and 6H) at $4^{\circ}C$. Soaked green beans were dried and roasted for coffee extraction. Two controls, roasted with the same amount of heat (C1) and showed the same weight after roasting (C2), were used. Physicochemical characteristics (pH, total acidity, color, browning index, and total soluble solids), DPPH free radical scavenging activity (DPPH), ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), total polyphenol content (TPC), and total flavonoid content (TFC) were investigated. Lower pH and higher total acidity were observed in 2H, 4H, and 6H (P<0.05), supporting evidence of sour taste. There were significant differences in DPPH between the controls (45.51~47.02%) and samples (50.67~55.25%, P<0.05), although 2H and 6H did not show significantly higher DPPH than the controls. 2H, 4H, and 6H showed significantly higher FRAP values ($0.320{\sim}0.331\;FeSO_4{\cdot}7H_2O\;mM\;FeSO_4/g$) than controls ($0.265{\sim}0.271\;mM\;FeSO_4/g$). ORAC values of samples [1,062.86~1,153.68 mM trolox equivalent (TE)/g] were significantly higher than those of controls (689.40~942.12 mM TE/g). 2H, 4H, and 6H showed significantly higher TPC [24.27~26.07 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g] and TFC [3.75~4.28 mg quercetin equivalent (QE)/g] than controls (19.79~22.77 mg GAE/g and 1.07~1.95 mg QE/g, respectively) (P<0.05). M. bombycis extracts soaked into green coffee beans showed polyphenol compounds from green coffee beans. Consumer acceptance of 4H (5.12) was the highest, followed by C2 (4.92). C1 (4.14) showed the lowest consumer acceptance. Consumers were segmented into two groups, those who preferred M. bombycis extract-soaked coffee (approximately 61%) and controls (approximately 39%).

Quality characteristics of fermented vinegars using pear (배를 이용한 발효식초의 품질특성)

  • Park, Yeon-Ok
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.23 no.6
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    • pp.778-787
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    • 2016
  • Fermented vinegars using pear was compared according to the appled side materials. Quality characteristics of three kinds of the fermented vinegars (pear vinegar, PV; pear black rice vinegar, PBV; pear mint vinegar, PMV) were investigated, which includes pH, total acidity, colors, the contents of sugar, amino acids, total polyphenol, and total flavonoid, ${\alpha}^{\prime}{\alpha}-diphenyl-{\beta}-pycrylhydrazyl$ (DPPH) radical scavenging ability, and sensory evaluation. Brown rice vinegar (BRV) was used as a control. The pH and total acidity of the fermented pear vinegars were significantly different showing the range of 3.17~3.43 and 4.01~5.05%, respectively (p<0.05). The sugar contents of PV and PMV were significantly higher than other vinegars (p<0.05). L, a, and b values were the highest in PV, PBV, and PMV, respectively. Among the four vinegars, the essential amino acids were the highest in PV with the order of lysine, isoleucine, valine, and threonine. Besides, the fermented pear vinegars have many non-essential amino acids such as glutamic acid and aspartic acid. The aspartic acid content was the highest in PV while glutamic acid content was the highest in BRV. The total polyphenol content was the highest in PV while total flavonoid content was the highest in PBV. The DPPH radical scavenging ability (%) was the highest in PV. In sensory evaluation, PBV showed the highest color, taste and overall preference scores. These results show that pear would be desirable to prepare high-quality vinegars and functional foods.

Quality Characteristics and Consumer Acceptability of Brownies with Rice Bran Dietary Fiber (현미 식이섬유를 대체한 브라우니의 품질 및 관능적 특성)

  • Yeom, Kyung Hun;Kim, Ji Hyun;Lee, Jee Hyun;Bae, In Hyu;Chun, Soon Sil
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.45 no.12
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    • pp.1823-1829
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    • 2016
  • This study investigated the optimal percentage of brownies substituted with rice bran dietary fiber (3%, 6%, 9%, and 12%). The sample and control were compared for quality characteristics, specific gravity, viscosity, pH, moisture content, water activity, specific volume, color, textural characteristic, consumer acceptance, and CATA (check-all-that-apply). The specific gravity of the control sample was not significantly different among the samples. The viscosity was highest at the brownie containing 12% of rice bran dietary fiber. Moisture content and water activity were highest in the 6% sample. pH of control sample batter was highest, but reduced with increasing amounts of rice bran dietary fiber. For colors, lightness of the 6% sample batter was highest at 25.31, and redness and yellowness significantly increased with increasing amounts of rice bran dietary fiber. For textural characteristics, hardness, and chewiness significantly increased with increasing amounts of rice bran dietary fiber. Cohesiveness and resilience were not significantly different between samples. In the sensory evaluation, overall acceptability was highest in the control group and lowest for the 12% sample. In the frequency analysis of the CATA, as rice bran dietary fiber was added, the amount of bran flavor, oliy, and unpleasant increased while frequency of bitterness, sweetness, and chocolate taste decreased. In the principal component analysis, characteristics of unpleasant, oily, soybean flavor, and sweetness were strongly detected in the 12% sample. The control sample showed strong sweetness and bitterness. The results indicate that 3% to 6% rice bran dietary fiber is appropriate for production of brownies.

Effects of Pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Duch.) Leaf Powder on Quality Characteristics, Antioxidant Activities, and Retarding Retrogradation by Shelf-Life of Sulgidduck (Rice Cake) (호박잎 분말을 첨가한 설기떡의 품질 특성, 항산화 활성 및 저장 기간에 따른 노화 억제 효과)

  • Song, Ka-Young;O, Hyeonbin;Zhang, Yangyang;Joung, Ki Youeng;Kim, Young-Soon
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.45 no.12
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    • pp.1792-1798
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    • 2016
  • This study investigated quality characteristics, antioxidant activities, and retarding retrogradation of Sulgidduck, traditional rice cake of Korea, prepared using rice flour added with 0%, 1%, 2%, 3%, and 4% pumpkin leaf powder. Moisture content of pumpkin leaf Sulgidduck showed a tendency to increase in the 1% and 2% added group but decrease in the 3% and 4% added group. pH level significantly increased (4.50~6.16) with an increase in content of pumpkin leaf powder (P<0.05). For color, as content of pumpkin leaf powder increased, L-value decreased and b-value increased. Hardness tended to increase with addition of pumpkin leaf powder except for the 1% added group. Springiness was not significantly different (P<0.05). Chewiness and adhesiveness increased according to addition level increase. Retarding retrogradation showed that the pumpkin leaf powder added group had a stronger effect compared to the control, whereas the 2% added group presented the most retarding retrogradation effect with the lowest Avrami exponent. Total phenols content and ABTS radical scavenging activity tended to increase as content of pumpkin leaf powder increased. Sensory properties by 7-point scale test showed that the 2% added group had the highest scores, whereas the 4% added group had the lowest scores. These results suggest that pumpkin leaf is considered as a good material to improve quality characteristics, antioxidant activities, and retarding retrogradation of Sulgidduck. The most appropriate proportion for the greatest effect of retarding retrogradation in Sulgidduck was considered to be 2%.

Quality Characteristics of Gat Kimchi Added with Cheonnyuncho Water Extract during Cold Storage (천년초 물 추출물을 이용한 갓김치의 저온저장 중 품질 특성)

  • Jung, Bok-Mi;Han, Kyung-Ah
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.45 no.12
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    • pp.1808-1815
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    • 2016
  • In this study, quality characteristics of three different kinds of Gat Kimchi, added with Cheonnyuncho fruit (C-fruit) water extract, Cheonnyuncho cladodes (C-cladodes) water extract, and without Cheonnyuncho water extract (control group), were investigated during storage for 80 days at $5{\pm}1^{\circ}C$. In terms of mineral content of Gat Kimchi, C-fruit group showed higher calcium and zinc contents than the control group, whereas Cheonnyuncho groups showed higher iron content, and C-cladodes showed higher potassium content than the control group. The pH was mostly higher in Cheonnyuncho groups than in the control group until 40 days of storage, whereas the pH of the C-cladodes group significantly decreased after 60 days. On the other hand, titratable acidity showed the reverse tendency during storage. Hunter's color L, a, and b values all increased during the storage period. The hardness value was significantly higher in Cheonnyuncho groups than in the control group after 40 days of storage, and hardness value of the C-fruit group was significantly higher than those of the other groups after 80 days of storage. In terms of sensory evaluation, there was no significant difference between the control group and Cheonnyuncho group during fermentation. As a result, the study suggests that addition of C-fruit extracts increase nutrition and function of Gat Kimchi during storage.

Changes in the Physicochemical and Antioxidant Characteristics during the Fermentation of Jujube Wine Using Hot Water Extract of Dried Jujube (건대추 열수추출물을 이용한 대추와인 발효중의 이화학 및 항산화적 특성 변화)

  • Eom, In-Ju;Choi, Jung-In;Kim, In-Ho;Kim, Tae-Hoon;Kim, Seong-Ho
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.26 no.11
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    • pp.1298-1307
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    • 2016
  • In the study, we investigated the optimum fermentation conditions as well as changes of physicochemical and antioxidant characteristics during the fermentation of jujube wine. The physicochemical characteristics of the jujube hot water extracts used in this study were a pH of 5.05, 0.01% acidity, and $6.5^{\circ}Brix$ concentration. For jujube wine fermentation, the optimal fermentation strain was selected among the isolated strains and the final chosen strain was identified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, based on the 26S rRNA gene sequencing and similarity searching in GenBank DB. The jujube wine fermented with an initial $15^{\circ}Brix$ concentration of jujube extracts showed a maximum alcohol content of 13% and lower residual sugar concentration. Alcohol content during the jujube wine fermentation was increased after 3 days of fermentation, and no significantly difference after 6 days was found. The residual sugar concentration during the fermentation periods was significantly decreased with increasing alcohol content. The jujube wine properties at 12 days of fermentation were as follows: a pH of 4.34, acidity of 0.29%, alcohol content of 12.8%, and a residual sugar concentration of $8.70^{\circ}Brix$. The malic acid content in the organic acid of fermented jujube wine was significantly decreased during the fermentation proceeding, whereas the succinic acid and lactic acid contents were significantly increased. Antioxidant characteristics of the fermented jujube wine were appeared ABTS radical scavenging activity 45.80%, DPPH radical scavenging activity 61.89%, nitrite scavenging activity 91.95% and total polyphenol compound 3.69 mg/ml. In terms of consumer liking of the jujube wine by sensory evaluation, the color and overall acceptability of jujube wine were evaluated as more than average.

Breeding of the Scab-Resistant Pear Cultivar 'Greensis' (배 검은별무늬병 저항성 품종 '그린시스' 육성)

  • Kim, Yoon-Kyeong;Kang, Sam-Seok;Won, Kyung-Ho;Shin, Il-Sheob;Cho, Kwang-Sik;Ma, Kyeong-Bok;Kim, Myung-Su;Choi, Jang-Jeon;Choi, Jin-Ho
    • Horticultural Science & Technology
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    • v.34 no.4
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    • pp.655-661
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    • 2016
  • To develop scab-resistant pear (Pyrus spp.) varieties with fruits that are as crisp and juicy as Asian pears, a cross was made between 'Whangkeumbae' and 'Bartlett' varieties (P. pyrifolia ${\times}$ P. communis) at the Pear Research Institute of the National Institute of Horticultural & Herbal Science, Rural Development Administration, in 1994. Among the 285 seedlings, 'Greensis' was first selected in 2006 for its good eating quality and named in 2012 after regional adaptation tests in nine regions and ten experimental plots from 2007 to 2012. The tree showed a vigorous growth habit and semi-spreading characteristics, like 'Whangkeumbae'. The optimum fruit harvest date was also around Sept. 26 and fruit was round in shape and green in skin color at maturity. Average fruit weight was 470g, and the soluble solids content was $12.4^{\circ}Brix$. The flesh was very crisp and juicy, and had good eating quality. Its' leaf size was similar with 'Bartlett' and smaller than 'Whangkeumbae'. The average of full bloom date of 'Greensis' was determined as Apr. 26, which was six days later than 'Whangkeumbae' and similar with 'Bartlett'. S genotypes of 'Greensis' were identified as $S_4S_e$ by S-allele PCR product sequencing analysis. It seems that the $S_4$ allele was inherited from 'Whangkeumbae' and the Se allele from 'Bartlett'. 'Greensis' displayed strong resistance to scab disease caused by Venturia nashicola, similar to European pear cultivars like 'Beurre Hardy' and, 'Conference'. 'Greensis' was also highly resistant to black leaf spot (Alternaria kikuchiana) in the field

Quality characteristics of domestic dried persimmon and imported dried persimmon (국내산과 수입산 시판 곶감의 품질특성)

  • Hur, Sang-Sun;Kang, Bok-Hee;Lee, Dong-Sun;Lee, Sang-Han;Lee, Jin-Man
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.140-145
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    • 2014
  • The physicochemical quality characteristics of the domestic and imported commercial dried persimmons were investigated. The moisture content of dried persimmon was approximately 22.78~61.64%, while the moisture contents of the Chinese dried persimmon were 22.78 and 28.20%, respectively, and were lower than the domestic dried persimmon. The pH of the Chinese dried persimmon was 5.09~5.99, while the pH of the Haman dried persimmon has the highest value (pH 5.99). The Brix was approximately $25.07{\sim}42.93^{\circ}Brix$ and weight of dried persimmons were 29.77~77.95 g, while the weight of Yeongdong dried persimmon has the lowest (29.77 g), and the weight of the Sancheong dried persimmon has the highest value. The L values were 18.27~66.20. The a values were -1.26~10.70 and a value of the Sancheong dried persimmon was 10.70, which was the highest. The b values were 2.81~25.25, wherein the b value of the Cheongdo semi-dried persimmon and Sancheong dried persimmon were25.25 and 21.98, respectively, and were higher than others. The appearance score of the sensory characteristics were the highest in Cheongdo semi-dried persimmon, while the appearance score of Wanju black persimmon was 1.39, which was the lowest. The overall acceptability of the Chinese dred persimmons (No.2) was the highest, while that of the Yeongdong, Hadong and Sangju dried persimmons have higher values than the other dried persimmons. The sulfur dioxide content of the 9 kinds of commercial dried persimmon was lower than 10 mg/kg, but not detected.