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Physicochemical Characteristics and Antioxidant activities of Sikhye Made with Pigmented Rice (유색미로 제조한 식혜의 이화학적 특성 및 항산화 활성에 관한 연구)

  • Yang, Ji-won;Kim, Young Eon;Lee, Kyung Hee
    • Journal of the East Asian Society of Dietary Life
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    • v.25 no.5
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    • pp.830-841
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    • 2015
  • This study compared the physicochemical characteristics, proximate composition, taste compound and antioxidant properties of Sikhye prepared with pigmented rice. Proximate composition showed a significant difference depending on the type of pigmented rice except crude fat contents and pH, color was a significant difference depending on the type of pigmented rice. The highest brix degree was $15.07^{\circ}Brix$ in red and black rice Sikhye. Each highest value of reducing sugar and free sugar content showed milled rice and brown rice Sikhye. Titratable acidity and total acidity of the pigmented rice Sikhye were highest for black rice Sikhye, free sugar content were highest for green rice Sikhye. Analysis of their relative antioxidative properties indicated that black rice Sikhye had the highest total polyphenol, flavonoid, and anthocyanin content, the highest levels of DPPH radical scavenging ability, and the highest level of reducing power and ferric reducing ability of plasma scores. Principal component analysis suggested that black rice Sikhye had a strong association with antioxidant properties, brown and red rice Sikhye had the strongest association with the sweetness and unique flavor.

Quality Characteristics of Factory-Style and Handmade-Style Ssamjang (공장 및 수공업 생산 쌈장의 품질 특성)

  • Kim, Seok Young;Park, Bo Ram;Yoo, Seon Mi
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.45 no.1
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    • pp.100-108
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    • 2016
  • This study investigated the quality characteristics of factory-style ssamjang (FSS) and commercial handmade-style ssamjang (HSS) products. Moisture, crude protein, and crude fat contents were significantly higher in the HSS groups (49.37~62.12%, 9.39~13.46%, and 4.40~8.35%) than the FSS groups (41.94~45.83%, 7.50~9.09%, and 1.81~3.36%). Salt content was higher in the HSS groups (6.33~11.18%) than the FSS groups (6.10~7.57%). Moreover, the average salt content (7.51%) of the HSS groups and the FSS groups was lower than that of commercial ssamjang (8.73%). Hunter's color value was also significantly higher in the FSS groups. However, free sugar, organic acid, and free amino acids contents varied greatly between the FSS groups and the HSS groups, which was likely due to the different manufacturing method, ripening degree of doenjang and the main material used for ssamjang.

Quality Characteristics and Antioxidant Activity of Doenjang Made from Lipoxygenase-Free Genotypes Soybeans (Lipoxygenase 결핍콩으로 제조한 된장의 품질 특성 및 항산화 활성)

  • Lee, Soo-Jung;Kim, In-Sung;Hu, Wen-Si;Ha, Eun-Seon;Chung, Jong-Il;Sung, Nak-Ju
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.45 no.1
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    • pp.35-43
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    • 2016
  • To evaluate processing suitability of lipoxygenase (LOX)-free genotype soybeans (Jinyang, 05C4 and LS), quality characteristics and antioxidant activities of their Doenjang products were compared to those of Doenjang made from Taekwang soybean (LOX-present) as the control. Moisture and crude protein contents of Doenjang were significantly higher in LS than the control. Crude lipid content was not significantly different and was in the range of 7.92~8.22% in all samples. Carbohydrate content was significantly lower in LS than Taekwang. Content of reducing sugar in Doenjang was significantly higher in Jinyang than Taekwang. Contents of amino-type nitrogen were significantly higher in LOX-free cultivars than Taekwang. Colors of 05C4 and LS Doenjang were not different compared to that of Taekwang, whereas Jinyang Doenjang showed a noticeable color difference. Taekwang Doenjang had a slightly stronger savory taste than another sample. LOX-free cultivars had a strong salty taste. Flavor was the strongest in LS, whereas overall acceptability showed little difference among all samples. The total amino acid content was slightly higher in Jinyang and 05C4 than Taekwang, and content of essential amino acids was higher in Doenjang from LOX-free cultivars than Taekwang. Isoflavon content was significantly higher in Doenjang ($522.16{\sim}684.46{\mu}g/g$) made from LOX-free cultivars than in Taekwang ($374.79{\mu}g/g$). Total phenol content was significantly higher in 05C4 and LS, and flavonoid content was significantly higher in LS than Taekwang. Antioxidant activities were highest in Jinyang based on DPPH radical scavenging and reducing power. ABTS radical scavenging activity was significantly higher in Doenjang made from LOX-free cultivars than Taekwang. These results suggest that Doenjang from LOX-free cultivars could have a suitable genotype for Doenjang processing since it is more effective in terms of amino acids, isoflavone contents, and antioxidant activity.

Characterization of a new commercial strain 'Mongdol' by intra-specific hyphal anastomosis in Pleurotus ostreatus (계통간 교잡에 의한 느타리 신품종 '몽돌'의 육성 및 그 특성)

  • Oh, Min-Ji;Kim, Eun-Jung;Jung, Ji-Hoon;Shin, Pyung-Gyun;Kim, Eun-Sun;Oh, Youn-Lee;Jang, Kab-Yeul;Kong, Won-Sik;Yoo, Young-Bok
    • Journal of Mushroom
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.212-216
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    • 2015
  • A new commercial strain "Mongdol" of oyster mushroom was developed by hyphal anastomosis. It was improved with hybridization between monokaryotic strain derived from Pleurotus ostreatus ASI 0627 and dikaryotic strain derived from P. ostreatus ASI 2929. The optimum temperature of mycelial growth and fruiting body development were $25{\sim}30^{\circ}C$ and $12{\sim}18^{\circ}C$, respectively. When two different media including PDA (potato dextrose agar medium) and MCM (mushroom complete medium) were compared, the mycelial growth of this mushroom was faster in MCM than in PDA. Similar result was observed with the control strain P. ostreatus ASI 2504. Analysis of the genetic characteristics of the new cultivar "Mongdol" showed a different DNA profile as that of the control strain ASI 2504, when RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA) primer URP3 and URP6 were used. Fruiting body production per bottle was about 106 g using demonstration farms. The color of pileus was blackish gray and the stipe was long. Therefore, we expect that this new strain "Mongdol" will satisfy the consumer's demand for high quality mushrooms.

Occurence of Zn-Pb Deposits in Danjang-Myeon, Milyang Area (밀양 단장면 일대에 발달하는 아연-연 광화대의 산출특성)

  • Kwak, Ji Young;Kang, Chang Won;Joo, Soo Young;Jeong, Jae Han;Choi, Jin Beom
    • Journal of the Mineralogical Society of Korea
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    • v.28 no.3
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    • pp.279-292
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    • 2015
  • New occurrences of large-scaled Zn-Pb deposits are recently found in the Danjang-myeon, Milyang. They are skarn-type deposits which replaced the intercalated limestone beds in the Jeonggaksan Formation. This study aims at characterizing occurrences, mineralogy, and chemistry of Zn-Pb ores and skarn minerals. Skarn orebodies are mainly found in 3 areas, named Gukjeon-ri, Gorye-ri, and Gucheon-ri orebodies, where sphalerite found as main ore mineral in 200-300 m in height and amount of galena increases as altitude does. Ores are dark grey to dark green in color and closely related with clinopyroxene zone. They occur with hedenbergite, grossular, actinolite, epidote, and small amounts of axinite, calcite, and quartz. Main ore mineral is sphalerite which includes tiny spotted grains of galena and chalcopyrite and becomes rich in grade in association with clinopyroxene and epidote. FeS contents in sphalerite show relatively wide range between 1.53 and 23.07 mole%, whose contents intend to increase towards biotite granite known as ore-related igneous rocks. CdS contents are in the range of 0.22-0.93 mole%, showing decrease tendency from southwest (Gukjeon-ri) to northeast (Gucheon-ri). Zn-Pb deposits developed in Danjang-myeon reveal decrease in temperature with increase of altitude, leading to gradual changes in compositions of ore and skarn minerals.

An Analysis of the Image and Visual Preference of a Light Rail Pier according to Aesthetic Styles (경전철 교각의 미관개선유형별 이미지 및 시각적 선호도 분석)

  • Jung, Sung-Gwan;Kang, Dong-Hyun;Shin, Jae-Yun
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
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    • v.43 no.4
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    • pp.15-26
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    • 2015
  • The Daegu Metropolitan Transit Corporation Advisory Committee has chosen 5 styles of bridge-pier designs, including coating, graphic, planting, billboard and safety-facility style, based on the results of landscape simulations from a previous study. This study was conducted to investigate citizen's preferences and emotional images for each style of bridge-pier design, by aiming at the pilot urban landscape improvement section from Daebong Bridge in Suseong Gu to the crossroads near Dongseong Elementary School in Daegu Metropolitan City. The questionnaire was drawn up regarding the urban landscape improvement plans applied to the research area, and the questions were about citizens' perception of bridge-pier structures generated by constructing a light rail transit, important factors to consider when designing bridge piers, preferences for each style of bridge-pier design and emotional impact. 60.4% of the survey participants were found to perceive bridge-pier structures as unattractive, so it was necessary to improve them aesthetically. Regarding visual factors of bridge-pier designs, color was most important at 5.81, followed by form at 5.57. Regarding aesthetic component factors, harmony was most important at 6.07, followed by amenity at 6.00. In the survey participants' preference for each bridge-pier design, the graphic style was preferred most at 4.14, followed by the planting style. In emotional adjectives used for each bridge-pier design, the coating style, the safety-facility style and the non-treatment style showed similar results, and all of these styles were evaluated as artificial, lifeless and desolate. The graphic style and the billboard style showed different tendencies, depending on visual factors and aesthetic component factors applied to the graphic design used for these two bridge-pier styles. Since natural materials were used for the planting style, however, it showed high preference for such emotional images as natural and lively. The emotional adjective 'amiable' was found to affect citizens' preferences for each bridge-pier aesthetic improvement plan most, and it was also analyzed to have an effect on all the styles of bridge-pier designs. To improve the landscape of a light rail transit being constructed inside the urban area, this study quantitatively extracted citizens' preferences and emotional adjective for every style of bridge-pier design applied to the pilot urban landscape improvement section, and it is expected that the results of this study will be used as basic data to improve the landscape of bridge piers.

Optimal Lactic Acid Fermentation Conditions and Quality Properties for Rubus coreanus Miquel (Bokbunja) and Chlorella Mixtures (복분자와 클로렐라 혼합물의 젖산발효 최적조건 및 품질 특성)

  • Kim, Jae-Young;Lee, Sang-Uk;Kim, Na-Hyung;Moon, Kwang-Hyun;Baek, Seung-Hwa
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.45 no.3
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    • pp.386-395
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    • 2016
  • To develop a functional fermentation food from Rubus coreanus Miquel (Bokbunja) and chlorella mixtures, optimal lactic acid fermentation conditions were established, and quality properties based on physicochemical evaluation such as chemical compositions, free sugars, organic acids, and antibacterial activities were investigated. Regarding optimal fermentation strain selection, formation of lactic acid was best in Lactobacillus plantarum among the experimental strains (10 kinds), and the optimal fermentation temperature was $37^{\circ}C$. In addition, overall acceptability in the sensory evaluation was highest in the 5% chlorella mixture sample. Therefore, quality properties of the prepared sample under the established optimal fermentation conditions were investigated. Moisture, total sugar (dry basis), crude fiber (dry basis), and pH of fermented Rubus coreanus Miquel juice (RCM) with 5% chlorella mixture (RCM-C5) were reduced by 4.90%, 14.15%, and 0.32%, respectively, as compared with non-fermented RCM. Meanwhile, crude protein, crude fat, and crude ash (dry basis) of RCM-C5 were elevated by 13.75%, 0.18%, and 0.73%, respectively, as compared with RCM. The yellowness (b value) of color values was greater in RCM-C5 compared to RCM. The free sugar and organic acid contents of RCM-C5 were elevated by 0.97% and 616.30 mg%, respectively, as compared with RCM. In addition, the gram positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus was elevated by 5.83% while gram negative bacteria Escherichia coli and Salmonella Typhimurium were elevated by 2.94% and 4.67%, respectively, as compared with RCM. In conclusion, the quality properties of RCM and chlorella lactic acid fermentation mixtures were improved compared with the general RCM product. Consequently, it is possible to apply fermented RCM as a functional fermentation food.

Determination of the shelf life of cricket powder and effects of storage on its quality characteristics (식품원료용 귀뚜라미 분말의 저장 중 품질특성 및 유통기한 설정)

  • Kim, Dae-Hyun;Kim, Eun-Mi;Chang, Yoon-Je;Ahn, Mi-Young;Lee, Yong-Hwan;Park, Jin Ju;Lim, Jeong-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.211-217
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    • 2016
  • This study was carried out to determine the shelf-life of cricket powder and investigate the changes in its quality during storage. To determine the shelf-life, cricket powder was stored at temperatures of 25, 35, and $40^{\circ}C$ for 6 months. The changes in quality parameters of the cricket powder, such as moisture content, color, acid value, volatile base nitrogen (VBN), fatty acid, growth of microorganisms, and sensory appeal were investigated. The moisture content of the cricket powder increased during storage but did not show any significant difference at 6 months of storage. L value was increased at $25^{\circ}C$ storage but decreased at 35 and $40^{\circ}C$. However, there were no significant different in a and b values. The acid value decreased more rapidly at higher temperatures, while the VBN content was not changed. The major composition of fatty acids of cricket powder were palmitic acid, oleic acid, and linoleic acid. Their content was not changed at various the storage temperatures. No aerobic and coliform bacteria grew in the powder during the whole storage period. Cricket powder stored at $25^{\circ}C$ and $35^{\circ}C$ showed similar scores in sensory evaluation, but it storaged at $40^{\circ}C$ showed the significant difference (p<0.05). Moisture content, acid value, oleic acid, and flavor were selected as the criteria for shelf-life establishment of cricket powder. Based on these parameters, especially the moisture content, the shelf life of cricket powder was likely to be 18 months when stored at $25^{\circ}C$.

Physicochemical characteristics and antioxidant activity of pear vinegars using 'Wonhwang', 'Niitaka' and 'Chuhwangbae' fruits (원황, 신고 및 추황배를 이용한 배 식초의 이화학적 특성 및 항산화활성)

  • Yim, Sun-Hee;Cho, Kwang-Sik;Choi, Jin-Ho;Lee, Ju-Hyun;Lee, ByulHaNa;Kim, Myung-Su;Jiang, Gui-Hun;Eun, Jong-Bang
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.174-179
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    • 2016
  • This study was to prepared vinegars using three kinds of pear cultivar with different maturities, 'Wonhwang', 'Niitaka', and 'Chuhwangbae', and investigate their physicochemical characteristics and antioxidant activities. Result showed that the firmness of 'Wonhwang' was much lower than other pear cultivars. No significant difference in soluble solid content was found among three pear cultivars. The total acidity of 'Chuhwangbae' pear vinegar was 4.89~7.98%, which was higher than that those of 'Wonhwang' and 'Niitaka' vinegars. The color of 'Niitaka' vinegar had a lower lightness and redness values, but a higher yellowness value, compared with the other two vinegars. The free sugar contents were mainly composed of fructose, glucose, and sorbitol, with the greatest content of sorbitol in all three peer vinegars. The total phenolics and flavonoids contents were 35.2~55.3 and 8.4~14.4 mg/100 mL, respectively. Antioxidant activity had a positive correlation with total phenolic contents. The DPPH free radical scavenging and $ABTS^+$ radical scavenging activity were 45.0~62.1% and 73.8~78.2%, respectively. From these results, we confirmed that immature pear cultivars such as 'Wonhwang', 'Niitaka' and 'Chuhwangbae' could be used as a raw materials to prepare vinegar regardless of maturity.

Evaluation of Agronomic Characteristics and Fatty Acid Composition of Flax Germplasms (아마 유전자원의 농업적 특성 및 지방산 조성 평가)

  • Lee, Yong-Hwa;Bae, Sang-Mok;Park, Won;Kim, Kwang-Soo;Jang, Young-Seok;Lee, Kyeong-Bo
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.61 no.2
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    • pp.124-130
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    • 2016
  • In this study, agronomic characteristics and fatty acid composition of 121 flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) germplasms were analyzed. The flax germplasms had a fairly short growth period of 75-95 days. The plant height at maturity varied from 52 to 124 cm. The flower color varied from white to lilac and even purple. Early flowering flax germplasms had white flowers and were resistant to lodging. In early flowering flax germplasms, all agronomic characteristics, including growth period, plant height, branch number per plant, stem diameter, number of capsules per raceme, seed number per capsule, 1000-seed weight, and seed yield, were decreased. The average fatty acid composition of 121 flax germplasms comprised palmitic acid (5.3%), stearic acid (4.3%), oleic acid (29.7%), linoleic acid (13.1%) and linolenic acid (46.4%). The total content of unsaturated fatty acids ranged from 84~94% with an average of 88%. Among the fatty acids, linolenic acid (omega-3) content was the highest with a range of 36~54%. In five selected flax germplasms (Hollandia 1803, Red son, C & F Res Br 1767, Wiera, and Ireland 1657) with high linolenic acid (${\geq}51%$), total lipid and protein contents were 30~36% and 5.4~6.9%, respectively. Overall, flax can practically be adoptable into cropping systems in South Korea and utilized as a scenery crop, since flax has a short cultivation period with diverse flower colors.