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Physicochemical Characteristics and Sensory Properties of Commercial Mukeunji Products (국내 시판 묵은지의 이화학적 및 관능적 특성)

  • Hur, Sung-Won;Ko, Myeung-Sin;Kim, Mi-Ran;Lee, Hye-Ran;Chung, Seo-Jin;Cho, Mi-Sook
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.44 no.5
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    • pp.702-708
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    • 2015
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the physicochemical characteristics of commercial Mukeunji product along with its sensory properties. Six different types of commercial Mukeunji products were purchased through an on-line market, and each product had a different fermentation period. General commercial Baechu Kimchi was compared with commercial Mukeunji products in order to standardize quality properties of Mukeunji. As a result, commercial Mukeunji showed a lower pH value (pH 3.96, mean value) than commercial Baechu Kimchi (pH 5.92), whereas commercial Mukeunji samples showed higher acidity and salinity. Color values (L, a, and b) of commercial Mukeunji decreased as the storage period increased. Hardness and thickness of commercial Mukeunji showed a lower range compared to Baechu Kimchi. The reducing sugar content decreased as the storage period of commercial Mukeunji increased. Acetic, lactic, and succinic acids were detected in commercial Mukeunji samples, whereas citric acid and malic acid were additionally detected in Baechu Kimchi. Commercial Mukeunji samples showed lower contents of acetic and succinic acid and higher content of lactic acid than Baechu Kimchi. Commercial Mukeunji samples showed a significant difference in all descriptive sensory attributes except for bitterness. Overall intensity, sourness, moldy odor, redness, sour smell, saltiness, and carbonated taste increased as the storage period increased, whereas cabbage flavor, crispiness, sweetness, firmness, and savory taste decreased as the storage period increased.

Immunological mechanism of Aging : T & B cell changes (면역학적 노화 기전에 관한 연구: T 및 B 세포의 변화)

  • Kim, Jay Sik;Lee, Won Kil;Suh, Jang Soo;Song, Kyung Eun;Lee, Joong Won;Lee, Nan Young;Weksler, Marc E.
    • IMMUNE NETWORK
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    • v.1 no.3
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    • pp.236-243
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    • 2001
  • Background: An immunological approach for aging mechanism appears to be important. Lymphocyte subsets analysis in peripheral blood is widely performed to assess the immune status and to diagnose and monitor various diseases. Some lymphocyte subsets are known to change with age, but only few data about age-related reference ragnes for these subsets in healthy individuals have been reported. So we attempted to report reference ranges for these subsets in each age group and review changes of the results with age for the secondary studies about immune cell function as lymphocyte blast transformation and immunoglobulin gene rearrangement (VDJ) including recombination activating genes (RAG-1 and RAG-2). Methods: Lymphocyte subset analysis was performed on 302 subjects, 189 males and 113 females with age group of all decades of life. Two color direct immunofluorescene flow cytometry (FCM) was done using $Simultest^{TM}$ IMK-Lymphocyte kit (Becton Dickinson, USA), $FACScan^{TM}$ (Becton Dickinson, USA) and $FACSCalibur^{TM}$ (Becton Dickinson, USA). Lymphocyte subsets analysed were T ($CD3^+$) and B cells ($CD19^+$), helper/inducer T ($CD4^+$) and suppressor/cytotoxic T cells ($CD8^+$), helper/suppressor ($CD4^+/CD8^+$) ratio and natural killer (NK) cells ($CD3^-CD16^+/CD56^+$). The absolute numbers of each subset were calculated from total lymphocyte counts. Data collected was analysed using SAS 6.12. A P-value of < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: We reported the counts and percentages of lymphocyte and these subsets in each age group. There were no statistically significant differences between male and female subjects. The percentage of $CD4^+$ T cells, and the count of NK cells did not show the significant difference among the various age groups. The age-related changes observed in our study were as following: 1) a decrease in the percentages of T cells, B cells and $CD8^+$ T cells ; 2) a decrease in the counts of B cells and $CD8^+$ T cells ; 3) an increase in the percentage and count of NK cells ; and 4) an increase in the $CD4^+/CD8^+$ ratio. Conclusion: The characteristics of aging process appeared to be showing a marked decrease of lympocyte subsets T and B cells as well as T8 ($CD8^+$). The age-related increase of the percentage of cells bearing NK marker can be interpreted as a compensatory consequence to cope with the decrease of T cells related to the thymic involution. These changes with age appeared to be for the secondary study about immune cell function as lymphocyte blast transformation and immunoglobulin gene rearrangement.

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Breeding and characterization of 'Creamy', a new interspecific hybrid between Pleurotus ferulae and P. tuoliensis (아위느타리와 백령느타리의 종간교잡 품종 '크리미'의 육성 및 특성)

  • Oh, Min-Ji;Shin, Pyung-Gyun;Lim, Ji-Hoon;Oh, Youn-Lee;Jang, Kab-Yeul;Kong, Won-Sik
    • Journal of Mushroom
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.224-229
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    • 2019
  • The two most common mushroom species grown in Korea are pearl oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) and king oyster mushroom (P. eryngii). In recent years, the production of king oyster mushroom greatly increased due to the automation of the cultivation facilities, and it became a major export mushroom owing to its excellent shelf life. However, the increase in the production of king oyster mushroom led to a decline in its market price; thus, necessitating the development of new mushroom species that could replace king oyster mushroom, to diversify the mushroom market for the benefit of both, the producers and the consumers. The Mushroom division at the National Institute of Horticultural & Herbal Science (NIHHS) reported the development of a new interspecific hybrid between P. ferulae and P. tuoliensis, referred to as 'Creamy.' Two parental strains KMCC00430 (Bisan2ho, P. ferulae) and KMCC00461 (P. tuoliensis) were selected based on the results of genetic resource analysis, and their monokaryons were collected. About 1,000 Mon-Mon crosses were performed and 73 of them were selected. Following repeated cultivation tests and strain analyses, we selected strain 7773, which had a bright creamy pileus and a thick straight stipe, and named it 'Creamy.' Optimum temperature for mycelial growth of Creamy was 25-30℃, and that for fruiting body growth was 16℃. The pileus, which had a brighter creamy color, was small in size with a diameter of 61.2 mm. Although it was cultivated in suboptimal conditions, such as low temperature and high CO2 concentration, Creamy was characterized by its straight and smooth stipe. Field production tests and further analyses indicated that the yield of Creamy was 5% higher than that of Baekhwang. It is expected that Creamy, the new interspecific hybrid with a bright creamy pileus and a pleasant flavor, will help create new opportunities for mushroom farmers and diversify the mushroom market.

Feeding Effect of Whole Crop Rice based TMR on Meat Quality of Hanwoo Steers (사료용 벼 위주 TMR 급여가 거세 한우의 육질 특성에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Jong Geun;Jo, Cheroun;Zhao, Guo Qiang;Liu, Chang;Nan, Wei Sheng;Kim, Hak Jin;Ahn, Eok Geun;Min, Hyung-Gyu
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.39 no.4
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    • pp.264-271
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    • 2019
  • This study was conducted to investigate the effect of whole crop rice based TMR on the meat quality of Korean Native Cattle (Hanwoo). Sixteen Hanwoo steers (average 8 months old) were divided into the control group (commercially marketed TMR) and the WCR-TMR group (whole crop rice based TMR). Feeding trials were carried out up to 30 months of age, and after slaughter, the strip loin were collected and analyzed for meat quality. There were no significant differences in proximate compositions of Hanwoo (P>0.05), and crude protein, crude fat and crude ash were 19.51~20.23 %, 11.53~11.35 % and 1.10~1.12 %, respectively. There was no significant difference in water holding capacity and cooking loss between treatments (P>0.05), but it was slightly lower in the control group. Among the various functional components in meat, β-carotene was not detected, but α-tocopherol was significantly higher in WCR-TMR group and vitamin A content in control (P<0.05). The a⁎-value in the meat color index decreased significantly with longer storage period in the control group, whereas the WCR-TMR fed group showed no significant difference (P>0.05) according to the storage period. There were no difference between the treatments in the TBARS (2-Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) value used as an indicator of lipid oxidation and in fatty acid content. But the control group had high myristic acid content, whereas the WCR-TMR supplemented group showed higher oleic acid and linoleic acid content. In conclusion, feeding of WCR based-TMR increased the α-tocopherol content, which is a functional ingredient in meat, and the other components were not significantly different from the control. Therefore, it was judged that there was no significant difference between WCR based and conventional TMR in meat quality characteristics.

Effect of Mountain Grazing on Growth Performance and Carcass Characteristics of Hanwoo Steers (산간지 방목이 거세한우의 성장특성 및 도체형질에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Eun Mee;Chung, Ki Yong;Kim, Ui-Hyung;Ahn, Jun Sang;Park, Bo Hye;Kang, Dong Hun;Jang, Sun Sik
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.39 no.4
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    • pp.250-257
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    • 2019
  • This study was carried out to investigate the effect of mountain grazing on growth performance and carcass characteristics of Hanwoo steers. Thirty two Hanwoo steers were randomly assigned. Control were fed concentrate + forage until 30 month of age. Treatment1 were fed concentrate + forage after mountain grazing from 8 to 13 months. Treatment2 and 3 were fed concentrate + forage after mountain grazing from 8 to 17 months. Hanwoo steers on Treatment 1 and 2 were slaughtered at the same age (30 months) as the control, and Hanwoo steers on Treatment 3 were slaughtered at 31 months. The average daily gain (ADG) were higher in the control than in the other treatments during the growing period (p<0.05). Carcass back fat thickness was thicker in the TRT 3 and marbling score was higher in the TRT 1 than in the other treatments; however, the differences were not statistically significant. There was no difference in the meat composition and shear force of the longissimus muscle according to the mountain grazing. However, the yellowness (b) of fat colors were significantly lower in the control than in the TRT 1 and TRT 2 (p<0.05). The effect of grazing on fatty acid composition was not constant. In conclusion, mountain grazing could reduce meat color without affecting the growth and meat quality of Hanwoo steers, and further research on the quality, yield and intake of grassland would be needed.

Comparison of Production Performances between Early- and Late-feathering Chickens in Parent Stocks of Korean Native Chicken (토종종계에 있어 조우성 개체와 만우성 개체간 생산능력 비교 고찰)

  • Kim, Ki Gon;Cho, Eun Jung;Choi, Eun Sik;Kwon, Jae Hyun;Jung, Hyun Chul;Sohn, Sea Hwan
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.46 no.4
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    • pp.279-286
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    • 2019
  • Currently, feather-sexing, which is based on differences in feather development at hatching, is a widely used chick sexing method in the poultry industry. For effective chicken feather-sexing, paternal early-feathering (EF) chickens and maternal late-feathering (LF) chickens must be bred. Therefore, it is critical to identify the effect of EF and LF patterns on production traits in chickens. Thus, the purpose of this study is to analyze and compare the production performances between 522 EF and 232 LF chickens in order to establish the Korean native chicken feather-sexing lines. The results showed that the survival rate of the LF group was significantly higher than that of the EF group from hatching to 52 weeks of age (P<0.05). Body weight, however, was not significantly different between the two groups at all ages. LF and EF groups did not significantly differ in age at first egg laying. However, the hen-day and hen-housed egg production of the LF group were significantly higher than those of EF group (P<0.01). No significant differences were found between the EF and LF groups in all egg quality indicators such as egg weight, eggshell color, albumin height and Haugh unit. Because the breeding target of Korean native commercial chicken is meat-type chicken, feather-sexing strains of Korean native chicken should be established using weighing-based paternal EF lines and laying-based maternal LF lines. Therefore, these results are critical for establishing desirable and effective feather-sexing strains.

A Study on the Copy of Tripitaka Koreana at Otani University in Kyoto, Japan (일본 오타니대학(大谷大學) 소장 고려대장경 인경본 연구)

  • Jeong, Eunwoo;Shin, Eunjae
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.52 no.4
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    • pp.38-55
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    • 2019
  • At Otani University in Kyoto, Japan, there is a rubbed copy of Tripitaka Koreana, presumably printed in 1381. According to the postscript of the copy, written by Saek Lee himself, the rubbed copy was made at Haeinsa temple in 1381 and was kept at Sinluksa temple in Yeuju. The copy was delivered as a gift to Japan in 1414 and now is kept at the Library of Otani University. Although an approximate summary of the content of the copy was reported in the early 2000s after a basic survey, details of the copy, including the concrete format and packaging paper, are not known yet. In this paper a detailed survey of the copy is conducted on the 109 pages. The copy is divided into two parts: the wrapping and the inner pages. The wrapping paper is divided into yellow and brown colors depending on the material of the paper. The yellow colorwrapping paper was possibly made in 1381 at the time of the rubbed printing, and the brown wrapping paper was repaired after being moved to Japan. Using funds collected in February 1380, the copy of Gyeong(經), Yul(律), and Ron(論) chapters was printed in April 1381. Binding of the copy was completed in September, and the wrapping paper with the title in gold was made in October 1380. The box for keeping Buddhist scriptures was manufactured in November 1380. The copy was moved to Sinluksa temple in April 1382 and delivered to Japan in 1414. At Otani University, the copy is stored in separate rectangular boxes 32.1×25.3cm in size with a height of 23.6cm. The rectangular plate on the four sides is red in external color but black colorinside. The box for keeping Buddhist scriptures was probably made in 1381, but a partial repair was made later. Because of the difficulty of executing a detailed survey of the box for Buddhist scriptures, it is hard to find out its nation and period of production. We look forward to studying the copy as well as the box for Buddhist scriptures in future.

A Study on the Change of Materials and Fabrication Techniques of Stone Figures in Royal Tombs of the Joseon Period - Focusing on Shindobi, Pyo-Seok, and Sang-Seok - (조선시대 왕릉 석물의 재료와 제작 방법 변화에 관한 연구 - 신도비와 표석, 상석을 중심으로 -)

  • Cha, Moonsung
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.52 no.4
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    • pp.56-77
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    • 2019
  • Bi-Seok is a treasure trove of funeral rites and an important cultural asset that can shed light on the historical and social history of calligraphy, but research of the topic is still insignificant. In particular, research on the production method of Bi-Seok remains an unproven field. The production of Bi-Seok can be roughly divided into ma-jeong (refining stone), sculpture, and the Buk-chil (process of engraving letters) process. This article reveals some facts: First, performing ma-jeong to the Sang-Seok, Honyu-Seok, Bi-seok, which are known to be God's things. This process is needed because of the change in the perception of the Honyu-Seok due to the settlement and propagation of Confucian ceremonial rituals in the times of hardship in 1592 and 1636. As the crafting process of ma-jeong did not remain concrete, it was only possible to examine the manufacturing process of Bi-Seok through its materials and tools. Second, the rapid proliferation of Oh-Seok and Sa-jeo-chwi-yong (purchase of things made by private citizens) in the Yeongjo era has great importance in social and cultural history. When the Gang-Hwa-Seok of the commodity were exhausted, the Oh-Seok that was used by Sadebu (upper civil class) were used in the tomb of Jangneung, which made Oh-Seok popular among people. In particular, the use of Oh-Seok and the Ma-Jeong process could minimize chemical and physical damage. Third, the writing method of the Bi-seok is Buk-chil. After Buk-Chil of Song Si-Yeol was used on King Hyojong's tomb, the Buk-Chil process ( printing the letters on the back of the stone and rubbing them to make letters) became the most popular method in Korea and among other East Asian countries, and the fact that it was institutionalized to this scale was quite impressive. Buk-Chil became more sophisticated by using red ink rather than black ink due to the black color that results from Oh-Seok. Fourth, the writing method changes in the late Joseon Dynasty. Until the time of Yeongjo's regime, when inscribing, the depth of the angle was based on the thickness of the stroke, thus representing the shade. This technique, of course, did not occur at every Pyo-Seok or Shindobi, but was maintained by outstanding artisans belonging to government agencies. Therefore, in order to manufacture Bi-Seok, Suk-seok, YeonJeong, Ma-jeong, Jeong-Gan, ChodoSeoIp, Jung-Cho, Ip-gak, Gyo-Jeong, and Jang-Hwang, a process was needed to make one final product. Although all of these methods serve the same purpose of paying respects and propagandizing the great work of deceased persons, through this analysis, it was possible to see the whole process of Pyo-Seok based upon the division of techniques and the collaboration of the craftsmen.

Application of the CRISPR/Cas System for Point-of-care Diagnosis of Cattle Disease (현장에서 가축질병을 진단하기 위한 CRISPR/Cas 시스템의 활용)

  • Lee, Wonhee;Lee, Yoonseok
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.30 no.3
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    • pp.313-319
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    • 2020
  • Recently, cattle epidemic diseases are caused by a pathogen such as a virus or bacterium. Such diseases can spread through various pathways, such as feed intake, respiration, and contact between livestock. Diagnosis based on the ELISA (Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) and PCR (Polymerase chain reaction) methods has limitations because these traditional diagnostic methods are time consuming assays that require multiple steps and dedicated equipment. In this review, we propose the use of the CRISPR (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats) Cas system based on DNA and RNA levels for early point-of-care diagnosis in cattle. In the CRISPR/Cas system, Cas effectors are classified into two classes and six subtypes. The Cas effectors included in class 2 are typically Cas9 in type II, Cas12 in type V (Cas12a and Cas12b) and Cas13 in type VI (Cas13a and Cas13b). The CRISPR/Cas system uses reporter molecules that are attached to the ssDNA strands. When the Cas enzyme cuts the ssDNA, these reporters either fluoresce or change color, indicating the presence of a specific disease marker. There are several steps in the development of a CRISPR/Cas system. The first is to select the Cas enzyme depending on DNA or RNA from pathogens (viruses or bacteria). Based on that, the next step is to integrate the optimal amplification, transducing method, and signal reporter. The CRISPR/Cas system is a powerful diagnostic tool using a gene-editing method, which is faster, better, and cheaper than traditional methods. This system could be used for early diagnosis of epidemic cattle diseases and help to control their spread.

Methods of Application and Beneficial Effects of Silicate-Coating Rice Seeds (볍씨의 규산코팅방법에 따른 이용특성과 육묘효과)

  • Kang, Yang-Soon;Kim, Wan Joong;Hwang, Duck Sang;Kim, Hee Kyu
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.65 no.1
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    • pp.30-39
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    • 2020
  • A new silicate coating technology was developed which reduces the impact of dust and loosening during seeding compared to existing silicate-coatings (Seed/Si/Zeolite), and therefore can lower the production costs of rice cultivation. In this method, 100 g of rice seed is coated with 18 mL of liquid silicic acid and then dressed with a mixture containing 80 g of dolomite and 5 g of iron. To determine the most effective method of application and ensure that seedlings developed healthily, a series of experiments were carried out. Infected seeds scattered in seedling boxes and pots (soil and hydroponic) were coated dry, without disinfection. In comparison to the seed which were not treated with the silicate-coating, the new seed (A) were 1.84 times heavier in weight, and were also improved in terms of coating strength and coating color. Compared to the seedlings grown from the non-coated seed, those grown from the new silicate-coated seed were of significantly higher quality (weight/length) and had erect, dark greenish leaves, which are ideal plant characteristics. This was most likely due to increased silicate uptake. The symptoms of bakanae disease in the non-coated seed peaked after 38 days to 54.2%, whereas the control value was 68.8% in the new silicate-coated seed (A). In the infected seedlings grown from the new silicate-coated rice seed, subnormal macro-conidia, namely, a sickle shape spore without a septum; a straight oblong shape spore without a septum and with a thick cell wall; and inter-septal necrosis of a normal spore were detected. It is believed that the strong alkalinity of silicic acid have acted as unfavorable conditions for pathogenicity. In seedlings grown from the new silicate coated rice seed under hydroponic conditions without nutrients, normal root activity and growth was maintained without leaf senescence. Therefore, it was possible to reduce the rate of fertilization. In the future, a new silicate-coated rice seed was required for the study of minimal nutrition for anti-aging of seedlings.