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Notes on the Status and Conservation of Callipogon Relictus Semenov in Korea (장수하늘소 현황 및 보전방안)

  • An, Seung Lak
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.43 no.1
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    • pp.260-279
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    • 2010
  • The analysis on bibliography and field investigation of Callipogon relictus Semenov, 1898 (Korean natural monument number 218) shows that the size varies from country to country, and Korean specimens, for which male is 85~120mm and female is 65~85mm, are found to be the largest. The average diameter and length of egg are 2.60mm and 6.72mm respectively. The larva has milky color and is about 100~150mm in length. The pupa is nearly 70~110mm. An adult generally appears from June to September in Korea in the broadleaf forest of lowland, whereas it appears from June to July in China. It is known that the pupa largely feed on the old tree trunk of Carpinus laxiflora (Siebold & Zucc.) blume in Korea, but no such data have been reported in China and Russia, showing differences in host plants. While the larva period is not exactly known in Korea, it is reported to be two years in China. It appears that the species inhabits in very limited regions of approximately between geographical latitude $37.5^{\circ}{\sim}47.8^{\circ}$ and longitude $126^{\circ}{\sim}140^{\circ}$ including Korea, China and Russia. To conserve the long-horned beetle in Korea, this research drew out following some conclusions through analyzing the references and field survey data. First, it need to perform precise survey on the natural environment of occurring and collected area or place including host plant kinds, temperate, humidity, latitude, longitude etc. Second, habitat region must be designated as a restricted development area, and it need to exclude or reduce the damage factors to prosper reproduction of the species. Third, it is necessary to keep loosing cautiously artificial breeding individuals in the reported sites, not disturbing scope of natural populations. Fourth, it needs to educate or publicize many people importance and value of this species through many methods.

A Study on History and Archetype Technology of Goli-su in Korea (한국 고리수의 역사와 원형기술의 복원 연구)

  • Kim, Young-ran
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.46 no.2
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    • pp.4-25
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    • 2013
  • Goli-su is the innovative special kind of the embroidery technique, which combines twining and interlacing skill with metal technology and makes the loops woven to each other with a strand. The loops floating on the space of the ground look like floating veins of sculpture and give people the feeling of the openwork. This kind of characteristic has some similarities with the lacework craft of Western Europe in texture and technique style, but it has its own features different from that of Western Europe. It mainly represents the splendid gloss with metallic materials in the Embroidered cloth, such as gold foil or wire. In the 10th century, early days of Goryo, we can see the basic Goli-su structure form of its initial period in the boy motif embroidery purse unearthed from the first level of Octagonal Nine-storied Pagoda of Woljeong-sa. In the Middle period of Joseon, there are several pieces of Goli-su embroidered relic called "Battle Flag of Goryo", which was taken by the Japanese in 1592 and is now in the Japanese temple. This piece is now converted into altar-table covers. In 18~19th century, two pairs of embroidered pillows in Joseon palace were kept intact, whose time and source are very accurate. The frame of the pillows was embroidered with Goli-su veins, and some gold foil papers were inserted into the inside. The triangle motif with silk was embroidered on the pillow. The stitch in the Needle-Looped embroidery is divided into three kinds according to comprehensive classification: 1. Goli-su ; 2. Goli-Kamgi-su ; 3. Goli-Saegim-su. From the 10th century newly establishing stage to the 13th century, Goli-su has appeared variational stitches and employed 2~3 dimensional color schemes gradually. According to the research of this thesis, we can still see this stitch in the embroidery pillow, which proves that Goli-suwas still kept in Korea in the 19th century. And in terms of the research achievement of this thesis, Archetype technology of Goli-su was restored. Han Sang-soo, Important Intangible Cultural Heritage No. 80 and Master of Embroidery already recreated the Korean relics of Goli-su in Joseon Dynasty. The Needle-Looped embriodery is the overall technological result of ancestral outstanding Metal craft, Twining and Interlacing craft, and Embroidery art. We should inherit, create, and seek the new direction in modern multi-dimensional and international industry societyon the basis of these research results. We can inherit the long history of embroidering, weaving, fiber processing, and expand the applications of other craft industries, and develop new advanced additional values of new dress material, fashion technology, ornament craft and artistic design. Thus, other crafts assist each other and broaden the expressive field to pursue more diversified formative beauty and beautify our life abundantly together.

A Scientific Analysis of Ancient Pigments on Wall Paintings at Yeongsanjeon in Tongdo Temple Using a Field-XRF (휴대용X선형광분석기를 이용한 통도사 영산전 벽화 안료의 과학적 성분분석)

  • Han, Min Su;Lee, Han Hyoung;Kim, Jae Hwan
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.44 no.3
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    • pp.132-149
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    • 2011
  • In ancient period, a variety of inorganic or organic pigments had been used as colorants in various kinds of religious and secular paintings such as tomb paintings and wall and scroll paintings in buddhist temples, and danchung(cosmic patterns) for the surface of wooden buildings. This study discusses the results obtained from an analysis of the pigments on the wall paintings of Yeongsanjeon(Hall of Vulture Peak) in Tongdo temple by a qualitative analysis using a field-XRF. The results can be briefly summarized as follows. Firstly, assuming from the major components examined from F-XRF analysis, raw materials of pigment of each color are: red to be Cinnabar(HgS) or Hematite($Fe_2O_3$); white to be White Lead[$2PbCO_3{\cdot}Pb(OH)_2$] in most cases and Calcite($CaCO_3$) or Chalk($CaCO_3$), Kaolin($Al2O_3{\cdot}SiO_2{\cdot}4H_2O$) in some cases; yellow to be Yellow Ocher[$FeO(OH){\cdot}nH_2O$]; black to be carbon(C); green on the painted surface to be Celadonite[$K(Mg,Fe^{2+})(Fe^{3+},Al)(Si_4O_{10})(OH)_2$] in most cases; dark green on the halo of figures to be Malachite[$CuCO_3{\cdot}Cu(OH)_2$], Copper Green[$2CuO{\cdot}CO_2{\cdot}H_2O$] or Atacamite[$Cu_2Cl(OH)_3$]. Secondly, incarnadine and pink were made by mixing with more than two pigments such as red and white for making various tone of colors. The qualitative analysis of pigments on the wall paintings of Yeongsanjeon, in conclusion, displays that the all pigments for ancient periods are inorganis pigments. However, it has the limitation to identify a definite kinds of mineral for each pigment because it was not possible to collect samples from cultural heritage for conducting a crystalline analysis of XRD.

Techniques and Traditional Knowledge of the Korean Onggi Potter (옹기장인의 옹기제작기술과 전통지식)

  • Kim, Jae-Ho
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.48 no.2
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    • pp.142-157
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    • 2015
  • This study examines how traditional knowledge functions in the specific techniques to make pottery in terms of the traditional knowledge on the pottery techniques of Onggi potters. It focuses on how traditional pottery manufacturing skills are categorized and what aspects are observed with regard to the techniques. The pottery manufacturing process is divided into the preparation step of raw material, the molding step of pottery, and the final plasticity step. Each step involves unique traditional knowledge. The preparation step mainly comprises the knowledge on different kinds of mud. The knowledge is about the colors and properties of mud, the information on the regional distribution of quality mud, and the techniques to optimize mud for pottery manufacturing. The molding step mainly involves the structure and shape of spinning wheels, the techniques to accumulate mud, ways to use different kinds of tools, the techniques to dry processed pottery. The plasticity step involves the knowledge on kilns and the scheme to build kilns, the skills to stack pottery inside of the kilns, the knowledge on firewood and efficient ways of wood burning, the discrimination of different kinds of fire and the techniques to stoke the kilns. These different kinds of knowledge may be roughly divided into three categories : the preparation of raw material, molding, and plasticity. They are closely connected with one another, which is because it becomes difficult to manufacture quality pottery even with only one incorrect factor. The contents of knowledge involved in the manufacturing process of pottery focused are mainly about raw material, color, shape, distribution aspect, fusion point, durability, physical property, etc, which are all about science. They are rather obtained through the experimental learning process of apprenticeship, not through the official education. It is not easy to categorize the knowledge involved. Most of the knowledge can be understood in the category of ethnoscience. In terms of the UNESCO world heritage of intangible cultural assets, the knowledge is mainly about 'the knowledge on nature and universe'. Unique knowledge and skills are, however, identified in the molding step. They can be referred to 'body techniques', which unify the physical stance of potters, tools they employ, and the conceived pottery. Potters themselves find it difficult to articulate the knowledge. In case stated, it cannot be easily understood without the experience and knowledge on the field. From the preparation of raw material to the complete products, the techniques and traditional knowledge involved in the process of manufacturing pottery are closely connected, employing numerous categories and levels. Such an aspect can be referred to as a 'techniques chain'. Here the techniques mean not only the scientific techniques but also, in addition to the skills, the knowledge of various techniques and levels including habitual, unconscious behaviors of potters.

A Study on the Costumes of Meritorious Vassals' Portraits in the reign of King Seonjo (선조대(宣祖代) 공신초상(功臣肖像)의 복식 고찰)

  • Lee, Eun-joo;Kim, Mi-gyung
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.52 no.1
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    • pp.120-147
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    • 2019
  • In this study, we divided the portraits in the reign of King Seonjo into those which were created before and after the Japanese invasion. We then examined various aspect of costumes expressed in the portraits of meritorious vassals. To analyze official uniforms (Heuk-Danryeung), we examined the Samo height; the side wings' type and pattern; the Danryeung pattern; the Mu style; the processing method of lateral lines in Danryeung the rank badge and rank belt, the color of Dabho and Cheolrik, which were undergarment of Danryeung and Heuk-wa. The meritorious vassals' portraits, prior to Imran, were analyzed with a portrait of Han Eung-in, a Gwang-kuk Pyeong-nan meritorious vassals. The Samo was the highest of the Choson dynasties, and the cloud and treasure pattern was identified on the side wings. The Heuk-Danryeung was a dark blue(acheongsaeg) Danryeung of manja-shaped cloud patterns with a large outward wrinkled Mu, and it had a wild goose badge (second rank) and a Sabgeumdae. It did not coincide with the Pumgye(Jaheondaebu) recorded in Gugjo-inmulgo. Reddish Dabho for Dangsang-kwan, green Cheolrik which was undergarment of Danryeung, and Heuk-wa. were identified. After the invasion of Japan, portraits of Hoseong, Seonmu, and Cheong-nan meritorious vassals were analyzed through eighteen portraits, including Lee Hyeon-bok. After the invasion of the Japanese, the height of the Samo's top was much lower and the width of the side wings was wider than before the invasion of Japanese. The Heuk-Danryeung was a dark blue (acheongsaeg) Danryeung of manja-shaped cloud patterns with a stretching backward Mu. Rank badge and rank belts were almost identical with the record, but there were two exceptions (Sin-jab and Kim, Sae-sin). Therefore, it was reaffirmed that the meritorious vassals' portraits were drawn by the Pumgye at the time of appointment. Among the undergarments of Heuk-Danryeung, green Dabho(11), blue Dabho(4), reddish Dabho(3), and blue Cheolrik(10), green Cheolrik(6), reddish Cheolrik(1), and yucheongsaeg Cheolrik(1) were identified, However, it is suggested that the Dabho of Hoseong, Seonmu, and Cheong-nan meritorious vassals should be the reddish Dabho of Dangsang-kwan, which is the same as the previous Imran, and a green Cheolrik.

Effect of White and Blue Wind Net Shading on the Quality of 'Fuji' and 'Hongro' Apple Fruits (백색 및 청색 방풍망 차광 처리가 '후지', '홍로' 사과 과실의 품질에 미치는 영향)

  • Kang, Kyeong-Jin;Seo, Jeong-Hak;Yoon, Hong-Ki;Seo, Jeong-Seok;Joo, Jung-Il;Chun, Jong-Pil
    • Protected Horticulture and Plant Factory
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    • v.29 no.2
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    • pp.120-129
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    • 2020
  • In Yesan-gun, Korea's main apple-producing region, the area of apple cultivation and yield are declining. In particular, the worsening quality of fruits due to unusually high temperatures amid recent climate change has also become a major challenge for apple orchards located on flatlands. The objective of this research is to investigate quality changes of apples according to different growing environments, depending on the shade of the sun, by covering the trees with different colors of wind nets. A white and blue wind nets with a hole size of 2 × 2 mm is installed on two experimental trees, 17-year-old 'Fuji' and 'Hongro', which are planted 1.5 m × 3.5 m in the north-south direction. Treatment of wind nets effectively lowered fruit surface temperature regardless of apple variety. When measuring the temperature of the fruit surface at 2 pm, the temperature of the air was 34.8℃, but the 'Fuji' of the untreated blocks was the highest at 40.0℃, while the blue wind net and the white wind net were significantly lower at 34.9℃ and 36.6℃, respectively. In 'Hongro', the results showed that the surface temperature was effectively lowered by recording 38.3℃ for the blue wind net and 38.5℃ for the white wind net treatment when the untreated one was 44.2℃. According to the color difference in 'Fuji', the skin redness (a⁎) was the lowest with untreated control at 16.5, but the blue and white wind net treatment higher at 18.0 and 19.3, respectively. In 'Hongro', the white wind net treated fruit also showed a much higher skin redness than the untreated control of 28.1, showing much higher a⁎ of 34.9. Sunburn damage in 'Fuji' apples amounted to 9.4% in untreated control. However, the blue and white wind net treatment revealed to 3.8% and 4.2%, respectively. In 'Hongro', those damage in the fruits treated with blue or white wind net, accounted for only 8.8% and 12.4%, respectively, significantly lower than 28.8% occurrence of untreated one. And, these results were understood to be the result of low UV radiation being blocked by the treatment of wind nets.

A study on the factors of Minhwa(民畵) and accepted background that are appeared at Buddhist paintings from late 19th to early 20th century - focused on Sixteen Lohans painting - (19세기 말~20세기 초 불화에 보이는 민화적 요소와 수용배경에 대한 고찰 -16나한도를 중심으로-)

  • Shin, Eun-Mi
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.37
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    • pp.121-150
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    • 2004
  • As genre of Buddhist paintings that express generally mountains and waters, there are Eight Scenes from Life of the Buddha(八相圖), Eternal Life Painting(甘露圖), Avalokitesvara Painting(觀音菩薩圖) includes Sixteen Lohans painting(十六羅漢圖), and Hermit Painting(獨聖圖), or Mountain God Painting(山神圖) which is especially appeared in late Chosun Period. These Buddhist paintings had various backgrounds including mountains and waters, the tradition of Water Ink Painting still remains after 18th century, however the trends got complicated to express various landscapes including splendid color, waters and mountains, and it appeared to have historical trend with introduction of factors of Minhwa(民畵) so called in 19th century. Sixteen Lohans painting painted from late 19th to early 20th century, still contains the traditional factors in terms of describing background among above trends, however the main factors of expressing the background are different from other Buddhist painting which reflects historical art trends in colors and its materials by drawing various background distinctively. That is, Sixteen Lohans painting is distinct at describing the background of blue & green colored mountains and waters that is appeared in trend of Minhwa(民畵) and the royal which were popular at that time It also shows broad acceptance with introduction of new background expressions such as Sipjangsang(十長生, Picture of 10 different things of Sun, Mountain, Water, Stone, Cloud, Pine, Plant of eternal youth, tortoise, Crane, and deer to hope the eternal life) Unryoung(雲龍, Dragon Cloud), Mangho(猛虎, Wild Tiger), Gweseck(怪石, Oddly shaped stone), Hwajo(花鳥, Flowers and Birds), Chaekgoeri(冊巨里, The books and bookshaves). In terms of its materials, positive representations of eternal life, wealth and luck were mainly appeared, this is closely related with Self-Search of Buddhist which was the trend at that time that Buddhist turned into the popularized religion in Chosun Period, especially the cooperation of popular belief with Taoism. This is appeared on various Taoists that is expressed in Buddhist paintings of Sixteen Lohans painting at that time. It would provide some clauses to infer the painted years of existing Minhwa at the fixed type of folk story paintings appeared on Sixteen Lohans painting painted mainly from late 19th to early 20th Century. There is also a possibility of the active participation of Buddhist painters(佛畵僧) as painters of Minhwa by request and demands from common people. Inquiry into factors of folk story paintings among Buddhist paintings started from similarity of the materials and shapes, however it doesn't seem to have dramatically expressed comic or exceptional techniques. But, the fact that there are similar types of decorative pictures in the Royal Court rather seemed to be possible for Buddhist paintings to have functions as religion.

Material Characteristics and Provenance Interpretation of Jade(Amazonite) from the Sijeonri Site at Asan, Korea (아산 시전리 유적 출토 옥기(천하석)의 재료과학적 특성과 산지해석)

  • Lee, Chan Hee;Kim, Jae Cheol;Na, Geon Ju;Kim, Myung Jin
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.39
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    • pp.219-242
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    • 2006
  • Quantitative analysis and provenance interpretation of the raw materials for the jade (amazonite) excavated from the Asan Sijeonri site were studied. Geology of the Sijeonri site composed mainly of Precambrian metasedimentary rocks and the alluvium ranges extensively. In the site, amazonite jade was excavated in the Bronze Age No. 4 circular-shaped resident site. The jade has a comma-shaped and shows light green color with so much cracks. The jade is silicate mineral of columnar habits that is shown white streak, and has fine cleavages with vitreous luster. As the analytical results, this jade was identified as a feldspar-group mineral gemologically called amazonite that is mineralogically microcline formed to intergrowth of albite and orthoclase. Internal textures of the amazonite present Na-end member of albite coexisting with K-end member of orthoclase that are replaced each other along the cleavages and twin planes with several ${\mu}m$ scales. Therefore, the amazonite is one mineral phase combined with albite and orthoclase by substitution of $Na_2O$ and $K_2O$, respectively. The Danyang are is an unique producing site of amazonite in South Korea, and Gongju Janggimyeon was known as microcline provenance to the utmost area from the Sijeonri site. In the marginal area of southern coast in Korean Peninsula, Bronze Age amazonite has been excavated in several sites, where original provenance of the raw amazonite is not identified. The Sijeonri site does not show any facilities of producing and processing traces for amazonite jade. Also, only one jade was collected in the Sijeonri site. Therefore, there is not possibility that the provenance of raw jade is the Sijeonri area. To explain original provenance of the amazonite jade, migration path, manufacturing process and archaeological interpretation are required.

Material Characteristics and Provenance Interpretation of the Stone Moulds for Bronze Artifacts from Galdong Prehistoric Site, Korea (완주 갈동유적 출토 청동기 용범의 재질특성 및 산지해석)

  • Lee, Chan-Hee;Kim, Ji-young;Han, Su-Young
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.38
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    • pp.387-419
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    • 2005
  • Material characteristics and provenance interpretation of the raw materials for the stone moulds of bronze artifacts excavated in Galdong Prehistoric site were studied. The stone moulds are made of igneous hornblendite with coarse-grained holocrystalline textures. The surface color shows greenish grey to dark green with greasy luster. The value of magnetic susceptibility of the moulds ranges from 19.2 to 71.0 (mean ; $39.2{\times}10^{-3}$ SI unit).High value of magnetic susceptibility indicates high contents of magnetite as a ferromagnetic mineral and the wide range of the values are due to heterogeneous distribution of magnetite. These are characteristics of basic igneous rocks. The rock-forming minerals of the moulds mainly consist of amphibole, plagioclase and biotite. Pyroxene, chlorite and opaque minerals are also rarely present. A large quantity of carbon was detected on the dark black crust near the surface of the moulds by quantitative analysis. Geological field survey was carried out to identify a source of the raw materials of the stone moulds around Galdong site. Hornblendite or gabbroic rocks being similar to the moulds forming rock occur at Daeseongri, Sikcheonri and Gyodongri in Jangsoo, and Illdaeri in Namwon about 50 kilometers away from the site in a straight line. They have similarity with the moulds forming rock in magnetic susceptibility ranging from 16.1 to 72.4 (mean ; $39.9{\times}10^{-3}$ SI unit). Among those hornblendite or gabbroic rocks, one in Jangsoo area is the most similar to the moulds forming rock on the basis of petrological and mineralogical characteristics. Comparing normalized patterns of major, minor, rare earth and immobile elements contents of the moulds to them of hornblendite in Jangsoo area, geochemical evolution trend and behavior characteristics show affinities between them. It suggests that the moulds forming rock and hornblendite in Jangsoo area have been originated from cogenetic magma. This hornblendite is easy to engrave an inscription or detail graphics on the surface because of its softness, and has good thermal conductivity. Hornblendite in Sikcheonri, Jangsoo is particularly produced and used for stone wares until the present day. Therefore, it is probable that the stone materials of the moulds has been imported from Daeseongri, Sikcheonri and Gyodongri in Jangsoo area. However, it cannot be completely excluded the possibility that the material of the moulds was supplied from Illdaeri in Namwon area appearing the same type of hornblendite on a small outcrops. It is necessary to carry out further archaeological studies to identify several possibilities of migration process of raw materials.

Characteristics of New Ever-bearing Strawberry 'Bokha' Bred for Tropical and Subtropical zone Cultivation (열대 및 아열대 지역 재배용 사계성 딸기 '복하' 육성)

  • Lee, Jong Nam;Kim, Hye Jin;Choi, Mi Ja;Suh, Jong Taek;Nam, Jung Hwan;Hong, Su Young;Kim, Su Jeong;Shon, Hwang Bae;Kim, Ki Deog;Kim, Yul Ho
    • Journal of the Korean Society of International Agriculture
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    • v.30 no.4
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    • pp.300-304
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    • 2018
  • 'Bokha' is a new strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) cultivar, which was released by the Highland Agriculture Research Institute in 2016. The 'Bokha' cultivar originated from a cross between 'Goha' and 'Saebong No. 3' that showed excellent ever-bearing characteristics, including continuous flowering habit and high soluble-solids contents under long-day and high temperature conditions in 2011. This cultivar was initially named 'Saebong No. 8' after examining its characteristics and productivity in summer culture from 2013 to 2015. After regional adaptability tests in 2016, 'Bokha' was selected from Saebong No. 8 as an elite cultivar. The general characteristics of 'Bokha' include semispreading type, elliptical leaves, and moderately vigorous growth. The fruits are conical in shape, and red in color. 'Bokha' plants have 32.7 leaves, 9.9 more than 'Goha' plants. The soluble-solids content of 'Bokha' was 9.2%, which was 0.2% higher than that of 'Goha'. The average fruit weight of 'Bokha' was about 9.5g and the marketable yield was $27,701kg{\cdot}ha^{-1}$, 72% higher than 'Goha'. 'Bokha' is suitable for tropical and subtropical zone cultivation as a high soluble solids contents cultivar, because it shows continuous flowering habit under long-day and high temperature conditions.