• Title, Summary, Keyword: colorectal cancer

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Recent Decrease in Colorectal Cancer Mortality Rate is Affected by Birth Cohort in Korea

  • Jee, Yonho;Oh, Chang-Mo;Shin, Aesun
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.9
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    • pp.3951-3955
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    • 2015
  • Background: Colorectal cancer mortality has started to decrease in several developed countries in Asia. The current study aimed to present the long-term trends in colorectal cancer mortality in Korea using joinpoint analysis and age-period-cohort modeling. Materials and Methods: The number of colorectal cancer deaths and the population for each 5-year age group were obtained from Statistics Korea for the period 1984-2013 for adults 30 years and older. Joinpoint regression analysis was conducted to determine changes in trends in age-standardized mortality rates, and age-period-cohort analysis was performed to describe trends in colorectal cancer mortality using the intrinsic estimator method. Results: In men, the age-standardized mortality rate for colorectal cancer increased from 1984 to 2003, and the mortality rates stabilized thereafter, whereas the mortality rate of colorectal cancer in women has decreased since 2004. The age-specific mortality rate of colorectal cancer increased in both men and women over time, whereas decreases in the age-specific mortality rate in younger cohorts were observed. In the age-period-cohort analysis, old age and recent period were associated with higher mortality for both men and women. The birth cohort born after 1919 showed reduced colorectal cancer mortality in both men and women. Conclusions: Our study showed a recent decreasing trend in colorectal cancer mortality in women and a stable trend in men after 2003-2004. These changes in colorectal cancer mortality may be attributed to birth cohort effects.

Histopathologic risk factors for lymph node metastasis in patients with T1 colorectal cancer

  • Ha, Ryun Kyong;Han, Kyung Su;Sohn, Dae Kyung;Kim, Byung Chang;Hong, Chang Won;Chang, Hee Jin;Hyun, Jong Hee;Kim, Min Jung;Park, Sung Chan;Oh, Jae Hwan
    • Annals of Surgical Treatment and Research
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    • v.93 no.5
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    • pp.266-271
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    • 2017
  • Purpose: Evaluating the risk of lymph node metastasis (LNM) is critical for determining subsequent treatments following endoscopic resection of T1 colorectal cancer (CRC). This study analyzed histopathologic risk factors for LNM in patients with T1 CRC. Methods: This study involved 745 patients with T1 CRC who underwent endoscopic (n = 97) or surgical (n = 648) resection between January 2001 and December 2015 at the National Cancer Center, Korea. LNM in endoscopically resected patients, which could not be evaluated directly, was estimated indirectly based on follow-up results and histopathologic reports of salvage surgery. The relationships of depth of submucosal invasion, histologic grade, budding, vascular invasion, and background adenoma with LNM were evaluated statistically. Results: Of the 745 patients, 91 (12.2%) were found to be positive for LNM. Univariate and multivariate analyses identified deep submucosal invasion (P = 0.010), histologic high grade (P < 0.001), budding (P = 0.034), and vascular invasion (P < 0.001) as risk factors for LNM. Among the patients with one, two, three, and four risk factors, 6.0%, 18.7%, 36.4%, and 100%, respectively, were positive for LNM. Conclusion: Deep submucosal invasion, histologic high grade, budding, and vascular invasion are risk factors for LNM in patients with T1 colorectal cancer. If any of these risk factors are present, additional surgery following endoscopic resection should be determined after considering the potential risk of LNM and each patient's situation.

Inhibitory Effect of Globefish Homogenate on the Growth of Caco-2 Human Colorectal Cancer Cells (복어 균질액의 Caco-2 인간 결장직장암세포 성장 억제 효과에 대한 연구)

  • Kim, Junghoon;Chung, Gujune;Kim, Jungho
    • KSBB Journal
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    • v.32 no.3
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    • pp.212-217
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    • 2017
  • Colorectal cancer is a leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide. Many studies show that most cases of human colorectal cancer arise from adenomatous polyps, which are usually dysplastic, nonmalignant precursor lesions; however, accumulation of multiple somatic mutations leads some to develop into advanced adenoma, which ultimately progresses to an invasive colorectal cancer. Notwithstanding the efforts made to improve chemotherapy, most colorectal cancers are unresponsive to this form of treatment, and malignant colorectal cancers remain incurable. To reduce the incidence of colorectal cancer mortality, further studies to improve colorectal cancer treatment are needed. Here, we show that Globefish homogenate suppresses the growth of Caco-2 human colorectal cancer cells, and that the homogenate inhibits Caco-2 cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. These data suggest that Globefish homogenate may suppress colorectal cancer development.

Differences in the survival rates of older patients with colorectal cancers in 2003 and 2009

  • Shin, Je-Wook;Park, Byung Kwan;Kim, Min Jung;Kim, Bun;Kim, Byung Chang;Park, Sung Chan;Han, Kyung Su;Sohn, Dae Kyung;Oh, Jae Hwan
    • Annals of Surgical Treatment and Research
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    • v.92 no.4
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    • pp.191-199
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    • 2017
  • Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate survival in patients aged ${\geq}70years$ who underwent colorectal cancer surgery in 2003 and 2009. In addition, we aimed to identify the factors that could affect survival in these patients. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, a retrospective review of the data for 878 patients who underwent colorectal cancer surgery with curative intent in the years 2003 and 2009 was performed. The primary outcome was the 5-year overall survival rate (5-OSR), and the clinicopathologic factors that could affect overall survival were analyzed. Results: The 5-OSR was 77.8% and 84.9% in 2003 and 2009, respectively (P = 0.013). Age, American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status classification, stage, type of surgery, and length of hospital stay possibly affected survival per the univariate and multivariate analyses. In patients aged ${\geq}70years$, the 5-OSR in 2009 was 75.9%, which showed improvement compared to 53.7% in 2003 (P = 0.027). The stage, type of surgery, and hospital stay were the variables that possibly affected survival in patients aged ${\geq}70years$ per the univariate analysis, whereas the stage (III; hazard ratio [HR], 2.188; P = 0.005) and length of hospital stay (>12 days; HR, 2.307; P = 0.004), were the variables that showed statistical significance on the multivariate analysis. Conclusion: We found that early stage and shortening the length of hospital stay could affect survival in older patients with colorectal cancers. Because of limited evidence on the influence of shortening the length of hospital stay on survival in older patients, further investigations are warranted.

Down-regulated MYH11 Expression Correlates with Poor Prognosis in Stage II and III Colorectal Cancer

  • Wang, Ren-Jie;Wu, Peng;Cai, Guo-Xiang;Wang, Zhi-Min;Xu, Ye;Peng, Jun-Jie;Sheng, Wei-Qi;Lu, Hong-Fen;Cai, San-Jun
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.17
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    • pp.7223-7228
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    • 2014
  • The MYH11 gene may be related to cell migration and adhesion, intracellular transport, and signal transduction. However, its relationship with prognosis is still uncertain. The aim of this study was to investigate correlations between MYH11 gene expression and prognosis in 58 patients with stage II and III colorectal cancer. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed in fresh CRC tissues to examine mRNA expression, and immunohistochemistry was performed with paraffin-embedded specimens for protein expression. On univariate analysis, MYH11 expression at both mRNA and protein levels, perineural invasion and lymphovascular invasion were related to disease-free survival (p<0.05; log-rank test). Cancers with lower MYH11 expression were more likely to have a poor prognosis. Otherwise, MYH11 expression was unrelated to patient clinicopathological features. On multivariate analysis, low MYH11 expression proved to be an independent adverse prognosticator (p<0.05). These findings show that MYH11 can contribute to predicting prognosis in stage II and III colorectal cancers.

Understanding animal models on colorectal cancer (대장암 동물 모델에 대한 이해)

  • Lim, Do Young
    • The Journal of Medicine and Life Science
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.42-45
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    • 2018
  • Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a third leading cause of cancer-related death in cancer patients. Sporadic and inflammation-related colon carcinogenesis are major mechanism of colorectal cancer. In vivo CRC models have been developed and implicated to understand their mechanisms upon a different type of CRC. Moreover, recently animal models have played important roles in chemopreventive and preclinical trials over the years. In this mini-review, the aim is to introduce various animal models of CRC and help the understanding to establish in vivo experimental plans according to the cancer type of CRC.

Mechanistic Studies of Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor 3 (CDKN3) in Colorectal Cancer

  • Yang, Cheng;Sun, Jun-Jun
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.3
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    • pp.965-970
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    • 2015
  • Colorectal cancer is one of the most severe subtypes of cancer, and has the highest propensity to manifest as metastatic disease. Because of the lack of knowledge of events that correlate with tumor cell migration and invasion, few therapeutic options are available. The current study aimed to explore the mechanism of colorectal cancer in hope of identifying the ideal target for future treatment. We first discovered the pro-tumor effect of a controversial cell cycle regulator, cylin-dependent kinase inhibitor 3 (CDKN3), which is highly expressed in colorectal cancer, and the possible related signaling pathways, by bioinformatics tools. We found that CDKN3 had remarkable effects in suppressing colorectal cancer cell proliferation and migration, inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in a colorectal cancer cell line, SW480 cells. Our study, for the first time, provided consistent evidence showing overexpression of cell cycle regulator CDKN3, in colorectal cancer. The in vitro studies in SW480 cells revealed a unique role of CDKN3 in regulating cellular behavior of colorectal cancer cells, and implied the possibility of targeting CDKN3 as a novel treatment for colorectal cancer.

Dietary Fibre and the Risk of Colorectal Cancer: a Case-Control Study

  • Song, Y;Liu, M;Yang, FG;Cui, LH;Lu, XY;Chen, C
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.9
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    • pp.3747-3752
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    • 2015
  • Background: Colorectal cancer is one of the most commonly occurring cancers in China. Dietary fibre has been thought to decrease the risk of colorectal cancer in Western countries. However, studies investigating the association between dietary fibre (particularly soluble and insoluble fibres) and colorectal cancer have hitherto been lacking in China. Objective: This case-control study examined the effect of dietary fibre intake on the risk of colorectal cancer, stratified by tumour site. Materials and Methods: The study included 265 cases (colon cancer, 105; rectal cancer, 144; colon and rectal cancer, 16) and 252 controls residing in Qingdao. A food frequency questionnaire that included 121 food items was used to collect dietary information. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using unconditional logistic regression analysis. Results: For food groups, controls in the study consumed more vegetables, soy food and total fibre than did colorectal cancer patients (p<0.05). The intakes of fruit, meat and sea-food did not differ significantly between cases and controls. However, we did not find any association between soy food intake and colon cancer. We observed inverse associations between total fibre intake and colorectal, colon and rectal cancer (Q4 vs Q1: OR=0.44, 95%CI, 0.27-0.73; OR=0.40, 95%CI, 0.21-0.76; OR=0.52, 95%CI, 0.29-0.91). Vegetable fibre intake showed similar inverse associations (Q4 vs Q1: OR=0.51, 95%CI, 0.31-0.85; OR=0.48, 95%CI, 0.25-0.91; OR=0.53, 95%CI, 0.29-0.97). In addition, inverse associations were observed between soluble fibre and insoluble fibre and both colorectal cancer and colon cancer. No relationship was found between colorectal cancer and fruit, soy or grain fibre intakewhen the results were stratified by tumour site. Conclusions: The present study suggests that vegetable fibre and total fibre play very important roles in protecting against colorectal cancer. Soluble and insoluble fibres were inversely associated with only colorectal cancer and colon cancer.

Public Awareness of Colorectal Cancer in a Turkish Population: Importance of Fecal Occult Blood Testing

  • Bas, Koray;Guler, Tolga;Gunay, Levent Mert;Besim, Hasan;Uygur, Dilek
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.195-198
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    • 2012
  • To date, there was no controlled-study regarding awareness and knowledge of colorectal cancer in the Turkish population. We therefore designed a questionnaire consisting of items related to socio-demographic parameters, medical and family history and questions of awareness and knowledge about colorectal cancer for use in a descriptive cross-sectional study. An interviewer-administered technique was applied and 450 subjects were interviewed in the outpatient clinics at Near East University Hospital. Among all subjects, 337 were found to be eligible for the study group. Exclusion criteria were age below 18 years, any cancer history, family history of colorectal cancer, current colorectal problems, history of any diagnostic or therapeutic interventions for colorectal diseases. All participants stated that they heard about colorectal cancer. When asked about the lifetime risk of colorectal carcinoma, only 25.4% of women and 37.9% of men estimated correctly. Univariate analysis revealed that the total awareness score was significantly correlated with age, marital status, parenthood and fecal occult blood testing history. On multivariate analysis of independent predictors for awareness of colorectal cancer were found to be history of fecal occult blood testing, age and marital status were found to be the most important determinants. As a conclusion, opportunistic screening with fecal occult blood test by physicians from non-gastrointestinal specialties not only helps to reduce the mortality but also increases the awareness of colorectal cancer.

Perceptions of Malaysian Colorectal Cancer Patients Regarding Dietary Intake: A Qualitative Exploration

  • Yusof, Afzaninawati Suria;Isa, Zaleha Md.;Shah, Shamsul Azhar
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.1151-1154
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    • 2013
  • Background: Changes in dietary practices are known to be associated with changes in the health and disease pattern of a population. This study aimed to qualitatively explore the perception of colorectal cancer patients regarding causes of colorectal cancer and the influence of diet. Materials and Methods: Twelve respondents from three major ethnicities in Malaysia were selected from the quantitative study on dietary pattern and colorectal cancer carried out earlier in this study. In-depth interviews (IDI), conducted from April until June 2012, were mainly in the Malay language with additional use of English and continued until the saturation point was reached. All interviews were autorecorded so that verbatim transcriptions could be created. Results: Causes of colorectal cancer were categorized into internal and external factors. The majority of respondents agreed that there is an association between Western foods and colorectal cancer. Malaysian traditional diet was not related to colorectal cancer as less preservative agents were used. Malaysian diet preparation consisting of taste of cooking (spicy, salty and sour foods) plus type of cooking (fry, grilled and smoked) were considered causes of colorectal cancer. All respondents changed their dietary pattern to healthy food after being diagnosed with colorectal cancer. Advice from doctors regarding suitable food for colorectal cancer was useful in this regard. Conclusions: Eating outside, use of food flavoring ingredients and preservative agents were considered to be the main factors causing colorectal cancer. All respondents admitted that they changed to a healthy diet after being diagnosed with colorectal cancer.