• Title, Summary, Keyword: common eelgrass

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Identification of Two Novel Amalgaviruses in the Common Eelgrass (Zostera marina) and in Silico Analysis of the Amalgavirus +1 Programmed Ribosomal Frameshifting Sites

  • Park, Dongbin;Goh, Chul Jun;Kim, Hyein;Hahn, Yoonsoo
    • The Plant Pathology Journal
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    • v.34 no.2
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    • pp.150-156
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    • 2018
  • The genome sequences of two novel monopartite RNA viruses were identified in a common eelgrass (Zostera marina) transcriptome dataset. Sequence comparison and phylogenetic analyses revealed that these two novel viruses belong to the genus Amalgavirus in the family Amalgaviridae. They were named Zostera marina amalgavirus 1 (ZmAV1) and Zostera marina amalgavirus 2 (ZmAV2). Genomes of both ZmAV1 and ZmAV2 contain two overlapping open reading frames (ORFs). ORF1 encodes a putative replication factory matrix-like protein, while ORF2 encodes a RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) domain. The fusion protein (ORF1+2) of ORF1 and ORF2, which mediates RNA replication, was produced using the +1 programmed ribosomal frameshifting (PRF) mechanism. The +1 PRF motif sequence, UUU_CGN, which is highly conserved among known amalgaviruses, was also found in ZmAV1 and ZmAV2. Multiple sequence alignment of the ORF1+2 fusion proteins from 24 amalgaviruses revealed that +1 PRF occurred only at three different positions within the 13-amino acid-long segment, which was surrounded by highly conserved regions on both sides. This suggested that the +1 PRF may be constrained by the structure of fusion proteins. Genome sequences of ZmAV1 and ZmAV2, which are the first viruses to be identified in common eelgrass, will serve as useful resources for studying evolution and diversity of amalgaviruses.

Seasonal Variation in Fish Species Composition in the Coastal Water of Samdong-myeon, Namhae, Korea (남해군 삼동면 연안 어류의 월별 종조성 변화)

  • Kim, Jun Sop;Lee, Yong-Deuk;Lee, Seung Hwan;Park, Jun Su;Gwak, Woo-Seok
    • Korean Journal of Ichthyology
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.55-64
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    • 2018
  • Fish assemblages in a sandy shore and an eelgrass bed were compared based on monthly samples in the southern coastal water of Korea. Samples were collected by a beam trawl in the sandy shore and a surf net in the eelgrass from March to February 2012. The common fish species were Syngnathus schlegeli, Pseudoblennius cottoides, Pholis nebulosa, Favonigobius gymnauchen, Gymnogobius heptacanthus, Pseudopleuronectes yokohamae, Takifugu niphobles. Among them S. schlegeli, Urocampus nanus, P. cottoides, P. nebulosa, T. niphobles were high abundance in the eelgrass bed than in the sandy shore, whereas Acanthogobius flavimanus, Acentrogobius pflaumi, F. gymnauchen, G. heptacanthus, P. yokohamae were high in the sandy shore. Aulichthys japonicus, Hippocampus coronatus, Sebastes inermis, Lateolabrax japonicus, Siganus fuscescens were found in the eelgrass bed, and Thryssa hamiltoni, Mugil cephalus, Inimicus japonicus, Platycephalus indicus, Hexagrammos otakii, Furcina ishikawae, Liparis tanakae, Repomucenus curvicornis, and Eutaeniichthys gilli were observed in the sandy shore. Species composition and abundance varied seasonally in two habitats; The number of species and abundance was high in August and September, while biomass was the highest in April and September. Fish numbers as well as biomass were lowest in February. Number of individuals and biomass of fish in the eelgrass bed were significantly higher than those of in the sandy shore. Some fish preferred to live in the eelgrass were collected in the sandy shore, while fish preferred to live in the sandy shore were rarely collected in the eelgrass.

Comparisons of Fish Assemblages Associated with Eelgrass Bed and Adjacent Unvegetad Habitat in Jindong Bay (진동만 잘피발과 인근 잘피가 없는 해역의 어류군집 비교)

  • Kwak, Seok Nam;Huh, Sung-Hoi;Choi, Chang Geun
    • Korean Journal of Ichthyology
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.119-128
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    • 2006
  • Fish assemblages associated with eelgrass beds and unvegetated area were compared based on specimens collected every month in Jindong Bay. The common fish species were Hexagrammos otakii, Acanthopagrus schlegeli, Lateolabrax japonicus, Pholis nebulosa, P. fangi, Leiognathus nuchalis, Repomucenus valenciennei, and Acanthogobius flavimanus. H. otakii, A. schlegeli, P. nebulosa and L. japonicus were higher abundance in an eelgrass bed than unvegetated area, whereas P. fangi, R. valenciennei and A. flavimanus were higher in unvegetated area. Sillago japonicus, Hippocampus japonica, Takifugu niphobles, Pseudoblennius percoides, Sebastes inermis, Syngnathus schlegeli, Sebastes schlegeli were found in an eelgrass bed, but not in unvegetated area. Most of fish species were primarily small fish species or juveniles of fish species in an eelgrass bed, while larger fish species were found in unvegetated area. The eelgrass bed in Jindong Bay seem to play a nursery role for fishes. Seasonal variations in both species composition and abundance were large in two habitats; higher number of species and individuals occurred May 2002, and April 2002 to July 2002, while biomass was the highest in April 2002 and July 2002. Fish numbers as well as biomass were lowest in January 2002. Species richness, number of individuals and biomass of fishes in an eelgrass bed were significantly higher than those of in unvegetated area. These result suggest that differences in fish species richness and abundances are primarily related to habitat structure. Different habitat preferences were evidenced for the juveniles and adult of several fish species.

Spatial Distribution and Ecological Characteristics of Zostera marina and Zostera japonica in the Seomjin Estuary (섬진강 하구에 자생하는 잘피의 분포 현황 및 생태적 특성)

  • Kim, Jeong-Bae;Park, Jung-Im;Choi, Woo-Jeung;Lee, Jae-Seong;Lee, Kun-Seop
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.43 no.4
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    • pp.351-361
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    • 2010
  • Among common estuarine submerged plants, seagrasses are the most extensively studied due to their ecological importance in estuarine ecosystems. Seagrass meadows are important biological habitats for a wide variety of marine animals and plants. They are a source of organic carbon for commercially important animals. Furthermore, seagrasses act as nutrient filters in estuarine and coastal marine ecosystems. As such, mapping the distribution of seagrass beds is important for management and conservation strategies. In order to survey the seagrass distribution within the Seomjin Estuary, We directly observed seagrass beds in Kwangyang and Hadong using SCUBA. The distribution area, species composition, morphology, density, biomass and productivity of seagrass meadows were examined. Seagrass meadows were distributed in the intertidal and subtidal zones of the Galsa tidal flats, and in the subtidal zone of the neighboring POSCO area. Patches of Zostera japonica was found at patches at the Galsa tidal flats intermediate point. The total estimated seagrass distribution area of the Seomjin Estuary was $1.84\;km^2$. Of the total, $1.83\;km^2$ was Zostera marina (eelgrass) and $0.01\;km^2$ was Zostera japonica (dwarf eelgrass). Zostera japonica was found in intertidal zones. Zostera marina was found from the intertidal to subtidal zones at a 2 m mean sea level (MSL) depth. The leaf productivity of Zostera marina was $4.47g\;DW\;m^{-2}\;day^{-1}$. The annual production of eelgrass was $1,632\;g\;DW\;m^{-2}\;yr^{-1}$, which corresponds to $731g\;C\;m^{-2}\;yr^{-1}$. The total production of eelgrass was $3,002\;tons\;DW\;yr^{-1}$, which corresponds to $1,343\;tons\;C\;yr^{-1}$.

Seasonal Variations in Species Composition and Biomass of Epiphytic Algal Community in an Eelgrass (Zostera marina) Bed (잘피밭에 서식하는 부착해조류 군집의 종조성 및 계절변동)

  • Kwak, Seok-Nam
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Marine Environment & Safety
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    • v.15 no.3
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    • pp.173-177
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    • 2009
  • A total of 3 epiphytic macroalgae were collected from eelgrass bed in Jindong Bay, and Scytosiphon lomentaria and Colpomenia sp. in Phaephyta, Gracilaria sp. in Rhodophyta occurred during study periods. For epiphytic microalgae (diatoms), Cocconeis scutellum and Cocconeis placentula were common species. Seasonal variations of epiphytic algal biomass were marked: the higher epiphytic macroalgae was 3.3 g $DW/m^2$ in November 2003; whereas epiphytic diatoms were 43,153 $cells/m^2$ in June 2003. Diversity and number of epiphytic macroalgae species were the lowest in the study area, compared with those of in other areas such as Koongyang Bay, Dongdae Bay, and Aenggang Bay. These results were therefore likely due to the severe physical characteristics of the intertidal mudflat eelgrass biological characteristics, and the deterioration of water quality.

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Diet composition of grass puffer, Takifugu niphobles in the eelgrass bed of Jangpyeong-ri, Tongyeong (통영 장평리 잘피밭에 출현하는 복섬(Takifugu niphobles)의 위내용물 조성)

  • CHOI, Hee Chan;PARK, Jong Hyeok;NAM, Ki Mun;BAECK, Gun Wook
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Fisheries and Ocean Technology
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    • v.54 no.2
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    • pp.138-145
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    • 2018
  • The diet composition of Takifugu niphobles was studied with 587 specimens collected in the eelgrass bed of Jangpyeong-ri, Tongyeong, Korea, using a seine net, monthly from May 2016 to April 2017. The standard length (SL) of the specimens ranged from 0.7 to 9.0 cm. The stomach contents analysis indicated that T. niphobles consumed mainly amphipods (%IRI: 91.0 %). In addition, T. niphobles fed on small quantities of copepods, polychaetes, insects, bivalves and crabs. T. niphobles consumed mainly amphipods over all size class. Smaller individuals (less than 4 cm SL) fed mainly on amphipods and copepods. The proportion of copepods decreased, as body size increased, whereas the consumption of polychaetes increased gradually. The seasonal variation in the diet composition of T. niphobles was significant. Amphipods were most common prey in all seasons. Copepods decreased from summer to spring gradually whereas the consumption of polychaetes increased in autumn.