• Title, Summary, Keyword: compressive strain

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Compressive Behavior of Carbon/Epoxy Composites under High Pressure Environment-Strain Rate Effect (고압환경에서 탄소섬유/에폭시 복합재의 압축거동에 대한 연구-변형률 속도 영향)

  • 이지훈;이경엽
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.148-153
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    • 2004
  • It is well-known that the mechanical behavior of fiber-reinforced composites under hydrostatic pressure environment is different from that of atmospheric pressure environment. It is also known that the mechanical behavior of fiber-reinforced composites is affected by a strain rate. In this work, we investigated the effect of strain rate on the compressive elastic modulus, fracture stress, and fracture strain of carbon/epoxy composites under hydrostatic pressure environment. The material used in the compressive test was unidirectional carbon/epoxy composites and the hydrostatic pressures applied was 270㎫. Compressive tests were performed applying three strain rates of 0.05%/sec, 0.25%/sec, and 0.55%/sec. The results showed that the elastic modulus increased with increasing strain rate while the fracture stress was little affected by the strain rate. The results also showed that the fracture strain decreased with increasing strain rate.

Analysis of the dynamic confining effect of CRAC short column under monotonic loadings

  • Wang, Changqing;Xiao, Jianzhuang
    • Structural Engineering and Mechanics
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    • v.74 no.3
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    • pp.351-363
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    • 2020
  • Based on the dynamic tests of recycled aggregate concrete (RAC) short columns confined by the hoop reinforcement, the dynamic failure mechanism and the mechanical parameters related to the constitutive relation of confined recycled aggregate concrete (CRAC) were investigated thoroughly. The fracturing sections were relatively flat and smooth at higher strain rates rather than those at a quasi-static strain rate. With the increasing stirrup volume ratio, the crack mode is transited from splitting crack to slipping crack constrained with large transverse confinement. The compressive peak stress, peak strain, and ultimate strain increase with the increase of stirrup volume ratio, as well as the increasing strain rate. The dynamic confining increase factors of the compressive peak stress, peak strain, and ultimate strain increase by about 33%, 39%, and 103% when the volume ratio of hoop reinforcement is increased from 0 to 2%, but decrease by about 3.7%, 4.2%, and 9.1% when the stirrup spacing is increased from 20mm to 60mm, respectively. This sentence is rephrased as follows: When the stirrup volume ratios are up to 0.675%, and 2%, the contributions of the hoop confinement effect to the dynamic confining increase factors of the compressive peak strain and the compressive peak stress are greater than those of the strain rate effect, respectively. The dynamic confining increase factor (DCIF) models of the compressive peak stress, peak strain, and ultimate strain of CRAC are proposed in the paper. Through the confinement of the hoop reinforcement, the ductility of RAC, which is generally slightly lower than that of NAC, is significantly improved.

Mechanical behavior of crumb rubber concrete under axial compression

  • Ren, Rui;Liang, Jiong-Feng;Liu, Da-wei;Gao, Jin-he;Chen, Lin
    • Advances in concrete construction
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    • v.9 no.3
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    • pp.249-256
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    • 2020
  • This paper aims at investigating the effect of crumb rubber size and content on compressive behaviors of concrete under axial compression. Concrete specimens are designed and produced by replacing natural aggregate with crumb rubber content of 0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and three different sized crumb rubbers (No. 20, No. 40, No. 80 crumb rubber). And the failure mode, compressive strength, elastic modulus, stress-strain curves, peak strain and ultimate strain are experimentally studied. Based on the test results, formulas have been presented to determine the compressive strength, elastic modulus, the relationship between prism compressive strength and cube compressive strength, stress-strain curves and peak strain of crumb rubber concrete (CRC). It is found that the proposed formulas agree well with the test result on the whole, which may be used to practical applications.

Elimination of the effect of strain gradient from concrete compressive strength test results

  • Tabsh, Sami W.
    • Computers and Concrete
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    • v.3 no.6
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    • pp.375-388
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    • 2006
  • Poor strength test results are sometimes not an indication of low concrete quality, but rather inferior testing quality. In a compression test, the strain distribution over the ends of the specimen is a critical factor for the test results. Non-uniform straining of a concrete specimen leads to locally different compressive stresses on the cross-section, and eventual premature breaking of the specimen. Its effect on a specimen can be quantified by comparing the compressive strength results of two specimens, one subjected to uniform strain and another to a specified strain gradient. This can be done with the help of a function that relates two parameters, the strain ratio and the test efficiency. Such a function depends on the concrete strength and cross-sectional shape of the specimen. In this study, theoretical relationships between the strain ratio and test efficiency are developed using a concrete stress-strain model. The results show that for the same strain ratio, the test efficiency is larger for normal strength concrete than for high strength concrete. Further, the effect of the strain gradient on the test result depends on the cross-sectional shape of the specimen. Implementation of the results is demonstrated with the aid of two examples.

An efficient method for the compressive behavior of FRP-confined concrete cylinders

  • Fan, Xinglang;Wu, Zhimin;Wu, Yufei;Zheng, Jianjun
    • Computers and Concrete
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    • v.12 no.4
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    • pp.499-518
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    • 2013
  • Fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) jackets have been widely used as an effective tool for the strengthening and rehabilitation of concrete structures, especially damaged concrete columns. Therefore, a clear understanding of the compressive behavior of FRP-confined concrete is essential. The objective of this paper is to develop a simple efficient method for predicting the compressive strength, the axial strain at the peak stress, and the stress-strain relationship of FRP-confined concrete. In this method, a compressive strength model is established based on Jefferson's failure surface. With the proposed strength model, the strength of FRP-confined concrete can be estimated more precisely. The axial strain at the peak stress is then evaluated using a damage-based formula. Finally, a modified stress-strain relationship is derived based on Lam and Teng's model. The validity of the proposed compressive strength and strain models and the modified stress-strain relationship is verified with a wide range of experimental results collected from the research literature and obtained from the self-conducted test. It can be concluded that, as a competitive alternative, the proposed method can be used to predict the compressive behavior of FRP-confined concrete with reasonable accuracy.

Mechanical Properties and Modeling of Amorphous Metallic Fiber-Reinforced Concrete in Compression

  • Dinh, Ngoc-Hieu;Choi, Kyoung-Kyu;Kim, Hee-Seung
    • International Journal of Concrete Structures and Materials
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    • v.10 no.2
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    • pp.221-236
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    • 2016
  • The aim of this paper is to investigate the compressive behavior and characteristics of amorphous metallic fiber-reinforced concrete (AMFRC). Compressive tests were carried out for two primary parameters: fiber volume fractions ($V_f$) of 0, 0.3, 0.6 and 0.8 %; and design compressive strengths of 27, 35, and 50 MPa at the age of 28 days. Test results indicated that the addition of amorphous metallic fibers in concrete mixture enhances the toughness, strain corresponding to peak stress, and Poisson's ratio at high stress level, while the compressive strength at the 28-th day is less affected and the modulus of elasticity is reduced. Based on the experimental results, prediction equations were proposed for the modulus of elasticity and strain at peak stress as functions of fiber volume fraction and concrete compressive strength. In addition, an analytical model representing the entire stress-strain relationship of AMFRC in compression was proposed and validated with test results for each concrete mix. The comparison showed that the proposed modeling approach can properly simulate the entire stress-strain relationship of AMFRC as well as the primary mechanical properties in compression including the modulus of elasticity and strain at peak stress.

Creep characteristics and instability analysis of concrete specimens with horizontal holes

  • Xin, Yajun;Hao, Haichun;Lv, Xin;Ji, Hongying
    • Computers and Concrete
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    • v.22 no.6
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    • pp.563-572
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    • 2018
  • Uniaxial compressive strength test and uniaxial compression creep one were produced on four groups of twelve concrete specimens with different hole number by RLW-2000 rock triaxial rheology test system. The relationships between horizontal holes and instantaneous failure stress, the strain, and creep failure stress, the strain, and the relationships between stress level and instantaneous strain, creep strain were studied, and the relationship between horizontal holes and failure mode was determined. The results showed that: with horizontal hole number increasing, compressive strength of the specimens decreased whereas its peak strain increased, while both creep failure strength and its peak strain decreased. The relationships between horizontal holes and compressive strength of the specimens, the peak strain, were represented in quadratic polynomial, the relationships between horizontal holes and creep failure strength, the peak strain were represented in both linear and quadratic polynomial, respectively. Instantaneous strain decreased with stress level increasing, and the more holes in the blocks the less the damping of instantaneous strain were recorded. In the failure stress level, instantaneous strain reversally increased, creep strain showed three stages: decreasing, increasing, and sharp increasing; in same stress level, the less holes the less creep strain rate was recorded. The compressive-shear failure was produced along specimen diagonal line where the master surface of creep failure occurred, the more holes in a block, the higher chances of specimen failure and the more obvious master surface were.

Polynomial modeling of confined compressive strength and strain of circular concrete columns

  • Tsai, Hsing-Chih
    • Computers and Concrete
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    • v.11 no.6
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    • pp.603-620
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    • 2013
  • This paper improves genetic programming (GP) and weight genetic programming (WGP) and proposes soft-computing polynomials (SCP) for accurate prediction and visible polynomials. The proposed genetic programming system (GPS) comprises GP, WGP and SCP. To represent confined compressive strength and strain of circular concrete columns in meaningful representations, this paper conducts sensitivity analysis and applies pruning techniques. Analytical results demonstrate that all proposed models perform well in achieving good accuracy and visible formulas; notably, SCP can model problems in polynomial forms. Finally, concrete compressive strength and lateral steel ratio are identified as important to both confined compressive strength and strain of circular concrete columns. By using the suggested formulas, calculations are more accurate than those of analytical models. Moreover, a formula is applied for confined compressive strength based on current data and achieves accuracy comparable to that of neural networks.

The Effect of Steel-Fiber Contents on the Compressive Stress-Strain Relation of Ultra High Performance Cementitious Composites (UHPCC) (UHPCC의 압축응력-변형률 관계에 대한 강섬유 혼입률의 영향)

  • Kang, Su-Tae;Ryu, Gum-Sung
    • Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.67-75
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    • 2011
  • The effect of steel-fiber contents on the compressive behavior of ultra high performance cementitious composites (UHPCC) was studied to propose a compressive behavior model for UHPCC. The experiments considered fiber contents of 0~5 vol.% and the results indicated that compressive strength and corresponding strain as well as elastic modulus were improved as the fiber contents increased. Compared to the previous study results obtained from concrete with compressive strength of 100MPa or less, the reinforcement effect on strength showed similar tendency, while the effect on the strain and elastic modulus were much less. Strength, strain, and elastic modulus according to the fiber contents were presented as a linear function of fiber reinforcement index (RI). Fiber reinforcement in UHPCC had no influence on the shape of compressive behavioral curve. Considering its effect on compressive strength, strain, and elastic modulus, a compressive stress-strain relation for UHPCC was proposed.

Applicability of exponential stress-strain models for carbonate rocks

  • Palchik, Vyacheslav
    • Geomechanics and Engineering
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    • v.15 no.3
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    • pp.919-925
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    • 2018
  • Stress-strain responses of weak-to-strong carbonate rocks used for tunnel construction were studied. The analysis of applicability of exponential stress-strain models based on Haldane's distribution function is presented. It is revealed that these exponential equations presented in transformed forms allow us to predict stress-strain relationships over the whole pre-failure strain range without mechanical testing of rock samples under compression using a press machine and to avoid measurements of axial failure strains for which relatively large values of compressive stress are required. In this study, only one point measurement (small strain at small stress) using indentation test and uniaxial compressive strength determined by a standard Schmidt hammer are considered as input parameters to predict stress-strain response from zero strain/zero stress up to failure. Observations show good predictive capabilities of transformed stress-stress models for weak-to-strong (${\sigma}_c$ <100 MPa) heterogeneous carbonate rocks exhibiting small (< 0.5 %), intermediate (< 1 %) and large (> 1 %) axial strains.