• Title, Summary, Keyword: compressive strain

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An Analytical Study on Encased Steel Composite Columns Fire Resistance According to Axial Force Ratio (화재시 축력비에 따른 매입형 합성기둥의 내화성능에 대한 해석적 연구)

  • Kim, Ye-Som;Choi, Byong-Jeong
    • Journal of the Korea institute for structural maintenance and inspection
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.97-107
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    • 2020
  • In this study, finite element analysis was carried out through the finite element analysis program (ANSYS) to investigate the fire resistance of composite columns in fire. Transient heat transfer analysis and static structural analysis were performed according to ASTM E 119 heating curve and axial force ratio 0.7, 0.6, 0.5 by applying stress-strain curves according to temperature, and loading heating experiments were carried out under the same conditions. In addition, the nominal compressive strength of the composite column according to the heating time according to the standard(Eurocode 4) was calculated and expressed as the axial force ratio and compared with the analytical and experimental values. Through the analysis, As a result of finite element analysis, the fire resistance time was 180 minutes and similar value to the experimental value was obtained, whereas the fire resistance time 150 minutes and 60 minutes were derived from the axial force ratios 0.6 and 0.7. In addition, it was confirmed that the fire resistance time according to the axial force ratio calculated according to the reference equation (Eurocode 4) was lower than the actual experimental value. However, it was confirmed that the standard(Eurocode 4) was higher than the experimental value at the axial force ratio of 0.7. Accordingly, it is possible to confirm the fire resistance characteristics(time-axial force ratio relationship) of the SRC column at high axial force, and to use the experimental and anaylsis data of the SRC column as the data for verification based on Eurocode.

Evaluation of the Minimum Shear Reinforcement Ratio of Reinforced Concrete Members (철근콘크리트 부재의 최소전단보강근비의 평가)

  • Lee Jung-Yoon;Yoon Sung-Hyun
    • Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.43-53
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    • 2004
  • The current Korean Concrete Design Code(KCI Code) requires the minimum and maximum content of shear s in order to prevent brittle and noneconomic design. However, the required content of the steel reinforcement In KCI Code is quite different to those of the other design codes such as fib-code, Canadian Code, and Japanese Code. Furthermore, since the evaluation equations of the minimum and maximum shear reinforcement for the current KCI Code were based on the experimental results, the equations can not be used for the RC members beyond the experimental application limits. The concrete tensile strength, shear stress, crack inclination, strain perpendicular to the crack, and shear span ratio are strongly related to the lower and upper limits of shear reinforcement. In this research, an evaluation equation for the minimum content of shear reinforcement is theoretical proposed from the Wavier's three principals of the mechanics of materials.

Development of Optimum Grip System in Developing Design Tensile Strength of GFRP Rebars (GFRP 보강근의 설계 인장강도 발현을 위한 적정 그립시스템 개발)

  • You Young-Chan;Park Ji-Sun;You Young-Jun;Park Young-Hwan;Kim Keung-Hwan
    • Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute
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    • v.17 no.6
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    • pp.947-953
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    • 2005
  • Previous test results showed that the current ASTM(American Standard for Testing and Materials) grip adapter for GFRP(Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer) rebar was not fully successful in developing the design tensile strength of GFRP rebars with reasonable accuracy. It is because the current ASTM grip adapter which is composed of a pair of rectangular metal blocks of which inner faces are grooved along the longitudinal direction does not take into account the various geometric characteristics of GFRP rebar such as surface treatment, shape of bar cross section as well as physical characteristics such as poisson effect, elastic modulus in the transverse direction and so on. The objective of this paper is to provide how to proportion the optimum diameter of inner groove in ASTM grip adapter to develop design tensile strength of GFRP rebar. The proportioning of inner groove in ASTM grip adapter is based on the force equilibrium of GFRP rebar between tensile capacity and minimum frictional resistance required along the grip adapter. The frictional resistance of grip adapter is calculated based on the compressive strain compatibility in radial direction induced by the difference between diameter of GFRP rebar and inner groove In ASTM grip. All testing procedures were made according to the CSA S806-02 recommendations. From the preliminary test results on round-type GFRP rebars, it was found that maximum tensile loads acquired under the same testing conditions is highly affected by the diameter of inner groove in ASTM grip adapter. The grip adapter with specific dimension proportioned by proposed method recorded the highest tensile strength among them.

Properties and Prediction Model for Ultra High Performance Fiber Reinforced Concrete (UHPFRC): (I) Evaluation of Setting and Shrinkage Characteristics and Tensile Behavior (초고성능 섬유보강 콘크리트(UHPFRC)의 재료 특성 및 예측모델: (I) 응결 및 수축 특성과 인장거동 평가)

  • Yoo, Doo-Yeol;Park, Jung-Jun;Kim, Sung-Wook;Yoon, Young-Soo
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers
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    • v.32 no.5A
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    • pp.307-315
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    • 2012
  • Recently, ultra high performance fiber reinforced concrete (UHPFRC) having over 180 MPa compressive strength and 10 MPa tensile strength has been developed in Korea. However, UHPFRC represents different material properties with normal concrete (NC) and conventional high performance concrete (HPC) such as a high early age autogenous shrinkage and a rapid dry on the surface, because it has a low water-binder ratio and high fineness admixtures without coarse aggregate. In this study, therefore, to propose suitable experimental methods and regulations, and to evaluate mechanical properties at a very early age for UHPFRC, setting, shrinkage and tensile tests were performed. From the setting test results, paraffin oil was an appropriate material to prevent drying effect on the surface, because if paraffin oil is applied on the surface, it can efficiently prevent the drying effect and does not disturb or catalyze the hydration of cement. From the ring-test results, it was defined that the shrinkage stress is generated at the time when the graph tendency of temperature and strain of inner steel ring is changed. By comparing with setting test result, the shrinkage stress was firstly occurred as the penetration resistance of 1.5 MPa was obtained, and it was about 0.6 and 2.1 hour faster than those of initial and final sets. So, the starting time of autogenous shrinkage measurement (time-zero) of UHPFRC was determined when the penetration resistance of 1.5 MPa was obtained. Finally, the tensile strength and elastic modulus of UHPFRC were measured from near initial setting time by using a very early age tensile test apparatus, and the prediction models for tensile strength and elastic modulus were proposed.

Effects of Boliing, Steaming, and Chemical Treatment on Solid Wood Bending of Quercus acutissima Carr. and Pinus densiflora S. et. Z. (자비(煮沸), 증자(蒸煮) 및 약제처리(藥劑處理)가 상수리나무와 소나무의 휨가공성(加工性)에 미치는 영향(影響))

  • So, Won-Tek
    • Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.19-62
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    • 1985
  • This study was performed to investigate: (i) the bending processing properties of silk worm oak (Quercus acutissima Carr.) and Korean red pine (Pinus densiflora S. et Z.) by boiling and steaming treatments; (ii) the effects of interrelated factors - sapwood and heartwood, annual ring placement, softening temperature and time, moisture content. and wood defects on bending processing properties; (iii) the changing rates of bending radii after release from a tension strap, and (iv) the improving methods of bending process by treatment with chemicals. The size of specimens tested was $15{\times}15{\times}350mm$ for boiling and steaming treatments and $5{\times}10{\times}200mm$ for treatments with chemicals. The specimens were green for boiling treatments and dried to 15 percent for steaming treatments. The specimens for treatments with chemicals were soaked in saturated urea solution, 35 percent formaldehyde solution, 25 percent polyethylene glycol -400 solution, and 25 percent ammonium hydroxide solution for 5 days and immediately followed the bending process, respectively. The results obtained were as follows: 1. The internal temperature of silk worm oak and Korean red pine by boiling and steaming time was raised slowly to $30^{\circ}C$ but rapidly from $30^{\circ}C$ to $80-90^{\circ}C$ and then slowly from $80-90^{\circ}C$ to $100^{\circ}C$. 2. The softening time required to the final temperature was directly proportional to the thickness of specimen. The time required from $25^{\circ}C$ to $100^{\circ}C$ for 15mm-squared specimen was 9.6-11.2 minutes in silk worm oak and 7.6-8.1 minutes in Korean red pine. 3. The moisture content (M.C.) of specimen by steaming time was increased rapidly first 4 minutes in the both species, and moderately from 4 to 20 minutes and then slowly and constantly in silk worm oak, and moderately from 4 to 15 minutes and then slowly and constantly in Korean red pine. The M.C. of 15mm-squared specimen in 50 minutes of steaming was increased to 18.0 percent in the oak and 22.4 percent in the pine from the initial conditioned M.C. of 15 percent The rate of moisture adsorption measured was therefore faster in the pine than in the oak. 4. The mechanical properties of the both species were decreased significantly with the increase of boiling rime. The decrement by the boiling treatment for 60 minutes was measured to 36.6-45.0 percent in compressive strength, 12.5-17.5 percent in tensile strength, 31.6-40.9 percent in modulus of rupture, and 23.3-34.6 percent in modulus of elasticity. 5. The minimum bending radius (M.B.R.) of sapwood and heartwood was 60-80 mm and 90 mm in silk worm oak, and 260 - 300 mm and 280 - 300 mm in Korean red pine, respectively. Therefore, the both species showed better bending processing properties in sapwood than in heartwood. 6. The M.B.R. of edge-grained and flat-grained specimen in suk worm oak was 60-80 mm, but the M.B.R. in Korean red pine was 240-280 mm and 260-360 mm, respectively. Comparing the M.B.R. of edge-grained with flat-grained specimen, in the pine the edge-grained showed better bending processing property than the flat-grained. 7. The bending processing properties of the both species were improved by the rising of softening temperature from $40^{\circ}C$ to $100^{\circ}C$. The minimum softening temperature for bending was $90^{\circ}C$ in silk worm oak and $80^{\circ}C$ in Korean red pine, and the dependency of softening temperature for bending was therefore higher in the oak than in the pine. 8. The bending processing properties of the both species were improved by the increase of softening time as well as temperature, but even after the internal temperature of specimen reaching to the final temperature, somewhat prolonged softening was required to obtain the best plastic conditions. The minimum softening time for bending of 15 mm-squared silk worm oak and Korean red pine specimen was 15 and 10 minutes in the boiling treatment, and 30 and 20 minutes in the steaming treatment, respectively. 9. The optimum M.C. for bending of silk worm oak was 20 percent, and the M.C. above fiber saturation point rather degraded the bending processing property, whereas the optimum M.C. of Korean red pine needed to be above 30 percent. 10. The bending works in the optimum conditions obtained as seen in Table 24 showed that the M.B.R. of silk worm oak and Korean red pine was 80 mm and 240 mm in the boiling treatment, and 50 mm and 280 mm in the steaming treatment, respectively. Therefore, the bending processing property of the oak was better in the steaming than in the boiling treatment, but that of the pine better in the boiling than in the steaming treatment. 11. In the bending without a tension strap, the radio r/t of the minimum bending radius t to the thickness t of silk worm oak and Korean red pine specimen amounted to 16.0 and 21.3 in the boiling treatment, and 17.3 and 24.0 in the steaming treatment, respectively. But in the bending with a tension strap, the r/t of the oak and the pine specimen decreased to 5.3 and 16.0 in t he boiling treatment, and 3.3 and 18.7 in the steaming treatment, respectively. Therefore, the bending processing properties of the both species were significantly improved by the strap. 12. The effect of pin knot on the degradation of bending processing property was very severe in silk worm oak by side, e.g. 90 percent of the oak specimens with pin knot on the concave side were ruptured when bent to a 100 mm radius but only 10 percent of the other specimens with pin knot on the convex side were ruptured. 13. The changing rate in the bending radius of specimen bent to a 300 mm radius after 30 days of exposure to room temperature conditions was measured to 4.0-10.3 percent in the boiling treatment and 13,0-15.0 percent in the steaming treatment. Therefore, the degree of spring back after release was higher in the steaming than in the boiling treatment. And the changing rate of moisture-proofing treated specimen by expoxy resin coating was only -1.0.0 percent. 14. Formaldehyde, 35 percent solution, and 25 percent polyethylene glycol-400 solution found no effect on the plasticization of the both species, but saturated urea solution and 25 percent ammonium hydroxide solution found significant effect in comparison to non-treated specimen. But the effect of the treatment with chemicals alone was inferior to that of the steaming treatment, and the steaming treatment after the treatment with chemicals improved 10-24 percent over the bending processing property of steam-bent specimen. 15. Three plasticity coefficients - load-strain coefficient, strain coefficient, and energy coefficient - were evaluated to be appropriate for the index of bending processing property because the coefficients had highly significant correlation with the bending radius. The fitness of the coefficients as the index was good at load-strain coefficient, energy coefficient, and strain coefficient, in order.

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