• Title, Summary, Keyword: compressive strain

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Autofrettage Analysis of Compound Cylinder with Power Function Strain Hardening Model (멱함수 가공경화 모델을 이용한 복합실린더의 자긴가공해석)

  • Park, Jae-Hyun;Lee, Young-Shin;Shim, Woo-Sung;Kim, Jae-Hoon;Cha, Ki-Up;Hong, Suk-Kyun
    • Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A
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    • v.32 no.6
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    • pp.488-495
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    • 2008
  • In order to achieve long fatigue lifetimes for cyclically pressurized thick cylinders, multi-layered compound cylinder has been proposed. Such compound cylinder involves a shrink-fit procedure incorporating a monobloc tube which has previously undergone autofrettage. The basic autofrettage theory assumes elastic-perfectly plastic behaviour. Because of the Bauschinger effect and strain-hardening, most materials do not display elastic-perfectly plastic properties and consequently various autofrettage mo dels are based on different simplified material strain-hardening models, which is assumed that combination of linear strain-hardenig and power strain-hardening model. This approach gives a more accurate prediction than the elastic-perfectly plastic model and is suitable for different strain-hardening materials. In this paper, a general autofrettage model that incorporates the material strain-hardening relationship and the Bauschinger effect, based upon the actual tensile-compressive stress-strain curve of a material was proposed. The model was obtained using the von Mises yield criterion and plane strain condition. The tensile-compressive stress-strain curve was obtained by experiment. The parameters needed in the model were determined by fitting the actual tensile-compressive curve of the material. Finally, strain- hardening model was compared with elastic-perfectly plastic model.

Modeling and Analysis of Strain Localization in Concrete (콘크리트 변형률국소화 모형 및 해석)

  • 송하원;김인순;나웅진
    • Proceedings of the Korea Concrete Institute Conference
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    • pp.375-382
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    • 1997
  • In this paper, a unified micromechanics-based model which can be applied to both tensile and compressive member of concrete is suggested and to the analysis of the strain-localization in concrete. From the comparison of the analysis results obtained from different size of concrete members with experimental data, it id shown that the model in this paper can be applied to the analysis of the strain localization concrete. For the finite element analysis of the strain-localization in concrete, the localized zone in concrete under strain localization is modeled as ad plastic model which can consider nonlinear strain softening and the non-localized zone is modeled as a nonlinear elastic-damage model. Using developed finite element analysis program. strain localization behaviors under compressive force for the different sizes of concrete having different sizes of the localized zone are simulated.

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Estimation of Local Strain Distribution of Shear-Compressive Failure Type Beam Using Digital Image Processing Technology (화상계측기법에 의한 전단압축파괴형 보의 국부변형률분포 추정)

  • Kwon, Yong-Gil;Han, Sang-Hoon;Hong, Ki-Nam
    • Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.121-127
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    • 2009
  • The failure behavior of RC structure was exceedingly affected by the size and the local strain distribution of the failure zone due to the strain localization behavior on the tension softening materials. However, it is very difficult to quantify and assess the local strain occurring in the failure zone by the conventional test method. In this study, image processing technology, which is available to measure the strain up to the complete failure of RC structures, was used to estimate the local strain distribution and the size of failure zone. In order to verify the reliability and validity for the image processing technology, the strain transition acquired by the image processing technology was compared with strain values measured by the concrete gauge on the uniaxial compressive specimens. Based on the verification of image processing technology for the uniaxial compressive specimens, the size and the local strain distribution of the failure zone of deep beam was measured using the image processing technology. With the results of test, the principal tensile/compressive strain contours were drawn. Using the strain contours, the size of the failure zone and the local strain distribution on the failure of the deep beam was evaluated. The results of strain contour showed that image processing technology is available to assess the failure behavior of deep beam and obtain the local strain values on the domain of the post-peak failure comparatively.

Analysis of 3D Geometry and Compressive Behavior of Aluminum Open Cell Foam Using X-ray Micro CT (마이크로 X-ray CT를 활용한 알루미늄 개방형 폼의 형상 및 압축 거동 분석)

  • Kim, Y.I.;Kim, J.H.;Lee, J.K.;Kim, D.
    • Transactions of Materials Processing
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    • v.20 no.7
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    • pp.518-523
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    • 2011
  • The three dimensional geometries of an aluminum open cell foam before and after uniaxial compressive loading were investigated using the X-ray micro CT(computed tomography). Aluminum 6101-T6 open cell foams of 10, 20, 40 ppi (pore per inch) were considered in this work. After the serial sectioning CT images of aluminum foams were obtained from non-destructive X-ray images, the exact 3D structure were reproduced and visualized with commercial image processing program. The relative density ratio was around the 7.0 to 9.0 range, the unit cells showed anisotropic shapes having the different dimensional ratios of 1.1 to 1.3 between the rise and the transverse directions. The yield stress increased with the relative density ratio and the volumetric strain increased proportionally with compressive strain. The plateau stress in the compressive stress-strain curve was caused by the buckling of ligaments.

Analysis of actively-confined concrete columns using prestressed steel tubes

  • Nematzadeh, Mahdi;Haghinejad, Akbar
    • Computers and Concrete
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    • v.19 no.5
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    • pp.477-488
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    • 2017
  • In this paper, an innovative technique for finite element (FE) modeling of steel tube-confined concrete (STCC) columns with active confinement under axial compressive loading is presented. In this method, a new constitutive model for the stress-strain relationship of actively-confined concrete is proposed. In total, 14 series of experimental STCC stub columns having active confinement were modeled using the ABAQUS software. The results obtained from the 3D model including the compressive strength at the initial peak point and failure point, as well as the axial and lateral stress-strain curves were compared with the experimental results to verify the accuracy of the 3D model. It was found that there existed a good agreement between them. A parametric study was conducted to investigate the effect of the concrete compressive strength, steel tube wall thickness, and pre-stressing level on the behavior of STCC columns with active confinement. The results indicated that increasing the concrete core's compressive strength leads to an increase in the compressive strength of the active composite column as well as its earlier failure. Furthermore, a reduction in the tube external diameter-to-wall thickness ratio affects the axial stress-strain curve and the confining pressure, while increasing the pre-stressing level has a negligible effect on the two.

Compressive behaviour of circular steel tube-confined concrete stub columns with active and passive confinement

  • Nematzadeh, Mahdi;Hajirasouliha, Iman;Haghinejad, Akbar;Naghipour, Morteza
    • Steel and Composite Structures
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    • v.24 no.3
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    • pp.323-337
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    • 2017
  • This paper presents the results of a comprehensive experimental investigation on the compressive behaviour of steel tube-confined concrete (STCC) stub columns with active and passive confinement. To create active confinement in STCC columns, an innovative technique is used in which steel tube is laterally pre-tensioned while the concrete core is simultaneously pre-compressed by applying pressure on fresh concrete. A total of 135 STCC specimens with active and passive confinement are tested under axial compression load and their compressive strength, ultimate strain capacity, axial and lateral stress-strain curves and failure mode are evaluated. The test variables include concrete compressive strength, outer diameter to wall thickness ratio of steel tube and prestressing level. It is shown that applying active confinement on STCC specimens can considerably improve their mechanical properties. However, applying higher prestressing levels and keeping the applied pressure for a long time do not considerably affect the mechanical properties of actively confined specimens. Based on the results of this study, new empirical equations are proposed to estimate the axial strength and ultimate strain capacity of STCC stub columns with active and passive confinement.

Tension-Compression Asymmetry in the Off-Axis Nonlinear Rate-Dependent Behavior of a Unidirectional Carbon/Epoxy Laminate at High Temperature and Incorporation into Viscoplasticity Modeling

  • Kawai, M.;Zhang, J.Q.;Saito, S.;Xiao, Y.;Hatta, H.
    • Advanced Composite Materials
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.265-285
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    • 2009
  • Off-axis compressive deformation behavior of a unidirectional CFRP laminate at high temperature and its strain-rate dependence in a quasi-static range are examined for various fiber orientations. By comparing the off-axis compressive and tensile behaviors at an equal strain rate, the effect of different loading modes on the flow stress level, rate-dependence and nonlinearity of the off-axis inelastic deformation is elucidated. The experimental results indicate that the compressive flow stress levels for relatively larger off-axis angles of $30^{\circ}$, $45^{\circ}$ and $90^{\circ}$ are about 50 percent larger than in tension for the same fiber orientations, respectively. The nonlinear deformations under off-axis tensile and compressive loading conditions exhibit significant strain-rate dependence. Similar features are observed in the fiber-orientation dependence of the off-axis flow stress levels under tension and compression and in the off-axis flow stress differential in tension and compression, regardless of the strain rate. A phenomenological theory of viscoplasticity is then developed which can describe the tension-compression asymmetry as well as the rate dependence, nonlinearity and fiber orientation dependence of the off-axis tensile and compressive behaviors of unidirectional composites in a unified manner. It is demonstrated by comparing with experimental results that the proposed viscoplastic constitutive model can be applied with reasonable accuracy to predict the different, nonlinear and rate-dependent behaviors of the unidirectional composite under off-axis tensile and compressive loading conditions.

Compressive Strength and Shrinkage Strain of Slag-Based Alkali-Activated Mortar with Gypsum (석고가 첨가된 슬래그 기반 알카리활성 모르터의 압축강도 및 건조수축 변형률)

  • Yang, Keun-Hyeok;Sin, Jae-Il
    • Journal of the Korea Institute of Building Construction
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.57-62
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    • 2008
  • Twelve mortars were mixed and tested to explore the effect of gypsum on the compressive strength development and shrinkage strain of alkali-activated mortars. Powder typed sodium silicate and ground granulated blast-furnace slag were employed as alkaline activator and source material, respectively, to produce cementless mortar. The main variables investigated were alkali quality coefficient combining the concentration of activator and main compositions in source material, and the adding amount of gypsum ranged between 1 and 5% with respect to the weight of binder. Initial flow, compressive strength development, modulus of rupture, and shrinkage strain behavior of mortar specimens were measured. In addition, the hydration production of alkali-activated pastes with gypsum was traced using X-ray diffraction and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis combined with scanning electron microscope image. Test results showed that the initial flow of slag-based alkali-activated mortar was little influenced by the adding amount of gypsum. On the other hand, the effect of gypsum on the compressive strength of mortar specimens was dependent on the alkali quality coefficient, indicating that the compressive strength increased with the increase of the adding amount of gypsum until a certain limit, beyond which the strength decreased slowly. Shrinkage strain of mortar tested was little influenced by the adding amount of gypsum because no ettringite as hydration product was generated. However, the adding of gypsum had a beneficial effect on reducing the microcrack in the alkali-activated mortar.

Strain Rate Effect on the Compressive and Tensile Strength of Hooked Steel Fiber and Polyamide Fiber Reinforced Cement Composite (변형 속도에 따른 후크형 강섬유 및 폴리아미드섬유보강 시멘트 복합체의 압축 및 인장강도 특성)

  • Kim, Hong-Seop;Kim, Gyu-Yong;Lee, Sang-Kyu;Son, Min-Jae;Nam, Jeong-Soo
    • Journal of the Korea institute for structural maintenance and inspection
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    • v.21 no.3
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    • pp.76-85
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    • 2017
  • In this study, to evaluate the mechanical properties of fiber-reinforced cement composites by strain rate, hydraulic rapid loading test system was developed. And compressive and tensile strength of the hooked steel fiber and polyamide fiber reinforced cement composite were evaluated. As a result, the compressive strength, strain capacity and elastic modulus were increased with increasing strain rate. The effect of compressive strength by type and volume fraction of fibers was not significant. The dynamic increase factor(DIF) of the compressive strength was higher than that of the CEB-FIP model code 2010 and showed a trend similar to that of ACI-349. The tensile strength and strain capacity were increased with increasing strain rate. The hooked steel fibers were drawn from the matrix. The tensile strength and strain capacity of hooked steel fiber reinforced cement composites were increased as the strain rate increased. The tensile strength and deformation capacity of the fiber reinforced cement composites were increased. And, hooked steel fibers were drawn from the matrix. On the other hand, because the bonding properties of polyamide fiber and matrix is large, polyamide fiber was cut-off with out pullout from matrix. The strain rate effect on the tensile properties of polyamide fiber reinforced cement composites was found to be strongly affected by the tensile strength of the fibers.

Modeling of concrete containing steel fibers: toughness and mechanical properties

  • Cagatay, Lsmail H.;Dincer, Riza
    • Computers and Concrete
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    • v.8 no.3
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    • pp.357-369
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    • 2011
  • In this study, effect of steel fibers on toughness and some mechanical properties of concrete were investigated. Hooked-end steel fibers were used in concrete samples with three volume fractions (${\nu}_f$) of 0.5%, 0.75% and 1% and for two aspect ratios (l/d) of 45 and 65. Compressive and flexural tensile strength and modulus of elasticity of concrete were determined for cylindrical, cubic and prismatic samples at the age of 7 and 28 days. The stress-strain curves of standard cylindrical specimens were studied to determine the effect of steel fibers on toughness of steel-fiber-reinforced concrete (SFRC). In addition, the relationship between compressive strength and the flexural tensile strength of SFRC were reported. Finally, a simple model was proposed to generate the stress-strain curves for SFRC based on strains corresponding to the peak compressive strength and 60% of peak compressive stress. The proposed model was shown to provide results in good correlation with the experimental results.